What is Nanotechnology?
Engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced.

In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.

Nanotechnology exploits benefits of ultra small size, enabling the use of particles to deliver a range of important benefits Small particles are invisible : Transparent Coatings/Films are attainable Small particles are very weight efficient: Surfaces can be modified with minimal material.


.NANOTECH HISTORY The first mention of some of the distinguishing concepts in nanotechnology was in 1867 by JAMES CLERK MAXWELL when he proposed as a thought experiment a tiny entity known as MAXWELL S DEMON able to handle individual molecules.

FROM OBSERVATIONS and MEASUREMENT! The first observations and size measurements of nanoparticles was made during the first decade of the 20th century. Richard Adolf Zsigmondy . They are mostly associated with Richard Adolf Zsigmondy who made a detailed study of gold sols and other nonmaterial with sizes down to 10 nm and less.

000. . He used ultra microscope that employs the dark field method for seeing particles with sizes much less than light wavelength. He determined it as 1/1. Zsigmondy was also the first who used nanometer explicitly for characterizing particle size.He published a book in 1914. He developed the first system classification based on particle size in the nanometer range.000 of millimeter.

THE MONOLAYER Irving Langmuir and Katharine B. a layer of material one molecule thick. Blodgett introduced the concept of a monolayer. In the early 1950s. Langmuir won a Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work. Derjaguin and Abrikosova conducted the first measurement of surface forces .

such as quantum dots. has further evolved its definition. consolidation. Additionally.The term "nanotechnology" was first defined by Norio Taniguchi of the Tokyo Science University in a 1974 paper as follows: "'Nano-technology' mainly consists of the processing of. and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule. separation." Since that time the definition of nanotechnology has generally been extended to include features as large as 100 nm. . the idea that nanotechnology embraces structures exhibiting quantum mechanical aspects.

stimulating first university nanotech center 1994 .IBM logo spelled in individual atoms. Japan's MITI commits $200 million. Carbon nanotube discovered 1992 . First organization formed 1987 .Buckyball discovered 1986 . First university symposium 1988 .AFM invented .First coverage of nanotech from White House "Engines of Creation" book given to Rice administration. First national conference 1990-First nanotechnology journal.First Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded.First technical paper on molecular engineering to build with atomic p recision STM invented 1985.First university course 1989 .First think tank report.SUMMARY HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 1959 -Feynman gives after-dinner talk describing molecular machines building with atomic precision 1974 -Taniguchi uses term "nano-technology" in paper on ion-sputter machining 1977 -Drexler originates molecular nanotechnology concepts at MIT 1981 . Japan's STA begins funding nanotech projects 1991-Japan''s MITI announces bottom-up "atom factory".Nanosystems textbook used in first university course.First Congressional testimony 1993 .US Science Advisor advocates nanotechnology 1995 .First protein engineered. IBM endorses bottomup path.First book published.First industry analysis of military applications .First textbook published .

Drexler/Smalley debate is published in Chemical & Engineering News 2004 . Congressional hearings on proposed National Nanotechnology Initiative 2000 .First nanotech industry conference.1996 .S.First company founded: Zyvex. First safety guidelines.$250. First state research initiative: $100 million in California 2001 .At Nanoethics meeting. First center for nanomechanical systems 2005 . announces first center for military applications 2002 .First Nanomedicine book published. First design of nanorobotic system 1998 . Roco announces nanomachine/nanosystem project count has reached 300 2006 . First DNAbased nanomechanical device 1999 .First European conference.First NSF forum. U.First policy conference on advanced nanotech.000 Feynman Grand Prize announced.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative.President Clinton announces U.First nanobio conference 1997 . Regional nanotech efforts multiply 2003 . Call for balancing NNI research portfolio. NASA begins work in computational nanotech.National Academies nanotechnology report calls for experimentation toward molecular manufacturing . held in conjunction with Foresight Conference.Congressional hearings on societal implications.First report on nanotech industry.


It's not a law! It's a prediction about what device physicists and process engineers can achieve GORDON MOORE .Moore s Law Gordon Moore (co-founder of Intel) predicted in 1965 that the transistor density of semiconductor chips would double roughly every 18 months.


AMBITIOUS PREDICTION! Moore's Law will have run its course around 2019. But new computer architectures will continue the exponential growth of computing. . computing cubes are already being designed that will provide thousands of layers of circuits. For example. By that time. transistor features will be just a few atoms in width.

the synthesis and properties of semiconductor nanocrystals were studied. NANOCRYSTALS . This led to a fast increasing number of semiconductor nanoparticles of quantum dots. This development led to the discovery of fullerenes in 1985 and the structural assignment of carbon nanotubes a few years later.EXPERIMENTAL ADVANCES Nanotechnology and nanoscience got a boost in the early 1980s with two major developments: the birth of cluster science and the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). * Nanocrystal as any nanomaterial with at least one dimension 100nm and that is single crystalline. In another development.

Bulky molecules designed to tag specific DNA mutations. . Used to detect the presence.NANOTUBES Carbon rods approximately half the diameter of a DNA molecule. and exact location. of altered genes.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ C arbon nanotube Inorganic nanotube DNA nanotube Membrane nanotube .a tubular membrane connection between cells .A nanotube is a nanometer-scale tube-like structure.

researchers at NASA are combining nanotubes with other materials into composites that can be used to build lightweight spacecraft. when ‡ ‡ . Nanotubes can easily penetrate membrances such as cell walls.PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES The properties of carbon nanotubes have caused researchers and companies to consider using them in several fields: ‡ Carbon nanotubes have the highest strength to weight ratio of any known material. Nanotubes electrical resistance changes significantly other molecules attach themselves to the carbon atoms.

towers. and cables ‡Material for making lightweight vehicles for all terrains ‡Heavy-duty shock absorbers ‡Open-ended straws for chemical probing and cellular injection ‡Nanoelectronics including batteries capacitors.NANOTUBE APPLICATIONS ‡Structural elements in bridges. buildings. andd iodes ‡Microelectronic heat-sinks and insulation due to high thermal conductivity ‡Nanoscale gears and mechanical components ‡Electron guns for flat-panel displays ‡Nanotube-buckyball encapsulation coupling for molecular computing with high RAM capacity .



The third generation is expected to begin emerging around 2010 and will feature nanosystems with thousands of interacting components. are expected to be developed. which we are just entering. for example. The current era. is that of passive nanostructures. actuators. The second phase. and sensors. the first integrated nanosystems. A few years after that. drug delivery devices. Mihail (Mike) Roco . materials designed to perform one task. National Nanotechnology Initiative has described four generations of nanotechnology development.S. as Roco depicts it.THE NANO ERAS Mihail (Mike) Roco of the U. introduces active nanostructures for multitasking. functioning (much like a mammalian cell with hierarchical systems within systems.

for transportation. That's because in its advanced form it will have significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society. safer. National Science Foundation . and smarter products for the home. **Imagine a medical device that travels through the human body to seek out and destroy small clusters of cancerous cells before they can spread. U.GENERAL-PURPOSE TECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology is sometimes referred to as a general-purpose technology. cleaner. for communications. for medicine.S. Or materials much lighter than steel that possess ten times as much strength. longer lasting. It will offer better built. and for industry in general. Or a box no larger than a sugar cube that contains the entire contents of the Library of Congress. for agriculture.

it will be dual-use. A computer can make copies of data files-essentially as many copies as you want at little or no cost. meaning it will have many commercial uses and it also will have many military uses-making far more powerful weapons and tools of surveillance. But as a general-purpose technology. but a vastly improved manufacturing process. That's the real meaning of nanotechnology. It may be only a matter of time until the building of products becomes as cheap as the copying of files.DUAL-USE TECHNOLOGY Nanotech will offer greatly improved efficiency in almost every facet of life. A key understanding of nanotechnology is that it offers not just better products." . and why it is sometimes seen as "the next industrial revolution.

.FACT ABOUT NANOTECH Nanotechnology s ability to continually increase the amount of data that fits on a microchip provided the industry with escalating computing speed and power. which led to even-more powerful products and a strong motive for customers to upgrade.


zeolites or alanates are under investigation. and enhanced renewable energy sources. manufacturing improvements by reducing materials and process rates. Nanotechnology can contribute to the further reduction of combustion engine pollutants by nanoporous filters. conversion. Suitable materials for hydrogen storage contain a large number of small nanosized pores. by catalytic converters based on nanoscale noble metal particles or by catalytic coatings on cylinder walls and catalytic nanoparticles as additive for fuels. Probably the most prominent nanostructured material in fuel cells is the catalyst consisting of carbon supported noble metal particles with diameters of 1-5 nm. Therefore many nanostructured materials like nanotubes. which can clean the exhaust mechanically. energy saving (by better thermal insulation for example). The use of more environmentally friendly energy systems An example for an environmentally friendly form of energy is the use of fuel cells powered by hydrogen.ENERGY FROM NANOTECH The most advanced nanotechnology projects related to energy are: storage. . which is ideally produced by renewable energies.

Information and communication Current high-technology production processes are based on traditional top down strategies. The critical length scale of integrated circuits is already at the nanoscale (50 nm and below) regarding the gate length of transistors in CPUs or DRAM devices . where nanotechnology has already been introduced silently.

Two promising examples are: photonic crystals and quantum dots. respectively. for the construction of lasers.Novel Optoelectronic Devices In the modern communication technology traditional analog electrical devices are increasingly replaced by optical or optoelectronic devices due to their enormous bandwidth and capacity. among many other things. thus they resemble a semiconductor. . Photonic crystals are materials with a periodic variation in the refractive index with a lattice constant that is half the wavelength of the light used. They offer a selectable band gap for the propagation of a certain wavelength. but for light or photons instead of electrons. Quantum dots are nanoscaled objects. which can be used.

they can be used as field emitters with extremely high efficiency for field emission displays (FED). Carbon nanotubes are electrically conductive and due to their small diameter of several nanometers. . The principle of operation resembles that of the cathode ray tube.Displays The production of displays with low energy consumption could be accomplished using carbon nanotubes (CNT). but on a much smaller length scale.

Hang gliders halve their weight while increasing their strength and toughness through the use of nanotech materials. . leading to increased performance. Nanotech is lowering the mass of supercapacitors that will increasingly be used to give power to assistive electrical motors for launching hang gliders off flatland to thermal-chasing altitudes. Nanotechnology would help to reduce the size of equipment and thereby decrease fuel-consumption required to get it airborne.Aerospace Lighter and stronger materials will be of immense use to aircraft manufacturers. where weight is a major factor. Spacecraft will also benefit.

Construction Nanotechnology has the potential to make construction faster. and more varied. safer. Automation of nanotechnology construction can allow for the creation of structures from advanced homes to massive skyscrapers much more quickly and at much lower cost. . cheaper.

lighter and stronger materials will be useful for creating vehicles that are both faster and safer.Refineries Using nanotech applications. . Vehicle manufacturers Much like aerospace. Combustion engines will also benefit from parts that are more hard-wearing and more heat-resistant. refineries producing materials such as steel and aluminium will be able to remove any impurities in the materials they create.

among other Auto and aerospace industries Sports equipment Pharmaceuticals including drug delivery. packaging. and thus career opportunities. polymers. among others Biotechnology Medical fields Optoelectronics Environmental monitoring and control Food science including quality control and packaging Forensics University and federal lab research National security Military And many more .CAREER AREAS Current applications of nanoscale science and technology. exist in areas such as: Electronics/semiconductor industry Materials science including textiles. cosmetics.

bottom-up fabrication of novel materials Commerce: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) smart tags Space exploration: space elevator . creating new materials and novel processes.g. storage. fuel cells.NANO-SCIENCE EXPLOSIVE AREAS Nanoscale science and technology are fueling a revolution in manufacturing and production. batteries Environmental remediation: in conjunction with GM microbes Robotics: many uses Manufacturing: self-assembly. & use.. Not only will the areas listed above continue to grow and benefit from nanotechnology. drug delivery) Energy: capture. but the following fields are expected to undergo explosive developments: Medicine: diagnostics and therapeutics (e.


knowledge of nanoscale science and technology will be increasingly important during upcoming years and decades. from auto and plane manufacturing to researching the nature of matter itself. from creating cosmetics to enhancing energy efficient windows.In areas as diverse as designing medical diagnostic devices to building better batteries. .


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