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Recruitment, Selection & Interview

Learning• Objective of Recruitment. • Factors affecting Recruitment. • Sources of Recruitment. • Recruitment Technique. • Modern Source of Recruitment. • Selection Procedure. • Interview Process. • Frequently asked question. • Interview format.

“A process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for efficient workforce.”

“The process searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.”
- Edwin B. Flippo


To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experience that suit the present and future organizational strategies. To induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company. To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization. To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company. To search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the company’s values. To devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits To seek non-conventional development grounds for talent. To search for talent globally and not just within the company. To design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum. To anticipate and find people for positions that do not exist yet.

Legal and Governmental Factors like reservations for SC/ST/BC and sons-of-soil. . • Information System like Employment Exchanges/Telerecruitment like Internet.RECRUITMENT Factors Affecting Recruitment Internal Factors • Company’s Pay Package • Quality of Worklife • Organizational Culture • Career Planning and Growth • Company’s Size • Company’s Products/Services • Geographical Spread of the Company’s Operations • Company’s Growth Rate • Role of Trade Unions • Cost of Recruitment • Company’s Name and Fame External Factors • Socio-economic Factors • Supply and Demand Factors • Employment Rate • Labor Market Conditions • Political.

RECRUITMENT Sources of Recruitment Internal Sources • Present permanent employees • Present temporary/casual employees • Retrenched or retired employees • Dependents of deceased. retired and present employees External Sources • Campus Recruitment • Private Employment / Agencies / Consultants • Public Employment Exchanges • Professional Associations • Data Banks • Casual Applicants • Similar Organizations • Trade Unions • Poaching • E-Recruitment . disabled.

period of adaptability to the organization can be reduced Trade unions can be satisfied. Morale of the employees can be improved.” Loyalty. induction. commitment. and security of the present employees can be enhanced. Cost of training. Social responsibility towards employees may be discharged.RECRUITMENT Why do Organizations Prefer Internal Source? Internal recruitment can be used as a technique of motivation. . Suitability of the internal candidates can be judged better than the external candidates as “known devils are better than unknown angels. a sense of belongingness. Employees’ psychological needs can be met by providing an opportunity for advancement. orientation. Employees economic needs for promotion. higher income can be satisfied. Cost of selection can be minimized. Stability of employment can be ensured.

. knowledge. innovative or creative talent can also be flowed into the organization. Expertise.RECRUITMENT Why do Organizations Prefer External Source? The suitable candidates with skill. Existing will also broadens their personality. skill etc. Long-run benefit to the organization in the sense that qualitative human resources can be brought. experience. are generally available. Human resources mix can be balanced with different background. talent etc. excellence and experience in other organizations can be easily brought into the organization. Cost of employees can be minimized because employees selected from this source are generally placed in minimum pay scale. Candidates can be selected without any pre-conceived notion or reservations. skill. Latest knowledge. .

RECRUITMENT Recruitment Techniques For internal candidates: Promotions Transfers For external candidates: Present Employees Scouting Advertising .

RECRUITMENT Modern Sources and Techniques of Recruitment • Walk-In • Consult-In • Head-hunting • Body Shopping • Business Alliances • Tele-Recruitment • Poaching • E-Recruitment .

and knowledge of the business are probed FATAL FLAW PROCESS: If a candidate exhibits certain traits – lack of drive. promoting self-interest. work experience. losing cool under pressure. give the interviewer immediate control of the interview. and probe what the interviewer believes is the major issue in the candidate’s background JOB FIT PROBES: Probes the candidate’s educational background.RECRUITMENT THE FIT • A winner’s mindset • An ability to lead dramatic change • Hands-on • An ability to stretch • An ability to deal with ambiguity • An orientation towards the business • A certain impact and presence • Flair and style • Open and informal • Aggression • Innovation • High achievement THE PROBES STARTER PROBES: To build a rapport with the candidate. and the expected compensation package SUCCESS FACTOR PROBES: Looks at the candidate’s ability to be successful at his or her job. Executive maturity. preferences on national – and international – mobility. ability to lead and manage people. a penchant for playing office politics. and low integrity – these automatically disqualify him . career expectations. excecutional excellence.

the company stresses youth. and absence of hierarchies EMPOWERED: Employees must be able to take decisions independently and perform consistently with their clearly-defined roles . So the average age at Reebok is 28 years A SPORTY ATTITUDE: Employees should have a passion for the fitness business and reflect the company’s aspirations INFORMAL: HANDS-ON: As Reebok has only 29 employees.RECRUITMENT YOUTH: As Reebok’s consumers are young. a flat organization. the ability to get one’s hands dirty is crucial Employees must have an ability to cope with informality.

behavioral. Requirements of the job to be filled have been clearly specified (Job analysis. 2. mental.” The selection procedure cannot be effective until and unless: 1. etc. etc. social.) Employee specifications (physical.) have been clearly specified.SELECTION “The selection procedure is the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidates’ specifications are matched with the job specifications and requirements or not. Candidates for screening have been attached . 3.

SELECTION 1 Job Analysis 2 Recruitment 3 Application Form 4 Written Examination 5 Preliminary Interview 6 Business Games 7 Tests 8 Final Interview 9 Medical Examination 10 Reference Checks 11 Line Manager’s Decision 12 Employment .



i) Test for measuring job knowledge ii) Work sample test a) Personality Test. d) Performance or achievement test.a) Aptitude Test. c) Intelligence Test. b) Interest Test. i) Objective test ii) Personality test iii) Situation test .

The interview is a face to face . observational and personal appraisal method of evaluating the applicant.oral.An interview is a purposeful exchange of ideas. the answering of questions and communication between two or more persons.Biswanath Ghosh. .  According to Scott. According to Dr. It can also be described as a conversation with a purpose and is used almost universally in the staffing process.

SELECTION a Preparation for the Interview Appropriate type of interview The areas to be tested Type and number of interviews Review the information b Conduct the Interview Open the interview Get complete and accurate information Record observations and impressions Guide the interview Check the success of the interview c d Close the Interview Evaluate Interview Results .

Stress interview. Non-Structural interview. Group interview Final interview . Structural interview.        Preliminary interview. Discussions interview. Extensive / Depth interview.

Individuals Individuals Panel Panel Interviews Interviews Interviews Interviews Video Video Interviewing Interviewing Team Team Interviews Interviews .

 Halo effect.  .  Stereotyping.Personal bias.  Leniency  Projection.  Constant errors.

 Conducting an Effective Interview ◦ Planning the interview ◦ Controlling the interview ◦ Using proper questioning techniques  Question types to avoid in interviews ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Yes/No questions Obvious questions Questions that rarely produce a true answer Leading questions Illegal questions Questions that are not job related .


SELECTION What goals have you set for yourself? How are you planning to achieve them? What factors did you consider in choosing your majors? Tell me how do you perceive your strengths. How you handled it? What two or three accomplishments have given you the most satisfaction? What idea have you developed and implemented that was particularly creative or innovative? Describe a situation where you had to work with someone who was difficult. Your weaknesses. How was the person difficult. and how you dealt with it. How do you evaluate yourself? What was the most useful criticism you ever received. and how did you handle it? Describe a leadership role of yours and how you committed time to it? What work experience has been the most valuable to you and why? What are your team player qualities? Give examples Describe a situation were you had a conflict with another individual. Tell me about your expectations from your future employer? . and who was it from? How do you motivate people? Why did you choose the extra-curricular activities you did? What did you gain? What did you contribute? Give an example of a situation in which you failed.

Value Addition Mental Acumen General Knowledge Assertiveness / Initiative Leadership Capability Team Work & Adaptability Maturity Personal Impact / Communication Potential 0 No Data Test Score 1 Deficient 2 Average 3 Capable 4 Strong 5 Exceptional Overall Rating .SELECTION Candidate’s Name Source Referral Direct Advertisement Computer Institute Placement Agency Date Internet Campus Position Parameter Functional Ability / Computer Skills Work Exp.

50% Sunday working 75% 100% Overnight Shift working Staggered Hours Recommendation Interviewer’s Name Hire Hold for Comparison Signature Turndown Date .SELECTION Strengths Development Areas Recommendation Allocation Financial Information Processing Collections Technology Sales Call Centers Work Experience Weightage: Candidate open to: Overall Comments: 0% 25% .

Recruitment – The Cisco Way “Our philosophy is very simple – if you get the best people in the industry to fit into your culture and you motivate them properly.’ John Chamber CEO. then you’re going to be an industry leader. Cisco Systems .

It provided technical support to its customers through emails .RECRUITMENT .THE CISCO WAY The Case: The case examines various changes brought about by global networking major. in its recruitment policies in the mid-1990s Background of Cisco: Cisco was founded in 1984 by a group of computer scientists at Stanford. the company started a customer support site from where customers could download software over FTP and also upgrade the downloaded software. who designed an operating software called IOS (Internet Operating System) In 1985. Cisco.

the company still had hundreds of openings. Cisco recruiters have also began to target passive job seekers. Director. the company recruited around 40-50% of its employees through ‘Make a friend @ Cisco’ online program and other such initiatives “Friends is designed to put some grace into the hiring process.”.RECRUITMENT .000 employees every quarter – around 10 percent of the total jobs generated through Internet in the Silicon Valley. who were content and successful in their existing jobs. found that despite hiring an average of 1. The management realized that they had to adopt innovative recruitment measures to get the best people and remain the leader in the Internet era. Foremost among these was the first of its kind online recruitment called the ‘Friends program’ In 2001. Cisco hired more than 1.000 people every three months during the year. .Michael McNeal.THE CISCO WAY Introduction to the case: In 1995. Corporate Employment . global networking major. Cisco.

it would remain the industry leader Cisco’s recruiting team identified the candidates whom they felt that the company ‘should hire.Barbara Beck.THE CISCO WAY Cisco’s Vision Statement: “Attracting. It believed that if it could get the best people in the industry and retain them.” .’ and then figured out ways those potential candidates did their job hunting and designed hiring processes to attract them to the company. and they usually aren’t cruising through the want ads. Vice President. Human Resources . growing and retaining great talent is critical to sustaining Cisco’s competitive advantage.RECRUITMENT . “The top 10 percent are not typically found in the first round of layoffs from other companies.” Cisco sources revealed that the company had a policy of attracting the ‘top 10-15 percent’ people in the networking industry.

mainly from engineers and Internet-savvy managers. Cisco deviced a strategy to lure them.5 million hits per day. As part of its strategy to attract the best talent.THE CISCO WAY Since the most sought after employees were not accessible. the company featured its Internet address in its ads and invited prospective candidates to apply.RECRUITMENT . Cisco changed the way it used wanted advertisements in newspapers. Cisco linked its website to the Dilbert web page. Instead of listing specific job openings. it was found that most professionals like to watch movies in their free time. The company learned to attract happily employed people through focus groups. websites on ‘corporate cartoon Dilbert’ were extremely popular and most professionals hated job hunting. For example. which registered around 2. .

collected business cards from prospective candidates and spoke to them informally about their careers. These places proved to be very ‘fruitful hunting venues’ as they attracted young achievers from various successful infotech companies. It began frequenting art fairs. .RECRUITMENT . The Cisco employees then called the prospects to inform them in their own words about life at the company.THE CISCO WAY The focus group’s exercise made Cisco realize that a candidate would approach the company if he had been informed by a friend about better opportunities at Cisco. about one third of new recruitments were made through the Friends program. By 1999. Cisco also reached out to potential applicants through a variety of routes which were unusual in recruiting. beer festivals and certain annual events in which people from Silicon Valley participated. Cisco recruiters mingled with the crowd. Cisco launched a tool called Profiler on the employment page of its website to accelerate and standardize online resume submission.

THE CISCO WAY To avoid applicants from being caught by their current employers while using Profiler. Cisco designed each screen with an escape button that opened web page about gift suggestions for coworkers. acquaintances for positions in Cisco. Employees were given bonus if the company hired the person they referred.’ This system allowed Cisco employees to refer their friends. Cisco hired in-house headhunters to identify qualified candidates for managers. Every new recruit was assigned a ‘buddy’ who clarified all doubts and answered questions about Cisco and work in general. To speed up the hiring process. Cisco also encouraged internal referrals for recruitment through a program called ‘Amazing People.RECRUITMENT . .

66 percent of the new recruits were the candidates who had sent their resumes through the Cisco website. Cisco’s hiring cycle also came down to 45 days from 68 days.000 hits per month. It was also reported that about 45 percent of the company’s new recruits came from the Amazing People program. The recruitment costs in this ‘direct mode’ was around 40 percent below the industry average.000 people a year. Cisco. which was hiring approximately 8. . received 81 percent of the resumes were from the web. Eventually.THE CISCO WAY Cisco believed that its new recruitment philosophy should be made a part of the overall corporate culture. Cisco’s job page was recording around 500.RECRUITMENT . By last 2000.

Industry observers felt that other players should also change their recruitment policies to keep up with Cisco’s ‘power-staffing’ recruitment. Analysts claimed that Cisco’s innovative and aggressive recruiting initiatives were to a large extent responsible for the company’s expansion at 40 percent every year and recruiting 250 employees every week despite the global dot-cum slump. . According to the company sources on average Cisco employees accessed the corporate e-HR site 16 times a day for information about job cuts. the retention rate at the company had also increased. By 2002. as most recruits were qualified employees with vast experience.THE CISCO WAY Referral rates at Cisco were twice the industry norm and that created a performance edge. referrals and the friends program accounted for 50-60 percent of new employees.RECRUITMENT . Most importantly.

3. Show good result in the job.Actual placement of an employee to an specific job-with rank and responsibility attached to it. Benefit of Proper Placement:. 4.The Employee is able to1.Placement. . report for duty regularly. 2. Keep his spirits high. Get along with people easily. Avoid mistakes and accidents.

• . Creates a good impression:-It helps him toa) Adjust and adapt to new demands of the job. b) The people with whom he is supposed to interact. its content. c) Get off to a good start. b) Get along with people. c) The terms and conditions of employment.policies. • Acts as a valuable source of Information.rules and regulations.Induction-Introduction of a person to the job and the organization. Objectives-Induction serves the following purposes: • Remove fears:-Assist him knowing more abouta) The job.

Show the location/dept.benefit.. Explain about future training opportunities and career prospects.leave etc.• • • • • • • • • Welcome to the organization.Hand him over to his supervisor. Give the company’s manual to the new recruit.Emphasis the importance of attendance or punctuality.holydays. Take the employee on a guided tour of buildings. . Explain about the company. Provide details about various work groups and the extent of unionism within the company.where the new recruits will work. Give details about pay. facilities etc. Clarify doubts by encouraging the employee to come out with questions.

punish employees. satisfy the employee needs.Employee movement that occurs when an employee is moved from one job to another that is relatively equal in pay. . responsibility and/or organizational level. adjust the work force. Purpose of Transfer:        To To To To To To To To meet the organizational requirements. make the employee more versatile. provide relief. reduce conflicts. utilize employees better.

E. C. Penal transfers:. Remedial transfer:-Transfer initiated to correct the wrong placements.Transfer caused due to changes in production. Rotation transfer:-Transfers initiated to increase the versatility of employees. Replacement transfer:-Transfer caused due to replacement of an employee working on the same job for a long time. F. D. B. . Shift transfer:-Transfer of an employee from one shift to another.A.Transfer initiated as a punishment for in disciplinary action of employees. Production transfers:.

Merit denotes an individual’s knowledge.size. Advantages:• Motivate employees. The different bases areMerit-based Promotions: Merit based promotions occur when an employee is promoted because of superior performance in the current job.knowledge improvement.Employee movement from current job to another that is higher in pay.Organizations adopt different bases of promotion depending upon their and past employment record. acquire new skills etc. • Helps employer to focus attention on talented people. responsibility and/or organizational and rewards their meritorious contribution in an appropriate way. • Inspire the employees to improve their standards of performance through active participation in all developmental initiatives. Bases of Promotion:.etc.abilities and efficiency as measured from his educational qualifications. .skills.experience.

Promoting an employee through the longest period of services rendered in the organization and there is no chances of discrimination or favoritism etc. Limitations: • Assumptions that the employees learn more with length of service is not valid as employees may learn up to a certain stage.length of service in the same organisation.Unions are generally supported this base of promotion. • It kills the zeal and interest to develop as everybody will be promoted without showing any all round growth and promise. • Judging the seniority theoretical its seems to be easy but in practice its highly difficult. • Demotivates the young and more competent employees and results in greater employee turnover. Seniority based promotions:-Seniority refers to the relative .

responsibility and/or organizational level. • Demotions may be used as disciplinary tools against errant employees. organizations may decide to lay off some and downgrade other jobs. administratively complex.Employee movement that occurs when an employee is moved from one job to another that is lower in pay. The several factors are responsible for demotions:• A promote is unable to meet the challenges posed by anew job(technically superior. . involving much responsibility etc) • Due to adverse business conditions.

or leisure activities. Separations can take several forms such as: 1. Sometimes it can be employee’s displeasure. changing careers.The Service agreement between the employee and the employer comes to an end and the employee decides to leave the organizations. . wanting to spend more time with family.Sometimes employer initiated to employee due to various reason etc.colegues The reason may be showing as getting a better job.working condition. Resignation:-A voluntary separation initiated by the employee himself.

employees retire compulsorily after attaining the age of superannuation (either 58 or 60).depending on a person’s ability to perform well in a competitive scenario.In the private sector the retirement age may well go beyond 60.Govt.1923.the employee gets commission as per the provisions of Workmen’s Compensation Act.On compassionate grounds.Some employees may die in service. some organizations offer employment to the spouse/child/dependent of the employee who dies in harness.In case of this the normal retirement benefits are calculated and paid to all such employees who put in a minimum qualifying service.2. • Voluntary retirement. . • Compulsory Retirement. When the death is caused by occupational hazzards. • Death:. Retirement:-Termination of services on reaching the age of superannuation.

4.A permanent lay off for reasons other than punishment but not retirement but not retirement or termination owing to ill-health.Efforts made by the employer to help a recently separated employees find a job. . Lay off:-A lay off entails the separation of employee from the organization temporarily for economic or business reason.3. Out placement:. The purpose of lay off is to trim the extra fat and make the organization lean and competitive. Retrenchment:.