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TWI

CSWIP 3.1
WIS 5
WELDING INSPECTION

WELD REPAIRS

SECTION 16
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Course Technology
notes section references 16 M.S.Rogers
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Weld Repairs
Weld Repairs:

Weld repairs can be divided into 2 specific areas:

•1) Production repairs

•2) In service repairs

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Weld Repairs
There are a number of key factors that need
to be considered before undertaking any
repair.

The most important being a judgement as to


whether it is financially worthwhile. Before
this judgement can be made, the fabricator
needs to answer the following questions:

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Weld repair decision tree

Has nature of NO NDE +


the defect been Destructive
determined? tests

YES

Is repair the NO Replace the


right decision? part

YES
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Weld repair decision tree
YES
Determine Choose the Determine
base metal welding the filler
weldability process material

Train the Qualify the


welder welder

NO
Establish Determine
Is welder
repair welding
qualified?
procedure standards
YES
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Weld repair decision tree
YES
Prepare the Perform
defect area welding Inspection
repair

Procedure
problem NO
Fix Has repair been
problem successful?
Welder
problem
YES
Protect and return
to service
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Weld Repairs
Can structural integrity be achieved if the item is repaired?

Are there any alternatives to welding?

What caused the defect and is it likely to happen again?

How is the defect to be removed and what welding process


is to be used?

What NDE is required to ensure complete removal of the


defect?

Will the welding procedures require approval/re-approval?

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What will be the effect of welding distortion and
residual stress?

Will heat treatment be required?

What NDE is required and how can acceptability of the


repair be demonstrated?

Will approval of the repair be required –


if yes, how and by whom?

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Weld Repairs
Although a weld repair may be a relatively straight
forward activity, in many instances it can be quite
complex and various engineering disciplines may need
to be involved to ensure a successful outcome.

Ongoing analysis of the defect types may be carried


out by the Q/C department to discover the likely
reason for their occurrence, (Material/Process or Skill
related).

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QUESTIONS ?

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A detailed assessment to find out the extremity of the defect. This may
involve the use of a surface or sub surface NDE method.

Cleaning the repair area, (removal of paint grease etc)

Once established the excavation site must be clearly identified and


marked out.

An excavation procedure may be required (method used i.e. grinding,


arc-air gouging, preheat requirements etc).

NDE should be used to locate the defect and confirm its removal.

A welding repair procedure/method statement with the appropriate*


welding process, consumable, technique, controlled heat input and
interpass temperatures etc will need to be approved.

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Use of approved welders.

Dressing the weld and final visual.

NDT procedure/technique prepared and carried out to ensure that


the defect has been successfully removed and repaired.

Any post repair heat treatment requirements.

Final NDT procedure/technique prepared and carried out after heat


treatment requirements.

Applying protective treatments (painting etc as required).

(*Appropriate’ means suitable for the alloys being repaired and may
not apply in specific situations)
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Cost of Weld Repairs
Original weld Cost Repair weld Extra cost

Cut, prep, tack weld £ Inspector Repair report (NCR etc) ££

Welder time £ Inspector Identify repair area ££

Consumable & gas £ Inspector Mark out repair area ££

Visual inspection £ Welder Remove defect ££

NDT ££ Inspector Visual inspection of excavation ££

Documentation £ Inspector NDT area of excavation ££

Inspector Monitor repair welding ££

Welder time £

Consumable & gas £

Inspector Visual inspection ££

NDT ££

Extra repair Documentation £

Penalty % NDT ££

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Production Weld Repairs
Production Repairs are usually identify during production inspection,
evaluation of the reports is usually carried out by the Welding
Inspector, or NDT operator, discontinuities in the welds are only
classed as defects when they are outside the permitted range
permitted by the applied code or standard.

Before the repair can commence, a number of elements need to be


fulfilled:

As this defect is surface breaking and has occurred at the fusion face
the problem could be cracking or lack of sidewall fusion. If the defect is
found to be cracking the cause may be associated with the material or
the welding procedure, however if the defect is lack of sidewall fusion
this can be apportioned to the lack of skill of the welder.

In this particular case as the defect is open to the surface, MPI or DYE-
PEN may be used to gauge the length of the defect and U/T inspection
used to gauge the depth.
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In Service Weld Repairs
Most in service repairs can be of a very complex nature, as the component
is very likely to be in a different welding position and condition than it was
during production. It may also have been in contact with toxic, or
combustible fluids hence a permit to work will need to be sought prior to
any work being carried out. The repair welding procedure may look very
different to the original production procedure due to changes in these
elements.

Other factors may also be taken into consideration, such as the effect of
heat on any surrounding areas of the component i.e. electrical
components, or materials that may become damaged by the repair
procedure. This may also include difficulty in carrying out any required pre
or post welding heat treatments and a possible restriction of access to the
area to be repaired. For large fabrications it is likely that the repair must
also take place on site and without a shut down of operations, which may
bring other elements that need to be considered.

Repair of in service defects may require consideration of these and many


other factors, and as such are generally considered more complicated than
production repairs.

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Arc-air gouging features
•Operate ONLY on reverse
polarity (DCEP)
•Can be used on carbon
and low alloy steels,
austenitic stainless steels
and non-ferrous materials
•Requires CLEAN/DRY
compressed air supply

•Provides fast rate of metal removal


•Can remove complex shape defects
•After gouging, grinding of carbured layer is mandatory
•Gouging doesn’t require a qualified welder!
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Defect excavation
Arc-air gouging

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The specification or procedure will govern how the defective
areas are to be removed. The method of removal may be

 Grinding
 Chipping
 Machining
 Filing
 Oxy-Gas gouging
 Arc air gouging

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Plan View of defect

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Production Weld Repairs
Side View of defect excavation

Side View of repair welding

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Weld Repairs
• Is welding the best method of repair?
• Is the repair really like earlier repairs?
• What is the composition and weldability of the base
metal?
• What strength is required from the repair?
• Can preheat be tolerated?
• Can softening or hardening of the HAZ be tolerated?
• Is PWHT practicable?
• Is PWHT necessary?
• Will the fatigue resistance of the repair be adequate?
• Will the repair resist its environment?
• Can the repair be inspected and tested?
• As-welded repairs
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Weld repair related problems
• heat from welding may affect dimensional
stability and/or mechanical properties of
repaired assembly
• due to heat from welding, YS goes down 
danger of collapse
• filler materials used on dissimilar welds
may lead to galvanic corrosion
• local preheat may induce residual stresses
• cost of weld metal deposited during a weld
joint repair can reach up to 10 times the
original weld metal cost!

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