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CURR 21 -

Curriculum
Development
MS. JULIE S. GUEVARA
The Curriculum
Review Objectives:

• Definitions of curriculum
• History of curriculum
• How has it changed over the years?
• Steps and models in curriculum development
• Trends and issues in Education
• List of laws, acts and decrees as legal bases
of Philippine education
The Concept of Curriculum – Ellis, 2004
Prescriptive definitions-

• provide us with what ought to happen;


• more often take the form of a plan,
intended program, expert opinion about
what needs to take place in the course
of study.
• consists of facts: cognitive thinking
Prescriptive Definitions of Curriculum

The curriculum is a sequence of


potential experiences that is set up
in the school for the purpose of
disciplining children and young
people in group ways of thinking
and acting. (Harold Rugg,1927)
Prescriptive Definitions of Curriculum

Curriculum should consist of


permanent studies – grammar,
reading, rhetoric, logic, mathematics,
and the greatest books of the
western world. (Hollis Caswell,1935)
Prescriptive Definitions of Curriculum

The curriculum is all of the learning


of students, which is planned and
directed by the school to attain its
educational goals. (Ralph Tyler-
1957)
Prescriptive Definitions of Curriculum

The curriculum usually contains a


statement of aims and specific
objectives; it indicates some selection
and organization of content; it implies
or manifests certain patterns of learning
and teaching and it includes a program
of evaluation of the outcomes. (Hilda
Taba,1962)
Prescriptive Definitions of Curriculum

The curriculum is all the planned


learning outcomes for which the school
is responsible. ( James Popham,1970)

Curriculum refers to the desired


consequences of instruction. (Eva Baker,
1970)
Prescriptive Definitions of Curriculum

The word curriculum means output of the


curriculum development process that is
intended for use in planning instruction.
(Michael Schiro,1978)

Curriculum is a plan for providing sets of


learning opportunities for persons to be
educated. (Saylor, Alexander & Lewis -1981)
Prescriptive Definitions of Curriculum

The curriculum is not a tangible product, but the


actual day-to-day interactions of students,
teachers, knowledge and milieu (Catherine
Cornbleth,1990)

Curriculum is a written plan outlining what


students will be taught. It may refer to all
courses offered at a given school or all courses
offered at a school in a particular area of study.
(J.L.Mc Brien & R.Brandt -1997)
Prescriptive Definitions of Curriculum

Curriculum is a prescribed body


of knowledge and methods by
which it might be communicated.
(Alan Block,1998)
The Concept of Curriculum – Ellis, 2004
Descriptive definitions

• go beyond the prescriptive term as it


forces thought about the curriculum not
merely in terms of how things ought to
be… but how things are in real
classrooms;
• experience or curriculum in action;
• consists of rules, ideals or moral
standards: critical thinking
Descriptive Definitions of Curriculum

Curriculum is all the experiences children


have under the guidance of teachers. (Hollis
Caswell and Doak Campbell, 1935)

Curriculum is the educational experience,


the educational journey. (William Pinar, 1975)
Descriptive Definitions of Curriculum

Those learning's each child selects, accepts


and incorporates into himself to act with, on
and upon, in subsequent experiences.
(Thomas Hopkins, 1941)

All experiences of the child for which the


school accepts responsibility. (W. B. Ragan,
1960)
Descriptive Definitions of Curriculum

The set of actual experiences and


perceptions of the experiences that each
individual has of his or her program of
education. (Glen Hass, 1987)

The reconstruction of knowledge and


experience that enables the learner to grow
in exercising intelligent control of subsequent
knowledge and experience. (Daniel Tanner &
Laurel Tanner, 1995)
PERSPECTIVE
AS A PRODUCT:
 Curriculum as instructional end
or desired consequences

 Focus on setting objectives (the


statement of changes to take
place in the students) and the
organization of schooling to
meet this.
AS A PROCESS:

 The interaction of teachers,


students, and knowledge

 Knowledge is acquired through


the senses and through
experiences
AS INTENTION:

 Curriculum as educational
goals, aims, and objective for
national and individual
development
AS REALITY:

 Curriculum as translation and


interpretation of intended aims
in terms of actual conditions

 Intention = Reality
CURRICULUM HISTORY
MOVEMENT TO
ESTABLISH, ORGANIZE
AND REORGANIZE THE
PHILIPPINE ELEMENTARY
EDUCATION
PRE-SPANISH PERIOD

No system of education, hence


no structured curriculum .
SPANISH PERIOD

 Parochial school curriculum


consisted of Christian doctrine,
church history, reading, writing,
arithmetic, dramatics, Spanish,
and Latin languages, church
services, singing, playing
musical instruments, arts and
trades.
AMERICAN REGIME
 3 – 4 year Primary Curriculum

 2 – year Intermediate Curriculum -

Vocationalized
 Included vocational courses like
farming, trade, business, domestic
service, and agricultural education
Athletic program on Physical Education

 Shortening of elementary curriculum to six


years
JAPANESE REGIME

 Reading, Phonics, Arithmetic,


Language, Spelling, Music, Writing,
Character Education, and Physical
Education

 Revision of the elementary


curriculum to include home and
community membership in lieu of
social science
JAPANESE REGIME

 Discover vocational interests by:

 training the boys in the manufacture


of articles such as rakes, trowels,
and shovels

 training of girls in the making of


cookies from cassava
PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC

 Elementary Curriculum sought to


cultivate unspecialized skills and
proper attitude towards work

 Academic courses and training in


practical and useful occupations

 National language became curricular


subject beginning grade one
PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC

 English introduced informally as


a subject in the first two grades
and as a medium of instruction with
vernacular as auxiliary medium in
the primary level and Pilipino as
the auxiliary medium at the
intermediate level.
NEW SOCIETY
Revised Elementary Education Program
introduced curricular changes

 changes in time allotment: 20 minutes in


Character Education

 Arithmetic became Elementary


Mathematics

 Music and Arts offered as separate subjects,


allotted 30 minutes a day, Grade I-IV

 Pilipino and English as subjects in


Grade I - II
NEW SOCIETY cont’d…

 Project IMPACT (Instructional


Management by Parents, Community, and
Teachers)
 envisioned the maximum utilization of
existing facilities through larger enrolment of
200 pupils

 IS-OSA (In-School, Off-School


Approach)
 80 pupils per class
NEW SOCIETY cont’d…

 CPS (Continuous Progression Scheme)

 a promotion scheme to reduce wastage


from failure and useless repetition

 Work-Oriented Curriculum – Work


Education as subject for occupational
work orientation and good work habits.
NEW SOCIETY cont’d…

 Curriculum Imperatives-

taxation education, population education and


family-planning, environmental and
conservation education, green revolution, drug
education, Philippine tourism, typhoon and
disaster education, cultural renewal, YCAP
activities, Operation Timbang.
NEW SOCIETY cont’d…

 A learning continuum which accentuated the


3R’s was developed
 New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC)
was introduced
 fewer learning areas with emphasis on mastery
learning.
 greater emphasis on work skills
 infusion of humanity and nationhood in all the
learning areas.
NEW SOCIETY cont’d…

 Observance of health values in Civic


and Culture

 Civic and Culture expanded to include


History, Geography, and Work
Ethics for Grade III

 In-depth learning of History, Geography


and Civics in Grades IV - VI
MOVEMENT TO
ESTABLISH, ORGANIZE
AND REORGANIZE THE
PHILIPPINE SECONDARY
EDUCATION
PRE-SPANISH PERIOD

 No system of education, hence no


structured curriculum
SPANISH PERIOD

 SECONDARY CURRICULUM: ecclesiastical


studies combined with classical courses

 Theology side by side with Grammar and Arts

 Offered by Secondary Colleges: Colegio de San Jose,


Colegio de Manila, Colegio de San Juan de Letran and
Colegio de San Ildefonso

 Importance given to Latin by Secondary Colleges


called “atinidades”: Instituto de Lipa, Instituto de Loag,
Instituto de Badoc and Instituto de Vigan
SPANISH PERIOD cont’d…

 Curriculum for the girls – domestic crafts and


sciences

 Vocational Curriculum – trades, agricultural, military


and nautical sciences

 Music Curriculum – vocalization, harmony, piano,


organ and violin
AMERICAN REGIME

 Same as the elementary curriculum:


Reading, Phonics, Arithmetic,
Language, Spelling, Music, Writing,
Character Education, Physical
Education

 2-year and 4-year secondary normal


curricula introduced in central high
schools
JAPANESE REGIME

 Curriculum similar to pre-war

 Purely academic curriculum was replaced


by the modified general curriculum that
prepared students vocationally:
agronomy, horticulture, poultry and
swine, auto mechanics

 Strictly vocational, technical and


agricultural
REPUBLIC

 Basic subjects: Grammar and Composition,


Reading, General Science, World History,
Current Events, National Language,
Exploratory Vocational Course for boys,
General Home Economics for girls, and
Health and Physical Education
REPUBLIC cont’d…

 Two-Two Plan Curriculum (1959-1972)

 Common Curriculum – first two years


academic and vocational for all

 Streamed Curriculum – last two years


vocational or college preparatory

 Vocational education curriculum in


agricultural and rural high school
NEW SOCIETY

Revised Secondary Education Program (RSEP)

 Work Oriented Curriculum with emphasized:


 Various branches: Mathematics studied from
year to year

 Communication Arts in Pilipino and English

 Social studies focused on the community

 Philippine History and Government with


world cultural perspectives
NEW SOCIETY, RSEP cont’d…

 Civic Education consisting of Youth Development Training (YDT) and


Citizen’s Army Training (CAT)

 Vocational courses included preparation for agriculture, fishery,


trade, and industry

 Elective Courses from second year to fourth year


NEW SOCIETY, RSEP cont’d…

 Distance Study Systems – provides


learning at a distance

 Curriculum enrichment for socio-economic


relevance
NEW SOCIETY cont’d…

Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP)


 Underscores the improvement of student
performance in science, mathematics
and communication arts
Subject areas:
• English and Filipino – emphasis on critical
thinking skills and communicative
competence
• Araling Panlipunan – taught from a
Philippine Perspective
NEW SOCIETY, SEDP cont’d…

 Mathematics – high level competencies for


technology
 Science focus – General Sciences (1st Year),
Biology (2nd Year), Chemistry (3rd Year),
Physics (4th Year)
 Arts added in 3rd Year and 4th Year to Physical
Education, Health, and Music
 Technology and Home Economics
NEW SOCIETY cont’d…

Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP)


 English and Filipino – emphasis on critical thinking
skills
 Araling Panlipunan with Philippine History (1st
Year), Asian History (2nd Year), Economics (3rd
Year), and World History (4th Year).
 Mathematics cuts across all areas of mathematical
thinking
Science and Technology – General Science (1st
Year), Biology (2nd Year), Chemistry (3rd Year),
Physics (4th Year)
NEW SOCIETY, SEDP cont’d…

 Values Education (now a separate subject)


 Technology and Home Economics (Home
Economics, Agricultural Arts, Industrial
Arts and Entrepreneurship
 System of Electives : Enviromental, Earth, or
Computer Science (2nd Year), Statistics,
Solid Mensuration, Analytic Geometry (3rd
Year), Advance Theater Production or
Journalism (4th Year)
NEW SOCIETY cont’d…

 New Secondary Education Curriculum

 A student-centered and community-centered


orientation
 Cognitive-manipulative based
 Basic subjects with 40 minutes each: English,
Filipino, Mathematics, Social Studies, PE,
Health and Music (PEHM) and Values
Education
 Technology and Home Economics
NEW SOCIETY cont’d…
 Special Science Curriculum
 Language Program in English and Filipino
 Social Science Program
 Values Education
 Mathematics Program with Computer Science
 YDT-CAT Program

 Special Curriculum for the Talented or Gifted


Students in the field of Aesthetics
(Philippine High School for the Arts)
MOVEMENT TO
ESTABLISH,
ORGANIZE
AND REORGANIZE
THE PHILIPPINE
TERTIARY
EDUCATION
PRE – COLONIAL ERA

 Educators were the Babaylan and Katalonan;

 They were looked upon by the society because


of their:
• Wisdom
• Knowledge on spirituality
• System of governing their own society

 In Muslim communities education was through


Islam religion

 No formal separate institution for education


SPANISH PERIOD

• The Spanish Missionaries aim to control of


the Filipinos, both body and soul.

• The curriculum then consisted of 3 R’s


(reading, writing and religion) to attain goals
were the acceptance of Catholicism and the
acceptance of Spanish rule.
SPANISH PERIOD

• The schools were parochial or convent


schools.
• Universities were mainly for the male
and affluent members of the society
• The main readings were the catecismo.
• The method of instruction was mainly
individual memorization.
AMERICAN REGIME

 The motive of the Americans was to conquer the


Filipinos not only physically but also mentally.
 The curriculum was based on the ideals and traditions
of America and her hierarchy of values.
 English was the medium of instruction.
AMERICAN REGIME

• The primary curriculum prescribed for


the Filipinos consisted of three grades
which provides training in two aspects:
1. Body Training – physical education
2. Mental Training – English, Nature Study,
and Arithmetic.
COMMONWEALTH ERA

• (1935-1946) considered as the period of


expansion and reform in the Philippine
curriculum.
• The educational leaders expanded the
curriculum by introducing course in
farming, domestic science, etc.
JAPANESE REGIME

• They devised a curriculum for the


Filipinos to suit their vested interest.
• They introduced many changes in the
curriculum by including Nippongo, and
abolishing English as the medium of
instruction and as a subject.
JAPANESE REGIME

• All textbooks were censored and revised.


• It caused a “black out” in Philippine
education and impeded the educational
progress of the Filipinos.
LIBERATION PERIOD

• (1945) Steps were taken to improve the


curriculum existing before the war,
some steps taken were to restore grade
VII, to abolish the double-single session,
and most especially to adopt the modern
trends in education taken from the U.S.
LIBERATION PERIOD

The curriculum remained basically


the same as before and was still
subject-centered.
THE PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC

• Great experiments in the


community school and the use of
vernacular as the medium of
instruction were some of them.
THE PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC

• An experiment worth mentioning that led


to a change in the Philippine Educational
Philosophy was that of school and
community collaboration pioneered by
Jose V. Aguilar.
• Schools are increasingly using
instructional materials that are
Philippine-oriented.
THE PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC

• Memorandum No. 30, 1966 sets the order


of priority in the purchase of books for
use in the schools were as follows:
• Books which contributes to Phil.
Literature
• Books on character education and other
library materials
• Library equipment and permanent
features
REFORMS IN
EDUCATION
Martial Law
(Philippine Constitution of 1973)
Article XV Section 8 states that:

1. All educational institutions shall be under the supervision of and subject to the
regulation of the state. The State shall establish and maintain a complete,
adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national
development.
2. All institutions of higher learning shall enjoy academic freedom.
3. The study of the Constitution shall be part of the curricula in all schools.
4. All education institutions shall aim to inculcate love of country, teach the duties
of citizenship, develop moral character, self discipline, and scientific
technological and vocational efficiency.
5. The state shall maintain a system of free public elementary education and at
least up to the secondary level.
6. The state shall provide citizenship and vocational training to adult citizens and
out of school youth, and create and maintain scholarships for poor and
deserving citizens.
Martial Law
(Philippine Constitution of 1973)
Article XV Section 8 states that:

7. Educational institutions, other than those established by religious orders,


mission boards, and charitable and labor organizations, shall be owned by such
citizens of the Philippines, or corporations or associations sixty per centum of the
capital of which is owned by such citizens. The control and administration of
educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines. No education
institution shall be established exclusively for aliens, and no group of aliens shall
comprise more than one third of any school population. The provisions of this sub
section shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and
their dependent and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary
residents.
8. At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, and without cost
to them and the government, religion shall be taught to their children or wards in
public elementary or high schools as may be provided by law. The foregoing
became the basis for the educational legislation, Batas Pambansa Blg. 232, known
as education Act of 1982, entitled “An Act Providing for the Establishment and
Maintenance of an integrated System of Education.” The law covered both formal
and non formal education.
Martial Law
(Philippine Constitution of 1973)
The following were the changes under this period:

• Abolishment of the Department of Education Culture and the creation of


the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (MECS) pursuant to
Presidential Decree No. 139. It aimed to ease the bureaucracy in the
Department through decentralization.

• The abolishment of the Bureau of Public Schools , Bureau of Private


Schools and Bureau of Vocational schools. Instead, it created five staff
bureaus that assisted the minister in policy formulation, namely the
Bureau of Elementary Education, Bureau of Secondary Education,
Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education, the Bureau of Higher
Education and the Bureau of Continuing Education.

Actual supervision of private schools under the martial law period


was undertaken by regional offices set up in the thirteen regions throught
the country. (Duka, Cecilio, 2008).
Corazon Cojuanco - Aquino Administration

President Cory C. Aquino renamed the Ministry of Education


to department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) on January
30, 1987, assigning Dr. Lourdes Quisumbing as Department
Secretary.

Among the major changes in the in the educational


department were the revisions in the curriculum and the emphasis
given to:
• values education
• non-formal education
• continuing adult education, and
• technical and vocational programs.
Ramos Administration

Educational Reforms under this administration


• Offering Grade 1 to 6 as an alternative strategy of multi grade teaching.
• Strengthening the teaching of English, Science and Mathematics.
• Recognizing he importance of promoting basic Filipino values such as
love of country, pride in being a Filipino, honesty, civic consciousness
and respect for law and order.
• Liberalizing the regulation of private tertiary schools and rationalizing the
operations of state colleges and universities.
• Establishing a science and technology scholarship program to finance
the education of poor but talented deserving students.
• Structural reforms that provided a more focused supervision and
monitoring of the efficiency and effectiveness of Elementary and
Secondary Education Program by DECS.
• A national system of excellence for teacher education established
under republic act No,. 7784.
• Increased student- teacher contact time and the improvement in pupil
achievement by lengthening of the school calendar to 220 days.
Estrada Administration
Establishment of PCER ( Presidential Commission on Educational Reform
which recommended the following:
• Establishment of the National Coordinating Council for Education (NCCE)
• Moratorium on the creation of new state colleges, and of new branches or
campuses for existing ones.
• Restructuring the financing mechanism for exiting state colleges and
universities.
• Changing the medium of instruction in the first grade of schooling to the
Lingua Franca (Common Language) in selected areas in the country.
• Strengthening teacher competencies, also in English, Science, math,
Technology and Social Studies at the tertiary level and the basic education
level.
• Establishment of the National Educational Assessment and Testing
Services (NEATS).
• Creation of the Department of Basic Education (DBE) that will take charge
of the elementary and secondary levels of education.
Macapagal – Arroyo
Administration
Implemented the following reforms:
• Appointed former senator Raul Rocco as Secretary of the Department of
Education, Culture and Sports (DECS)
• RA 9155 – Governance of Basic Education Act which changed the name of
DECS to Dep Ed ( Department of Education)
• DepEd Order no. 42, s. 2002 – implementing a new basic curriculum both in
the elementary and secondary levels with the aim of making graduates of
the Philippine Basic Education globally competitive.
• DepEd Order no. 37, s. 2004 mandating that all graduating public
elementary pupils by march 2004 to take the High School Readiness Test
(HSRT).
• Project Reach ( for reaching out to schoolchildren and keeping them in
school)
• Drop Out Reduction Program (DORP)
• Instructional Management by Parents, Community and Teachers (IMPACT)
• Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps)
Benigno C. Aquino III
Administration
MOST RECENT CURRICULUM INNOVATION
K – 12 Program

 former 4 year high school program


becomes grades 7 – 12
 the last two years in high school
now classified as junior high school
 the first two years in college
becomes senior high school
Benigno C. Aquino III
Administration

Implemented the following reforms:


• Enhanced K to 12 Program
• Universal pre schooling for all
• Every Child Can Read by Grade one
• Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education
(GASTPE)
• Mother Tongue as Medium of Instruction
• Covenant with the Local Government Units (LGU’s) to build more Schools
Rodrigo R. Duterte’s
Administration
Duterte's education concerns: Out-of-school youth, displaced teachers
and Free College Education

The full implementation of the controversial K to 12 program


coincides with the transition period of President-elect Rodrigo Duterte's
administration.

Incoming education secretary Leonor Briones said Duterte's


concerns now are mainly the students who are still out of school, and college
teachers who might be displaced because of K to 12's senior high.

Duterte has decided to support the K to 12 program after being


initially skeptical about it, given the criticism from some sectors.
Rodrigo R. Duterte’s
Administration
Duterte's education concerns: Out-of-school youth, displaced teachers
and Free College Education

The most recent development in his administration is the Free


education in state colleges and universities, whichh edged closer to reality
after President Duterte signed into law the Universal Access to Quality
Tertiary Education Act.

Duterte signed Republic Act 10931 on Thursday night or hours before


it would have lapsed into law today, despite concerns raised by his economic
team about funding for the program.

The President asked Congress to make the necessary appropriations


for the law, which guarantees free tuition and other miscellaneous fees for
students in 112 state universities and colleges (SUCs) across the country.
CURRICULUM IN THE
PHILIPPINES
Programs in operation

The first level


 Elementary education : provides basic
education which traditionally is of six or
seven grades. Generally.

 In the Philippine elementary education is


categorized in to two levels the primary
level (the first to the fourth grades) and
intermediate (fifth to sixth) grade.
The second level
Secondary education (high school) :

- The second level is a continuation of the


basic education which is provided at the
first level.
- From four years of formal schooling, it is now
expanded to six years ( Grade 7 -12) which
include learning and training in basic
employable skills.
The third level
Tertiary education (higher education):

Provides prescribed courses of


studies which are credited towards
degrees in academic disciplines or
professions.
 Non - formal education :
which is any organized school based
educational activity aimed at
attaining specific learning
objectives for a particular clientele,
especially the illiterate, adults, and
out of school youths.
 Technical-vocational education:
Which is any non degree program at
the post-secondary education level
leading to proficiency in skills.
 Work-education:
Practical arts which provides basic
education to develop proper
attitudes toward work.
 Special education :

- Which develops the capabilities of


individuals who are physically, mentally,
emotionally, socially or culturally disabled
as well as gifted children.

- In terms of school practices and services,


the clientele is served with a modified
education program.
 Accreditation:
In an attempt to obtain quality in
educational programs the
organization and operation of
voluntary accreditation system is
encouraged.
 Teacher Qualification programs:

Any one who prefers a teaching


career in the Philippines must earn
a degree in teacher education.
DEFINITION OF EVALUATION

Curriculum evaluation is a systematic process of


determining whether the curriculum as designed and
implemented has produced or is producing the
intended and desired results.

It is the means of determining whether the program is


meeting its goals, that is whether the measures /
outcomes for a given set of instructional inputs match
the intended or pre-specified outcomes. (Tuckman,
1979)
Curriculum Evaluation Studies
in the Philippines
1. 1925 Monroe Survey
2. 1959 Swanson Survey
3. 1969 Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine
Education (PCSPE)
4. 1976 Survey of Outcomes of Elementary Education
(SOUTELE)
5. 1982 Household and School Matching Survey
6. 1991 Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM)
7. 1991 National Evaluation and Impact Study of PRODED
8. 2002 – National Competency Based Teacher Standards
(NCBTS)
MONROE SURVEY

1. Administrative organization and supervision


2. Elementary education
3. Secondary Education
4. Higher Education
5. Teacher education and training
6. Language of instruction
7. Private education
8. Finance
9. Education of the non-Christians
SWANSON SURVEY
1. Elementary education
2. Secondary education
3. Vocational education
4. Teacher training
5. Organization and administration
6. Financing the public schools
7. The report included a deterioration of
performance in reading, language and arithmetic
due to poor instructional methods, large class
sizes, and inadequate supervision
Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine
Education (PCSPE)
1. Analyze performance of the educational system and its
relevance to national developmental goals
2. Ascertain the efficiency of the system
3. Identify areas which need more detailed investigation.
4. The report included findings on :
a. Mismatch between educational services and manpower
requirements
b. Mismatch between education priorities and the national
development priorities
c. Inequitable distribution of educational facilities and resources
across the regions
d. Lack of systematic planning and evaluation
SURVEY OF OUTCOMES OF ELEM EDUCATION
(SOUTELE)
1. Battery of achievement tests designed to measure
the outcomes of elementary education
2. General mental ability test of non-verbal type
designed to measure association
3. Student’s attitude inventory aimed to measure
affective objectives
4. Questionnaires in order to establish the profiles of
pupils, teachers, school heads, etc.
5. The study revealed deficiencies of elementary
education in terms of inputs (resources), processes
(curriculum and instruction), and outputs (students’
achievement). These are affected by socio economic,
school types, quality of teaching.
The Household and School
Matching Survey (HSMS)
1. The survey hypothesized that learning is
predicated on the antecedent academic,
social, physiological variables.

2. The findings of the investigation showed


that home-related and community
related variables have greater influences
on learning than school related factors
such as cost per pupil and numbers of
textbooks per students.
The Congressional Commission on Education
Study (EDCOM)
1. Enhancing the internal capability of the system to
satisfactorily implement the constitutional
provisions on education
2. Providing the system with necessary financial and
other infrastructure support
3. Strengthening the system’s linkages with all sectors
concerned in human resource development
4. Assisting the system to achieve its sectoral goals and
targets through strategies that are consistent with
the nation’s development goals.
The National Evaluation and Impact
Study of PRODED

1. Teacher factor is crucial in the success of the


teaching-learning process
2. There is a need to improve the pre-service
and in-service training of teachers that
should include the development of skills in
classroom management, teacher-pupil
interaction, and the use of instructional aids,
etc.
Presidential Commission on
Educational Reform (PCER)
1. Created through E.O. in 1988 to define a budget
feasible program of reform, and identify executive
priority policy recommendations and items for a
legislative agenda on education.
2. Comprised of multi sectoral group
3. Proposed the establishment of National Education
Evaluation and Testing System (NEETS) that
assumes responsibility for educational assessment
of all levels, including technical and skills
development
Monitoring and Evaluation of RBEC

1. Defines what levels of learning students of schools


and divisions meet at various stages of the basic
education cycle based on the national curriculum.
2. Setting of minimum national standards for
capabilities, structures, processes and output based
on a template for school improvement processes
from planning to implementation to monitoring and
evaluation
3. Nationally standardized student assessment,
outcomes measurement and reporting of basic
school statistics
Domains of the National Competency
Based Teacher Standards

 Social Regard for Learning


 The Learning Environment
 Diversity of Learners
 Curriculum
 Planning, Assessing and Reporting
 Community Linkages
 PersonalGrowth and Professional
Development
Steps in Curriculum
Steps and Models in
Curriculum
Development
Development
Steps in Curriculum Development
Tyler’s Questions of Curriculum
Development provides 4 steps:

• What educational purposes should the school


seek to attain?
• What educational experiences can be
provided that are likely to attain these
purposes?
• How can these educational experiences be
effectively organized?
• How can we determine whether these
purposes are being attained?
In answering Tyler’s questions, we arrive the
following basic steps of curriculum
development:

 Selection of aims, goals and objectives;


 Selection of learning experiences and content;
 Organisation of learning experiences; and
 Evaluation of the extent to which the objectives
have been achieved.
Curriculum Development

 Some curriculum experts like • Selection of Aims


Tyler say that the steps are 1
followed in a sequence or a
straight line.
• Selection of Content &
 This model that assumes that
Learning Experiences
curriculum decision making 2
follows a straight line is called
linear model • Organization of
content & Learning
3 Experiences

• Evaluation of Learning
outcomes
4
Curriculum Development

 Other scholars argue that


curriculum decision
making is not a simple Evaluation
Aims, Goals
& Objectives
linear process that
necessarily starts with
aims.
 One of them is Wheeler Organisation &
(1978) who believes that Integration of
Learning
Selection of
Learning
curriculum decision Experiences &
Content
Experiences

making can start from


any point and can come
Selection of
back to any of the points Content
e.g. like a cycle
Curriculum Development

 Kerr (1968) also


believes that
curriculum process is a Objective

very complex set of


activities and decisions
and they interact a
lot.
Evaluation Content
 Changes made in
content may
necessitate changes in
experiences, which
may again bring about Learning
changes in evaluation Experience
etc.
Selection of Aims and Objectives

 Every curriculum is aimed at developing in the learners


certain competencies or abilities. The curriculum
process must therefore clearly identify the aims that the
curriculum is intended to achieve.
 Curriculum aims range from the very broad to the more
specific. In fact, that is why we use the terms aims,
goals and objectives to refer to them. Aims are broad
statements which cover all of the experiences provided
in the curriculum; goals are tied to specific subjects or
group of contents within the curriculum; while
objectives describe the more specific outcomes that can
be attained as a result of lessons or instruction delivered
at the classroom.
Factors in Selecting Aims
 Analysis of our culture: we should take into account our cultural
values, norms and expectations when selecting aims,
 The present status of the learner: what has the learner already
known? What are his/her characteristics? What is he/she ready for?
 The state of our knowledge of the subject matter or content: We
should examine new developments in knowledge to see if they contain
things that are of real value to the learner and society.
 Relevance to school’s philosophy of education: each nation has its own
philosophy of education which its schools try to implement. Nigeria’s
philosophy of education is contained in its National Policy on
Education. We should ask whether the objectives we select are
relevant to this philosophy;
 Consistency with our theory of learning: at any time in any society,
there is a dominant conception of learning i.e. our understanding
what learning is and how it takes place. For instance, the National
Policy on Education anticipates that the Nigerian child is active,
exploratory and imaginative.
Selection of Content & Learning
Experiences
 Content is what we teach; learning experience is
an activity which the learner engages in which
results in changes in his behaviour;
 We should select those contents and learning
experiences that will contribute in attaining the
goals of the curriculum;
 There are some factors to consider in selecting
both learning experiences and content.
 We shall first examine those criteria for selecting
learning experiences
Factors in Selecting Learning
Experiences
 Validity: this refers to the relevance of the stated
learning experience to the stated goals of the
curriculum;
 Relevance to life: learning experience must be
related to the learner’s real life situations in and
out of school;
 Variety: learning experiences must cater to the
needs of different types of learners by providing
different types of experiences;
 Suitability: learning experiences must be suitable to
the learners present state of learning and
characteristics:
Selection of learning experiences…

 Cumulation: even though experiences provided may


be different, they should all lead to the attainment
of the same goal; subsequent experiences should
build on earlier ones;
 Multiple Learning: a single learning experience may
bring about multiple outcomes. Such learning
experiences are important because of their
multiple benefits.
Factors in Selecting Content

 Validity: means two things, is the content related to the


objectives, and is the content true or authentic;
 Significance: is the content significant or will lead it to
the more mastery or more understanding of the course or
subject;
 Utility: here the question is whether the content selected
is useful i.e. will lead to the acquisition of skills and
knowledge that are considered useful by society?
 Interest: is the content interesting to the learner? Or can
the content be made interesting to learners?
 Learnability: is the content selected such that learners
can learn and understand given their present level/
TRENDS AND ISSUES IN
EDUCATION
BILINGUAL EDUCATION
1. Article 14, sect 7 of 1987 constitution – “for the purposes of
communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines
are Filipino and until otherwise provided by law, English.”
2. DECS Order 52, s. 1987 – the policy of bilingual education aims to make
every Filipino competent in both Filipino and English at the national level
3. DECS defines bilingual as “separate use of Filipino and English as media
of instruction in specific subjects.”
Early Childhood Care and
Development (ECCD)
1. Art 15, Sec 2, 1987 Phil. Cons. – recognizes the “right
of children to assistance, including proper care and
nutrition, and special protection from all forms of
neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation and other
conditions prejudicial to their development.”
2. UN Convention on the Rights of Child
3. Education for All (EFA) agenda of DECS, 1990
envisioned 90% of the population of early childhood
care and development either home-based services or
kindergarten / nursery classes will be provided in
2000.
LIST OF LAWS, ACTS AND DECREES AS
LEGAL BASES OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATION
 Act #74-enacted in January 21, 1901. It provides for the establishment of
Department of Public Instruction and establishment of PCAT now TUP and PNS
now PNU
 Act #1870 founding of UP (June 18, 1908)
 Act #2706 Private School Law (enacted March 10, 1917)
 Commonwealth Act #1- preparatory military training shall begin in Elementary
grade school at age 10. This act was amended by PD 1706 (August 8, 1980)
requiring all citizens to render civil welfare service, law enforcement service and
military service.

 Commonwealth Act #80- (October 26, 1936) established the Office of Adult
Education (vocational training in an effort to eliminate illiteracy)
 Commonwealth Act#578 (June 8, 1940) conferred the status of PERSONS IN
AUTHORITY upon teachers
 Commonwealth Act #586 Education Act of 1940-reduction of number of years in
elementary (from 7 to 6), fixing school entrance age 7 years old, national support of
elementary education, compulsory attendance in the primary grades for all children
enrolled in grade one, introduction of double single session
LIST OF LAWS, ACTS AND DECREES AS
LEGAL BASES OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATION
 Commonwealth Act #589-(August 19, 1940) established school rituals in private
and public schools
 RA #137 (June 14, 1947) enacted the Board of Textbooks
 RA #896 (June 20, 1953) Elementary Education Act of 1953. This law repealed
Commonwealth Act #586 (restoration of grade 7, abolition of double single
session, compulsory completion of elementary, compulsory enrolment of children
in public school upon reaching 7 years old)
 RA #1124 (June 16, 1954) created the Board of National Education
 RA #1265 (June 11, 1955) compulsory daily flag ceremony in all educational
institutions
 RA #1425 (June 12, 1956) teaching life, works and writings of Rizal especially
Noli and Fili in all public and private schools
 RA #4760 (June 18, 1966) Magna Cart of Public School Teachers
 RA #1079 (June 15, 1959) provided that civil service eligibility shall be
permanent and valid lifetime
 RA #6655 (May 25, 1988) Free Public Secondary Act of 1988
 RA #7722 (May 18, 1994) created CHED
 RA #7743 (June 17, 1994) established public libraries and reading centers in
every barangay
LIST OF LAWS, ACTS AND DECREES AS
LEGAL BASES OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATION
 RA #7784 (August 4, 1994) established Centers of Excellence and Teachers
Education Council
 RA #7796 (August 25, 1994) established TESDA
 RA #7836 (December 16, 1994) Phil Teachers Professionalization Act
(supercedes PBET)
 RA #7877 (February 14, 1995) Anti-Sexual Harassment Act
 EO #27 (July 4, 1986) inclusion of human rights courses or subjects
 EO #189 (June 10, 1987) Basic Salary and COLA of public school teachers will
be paid for by national government
 PD 6-A-(September 29, 1972) Education Development Decree of 1972
 PD 146-(March 9, 1972) NCEE (superceded by RA7731 on June 2, 1994)
 PD 688-(April 22, 1975) gave power to CSC the authority to give appropriate
exam to all public school teachers
 PD 907-(March 11, 1976) all honor graduates of colleges and universities are
granted civil service eligibility
 PD 1006 (September 22, 1976) PBET
 DECS Order #30 s 1993- NEAT
 DECS Order #30 s 1994- NSAT
Good Luck And
God Bless!!!