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You are on page 1of 51

• Changes in operating conditions in a system cause temperature

variation with time, as well as location within a solid, until a new

steady state (thermal equilibrium) is obtained.

dependence of the temperature distribution

• Real problems may include finite and semi-infinite solids, or complex

geometries, as well as two and three dimensional conduction

• Solution techniques involve the lumped capacitance method, exact

and approximate solutions, and finite difference methods.

We will focus on the Lumped Capacitance Method, which can be used

for solids within which temperature gradients are negligible (Sections

5.1-5.2)

1

Chapter 5 : Transient Conduction

2

Chapter 5 : Transient Conduction

3

Chapter 5 : Transient Conduction

We first will look at a simpler case, based on the assumption of a spatially uniform

temperature distribution in the sphere throughout the transient process. In reality

this is an approximation of the actual process and is based on the assumption that

the thermal resistance in the sphere is much less than the resistance at the surface

due to convection.

4

Lumped Capacitance Method

• If the thermal conductivity of the solid is very high, resistance to

conduction within the solid will be small compared to resistance to

heat transfer between solid and surroundings.

• Temperature gradients within the solid will be negligible, i.e.. the

temperature of the solid is spatially uniform at any instant.

T ( x,0) Ti

x

Lumped Capacitance Method

Starting from an overall energy balance on the solid: E out E st

dT

hAs (T T ) Vc

dt

The time required for the solid to reach a temperature T is:

Vc i

t ln (5.1) where T T

hAs i Ti T

T T hAs

exp t (5.2)

i Ti T Vc

The total energy transfer, Q, occurring up to some time t is:

q dt hA dt Vc 1 exp t /

t t

Q S i t (5.3)

0 0

Transient Temperature Response

Based on eq. (5.2), the temperature difference between solid

and fluid decays exponentially.

Let’s define a thermal time

constant

1

t (Vc ) Rt Ct

hAs

Rt is the resistance to

convection heat transfer,

Ct is the lumped thermal

capacitance of the solid

Increase in Rt or Ct causes

solid to respond more slowly

and more time will be required

to reach thermal equilibrium.

Chapter 5 : Transient Conduction

For the previous case, we may use the Lumped Capacitance Method, LCM

Using energy balance on the sphere,

8

Chapter 5 : Transient Conduction

required, t, for the solid to reach

certain temperature

Eq. (5.7)

9

Chapter 5 : Transient Conduction

Eq. (5.7)

respond more slowly and will increase the

time required to reach thermal equilibrium.

10

Chapter 5 : Transient Conduction

we obtain

Eq. (5.8a)

For the previous case, the total change in thermal energy storage

due to complete transient process (from Ti to T) is simply:

11

Validity of Lumped Capacitance Method

Need a suitable criterion to determine validity of method.

Must relate relative magnitudes of temperature drop in the

solid to the temperature difference between surface and

fluid.

Tsolid( due to conduction) ( L / kA) Rcond hL

Bi

Tsolid / liquid( due to convection) (1 / hA) Rconv k

solid/liquid for the lumped capacitance method to be valid?

Chapter 5 : Transient Conduction

13

Chapter 5 : Transient Conduction

**

Using definition of Biot Number,

Eq. (5.11)

a nondimensional time parameter for characterising transient

conduction problem.

Eq. (5.13)

14

Biot and Fourier Numbers

The lumped capacitance method is valid when

hLc where the characteristic length:

Bi 0.1

k Lc=V/As=Volume of solid/surface area

t

Fo 2

Lc

Eq. (5.2) becomes:

T T

exp Bi Fo (5.4)

i Ti T

Example

The heat transfer coefficient for air flowing over a sphere is

to be determined by observing the temperature-time history

of a sphere fabricated from pure copper. The sphere, which is

12.7 mm in diameter, is at 66°C before it is inserted into an

air stream having a temperature of 27°C. A thermocouple on

the outer surface of the sphere indicates 55°C, 69 s after the

sphere is inserted in the air stream.

Calculate the heat transfer coefficient, assuming that the

sphere behaves as a spacewise isothermal object. Is your

assumption reasonable?

Example 5.1:

can be approximated as a sphere. The properties of the junction are k = 20 W/mK, =

8500 kg/m3, cp = 400 J/kgK and convection coefficient between the junction and the gas

is h = 400 W/m2K. Determine the junction diameter needed for the thermocouple to

have a time constant of 1 second.

If the junction is at 25C and is placed in a gas stream that is at 200C, how long will it

take for the junction to reach 199C.

17

18

Problem 5.12:

Thermal energy storage systems commonly involve a packed bed of solid spheres,

through which a hot gas flows if the system is being charged, or a cold gas if it is being

discharged.

Consider a packed bed of 75mm diameter aluminium spheres (k = 240 W/mK, = 2700

kg/m3, cp = 950 J/kgK) and a charging process for which gas eneters the storage unit at a

temperature of 300C. If the initial temperature of the spheres is 25C and convection

coefficient is 75 W/m2K, how long does it take to accumulate 90% of the maximum

possible thermal energy ? What is the corresponding temperature at the centre of the

sphere ? Is there any advantage to using copper instead of aluminium ?

19

Other transient problems

• When the lumped capacitance analysis is not

valid, we must solve the partial differential

equations analytically or numerically

• Exact and approximate solutions may be used

• Tabulated values of coefficients used in the

solutions of these equations are available

• Transient temperature distributions for

commonly encountered problems involving

semi-infinite solids can be found in the

literature

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

21

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

22

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

23

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

Spatial Effects - Solution to the Heat Equation for a plane wall with symmetrical

convection conditions

24

Nondimensionalized One-Dimensional Transient

Conduction Problem

25

Nondimensionalization reduces

the number of independent

variables in one-dimensional

transient conduction problems

from 8 to 3, offering great

convenience in the presentation

of results. 26

Exact Solution of One-Dimensional Transient Conduction

Problem

27

28

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

Thermal diffusivity,

conduction rate to the rate

of thermal energy storage

29

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

a function of coordinate, Fourier and Biot number

30

The analytical solutions of

transient conduction problems

typically involve infinite series, and

thus the evaluation of an infinite

number of terms to determine the

temperature at a specified location

and time.

31

Approximate Analytical and Graphical Solutions

The terms in the series solutions converge rapidly with increasing time, and

for > 0.2, keeping the first term and neglecting all the remaining terms in

the series results in an error under 2 percent.

Solution with one-term approximation

32

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

33

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

34

35

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

Graphical representation of the one-term approximation : The Heisler Charts

*This chart is not available for Wiley Textbook Asia 5th Edition, 36

supplemental material is available as a stand-alone purchase.

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

37

38

39

40

The dimensionless temperatures anywhere in a plane wall, cylinder,

and sphere are related to the center temperature by

environment at T with a convection coefficient h that is infinite.

41

42

Θ

43

44

The fraction of total heat transfer

Q/Qmax up to a specified time t is

determined using the Gröber charts. 45

The physical significance of the Fourier number

in

measure of heat conducted

through a body relative to

heat stored.

• A large value of the Fourier

number indicates faster

propagation of heat through

a body.

can be viewed as the ratio

of the rate of heat

conducted to the rate of

heat stored at that time.

46

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

Problem 5.37

Annealing is a process by which steel is reheated and then cooled to make it less brittle. Consider the

reheat stage for a 100 mm thick steel plate (=7830 kg/m3, c=550 J/kgK, k=48 W/mK) which is

initially at a uniform temperature of Ti = 200C and is to be heated to a minimum temperature of

550C. Heating is effected in a gas-fired furnace, where products of combustion at T = 800C

maintain a convection coefficient of h = 250 W/m2K on both surfaces of the plate. How long should

the plate be left in the furnace ?

47

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

Radial Systems : Infinite cylinder & sphere

48

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

Textbook (Until Chapter 5.6)

Long rod (infinite cylinder):

*J1 and J0 are Bessel functions of the first kind (canonical function). Their values

are tabulated in Appendix B4

Sphere:

49

50

Transient Conduction : Spatial Effects & The role of analytical

solutions

Problem 5.63

Consider the packed bed and the operating conditions of Problem 5.12, but with Pyrex sphere

(=2225 kg/m3, c=835 J/kgK, k=1.4 W/mK) used instead of aluminium.

i) How long does it take a sphere near the inlet of the system to accumulate 90% of the maximum

possible thermal energy?

ii) What is the corresponding temperature at the centre of the sphere?

iii) What is the temperature at the surface of the sphere?

51

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