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 Alloy steels are iron-carbon alloys, to which alloying elements

are added with a purpose to improve the steels properties as
compared to the carbon steels.
 Contain more than 1 .0% of other elements instead of Fe and
 Purpose of alloying
 Increase hardenability
 Improve strength at ordinary temperature
 Improve mechanical properties at either high or low temperatures
 Improve toughness at any minimum hardness or strength
 Increase wear resistance
 Increase corrosion resistance
 Improve magnetic properties

 Classification. Three types of ferrous alloys :

 Iron: less than 0.008 wt % C in α−ferrite at room T

 Steels: 0.008 - 2.14 wt % C (usually < 1 wt % ) α-ferrite + Fe3C at

room T (Chapter 12)

 Cast iron: 2.14 - 6.7 wt % (usually < 4.5 wt %)


 Carbon steels are group

by their percentage of
carbon content per
weight. The higher the
carbon content the
greater the hardness,
strength and wear
resistance after heat
 Low -carbon steel, also
called mild steels, has
less than 0.30% carbon.
Used in everyday
industrial products like
bolts, nuts, sheet, plate
and tubes. High Carbon Steel Nails

 Medium-carbon steel has 0.30% to 0.60% carbon. Used for

jobs requiring higher strength such as machinery, automotive
equipment parts, and metalworking equipment.
 High-carbon steel has more than 0.60% carbon. Used parts
that require the highest strength, hardness, and wear
resistance. Once manufactured they are heat treated and

 Stainless steels are

primarily know for their
corrosion resistance,
high strength, and
ductility and chromium

 The reason for the name stainless is due to the

fact that in the presence of oxygen, the steel
develops a thin, hard, adherent film of
 Even if the surface is scratched, the protective film is
rebuilt through passivation.
 For passivation to occur there needs to be a minimum
chromium content of 10% to 12% by weight.

 Stainless steels tend to have lower carbon content since

increased carbon content lowers the corrosion resistance of
stainless steels.

 Since the carbon reacts with chromium it decreases the available

chromium content which is needed for developing the protective film.
 Using stainless steels as reinforcing bars, has
become a new trend, in concrete structures such
as highways buildings and bridges.
 It is more beneficial than carbon steels because it is
resistant to corrosion from road salts and the concrete

Rebar corrosion
in concrete

 Iron with 1.7 to 4.5% carbon and 0.5 to 3% silicon

 Lower melting point and more fluid than steel
(better castability)
 Low cost material usually produced by sand casting
 A wide range of properties, depending on
composition & cooling rate
 Strength
 Hardness
 Ductility
 Thermal conductivity
 Damping capacity

d Liquid
g+ L
L + Fe3C
910˚C Steel Cast Iron
g + Fe3C

a a + Fe3C

0% 0.8% ~2% ~3%


 Grey cast iron - carbon as graphite

 White cast iron - carbides, often alloyed
 Ductile cast iron
 nodular, spheroidal graphite
 Malleable cast iron
 Compacted graphite cast iron
 CG or Vermicular Iron


 Flake graphite in a matrix of pearlite, ferrite or martensite.

 Wide range of application.
 Properties:-
 Machineability is excellent
 Low ductility - elongation 0.6%
 Formation when:-
 Cooling is slow as in heavy section
 High silicon carbon
 Application:-
 Engine
 Brake drum
 Clutch plate
 Furnace part

 Inoculation with Ce or Mg or both causes graphite to form as

spherulites, rather than flakes
 Also known as spheroidal graphite (SG), and nodular graphite
 Far better ductility than grey cast iron


 Graphite spheres
surrounded by ferrite
 Usually some pearlite
 May be some cementite
 Can be hardened to
martensite by heat


 Strength higher than grey cast iron

 Ductility up to 6% as cast or 20% annealed
 Low cost
 Simple manufacturing process makes complex shapes
 Machineability better than steel


 Automotive industry 55% of ductile iron in USA

 Crankshafts, front wheel spindle supports, steering knuckles, disc
brake callipers
 Pipe and pipe fittings (joined by welding) see AS2280


 Graphite in nodular form

 Produced by heat treatment of white cast iron
 Graphite nodules are irregular clusters
 Similar properties to ductile iron


 Uniformly dispersed graphite

 Ferrite, pearlite or tempered martensite matrix
 Ferritic castings require 2 stage anneal.
 Pearlitic castings - 1st stage only


 Similar to ductile iron

 Good shock resistance
 Good ductility
 Good machineability


 Similar applications to ductile iron

 Malleable iron is better for thinner castings
 Ductile iron better for thicker castings >40mm
 Vehicle components
 Power trains, frames, suspensions and wheels
 Steering components, transmission and differential parts,
connecting rods
 Railway components
 Pipe fittings AS3673


 White fracture surface

 No graphite because carbon form or more complex carbide
 Abbrasion resistant
 If carbon increase
 Increase hardness
 Increase brittleness
 Promote graphite during solidification
 If increase silicon
 Lower carbon content
 Negative effect of hardenability
 Can improve resistance to scaling at high temperature
 Application : brake pump shoes,pump impellers and abrasion
resistant part

 Low density (S.G. of 4.5, as compared to steel at approx 8)

 Similar strengths to steels
 Highly corrosion resistant
 Melts at 1670°C
 Use restricted to <400 °C

Used in
 Aerospace parts
 Racing cars, motorcycles and bicycles
 Pipework and heat exchangers in chemical plants and oil
Titanium heat-

Corrosion is the oxidation of a metal due to an

ELECTROCHEMICAL reaction. The oxidizing agent is
most often O2 (atmospheric corrosion) or H+ (chemical
corrosion) or both.

Why is it a problem?
Financial - $350 Billion Dollar Annual Problem in U.S.
(4.25% of GNP) Department of Defense spends $6 –
8 Billion
Active metal





Electrochemical Corrosion

 Electrochemical corrosion - Corrosion produced by the

development of a current in an electrochemical cell that
removes ions from the material.
 Electrochemical cell - A cell in which electrons and ions
can flow by separate paths between two materials,
producing a current which, in turn, leads to corrosion or
 Oxidation reaction - The anode reaction by which
electrons are given up to the electrochemical cell.
 Reduction reaction - The cathode reaction by which
electrons are accepted from the electrochemical cell.

©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure 22.3 The components in an electrochemical cell: (a) a simple

electrochemical cell and (b) a corrosion cell between a steel water pipe and a
copper fitting.

©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure 22.4 The anode and cathode reactions in typical electrolytic corrosion cells: (a)
the hydrogen electrode, (b) the oxygen electrode, and (c) the water electrode.


Corrosion is the primary means by which
metals deteriorate. Most metals corrode on
contact with water (and moisture in the air),
acids, bases, salts, aggressive metal polishes,
and other solid and liquid chemicals. Metals
will also corrode when exposed to gaseous
materials like acid vapors, formaldehyde gas,
ammonia gas, and sulfur containing gases.
Corrosion Mechanism :
Corrosion Mechanism is the destructive
attack, or deterioration, of a metal by
chemical or electrochemical reaction with its
environment. Corrosive attack of metals is an
electrochemical process. In a galvanic cell,
two dissimilar metals (e.g., iron and copper)
are placed in electrical contact in the
presence of oxygen and moisture. Separate
chemical reactions take place at the surfaces
of the two metals, creating a flow of electrons
through the connecting wire.
Uniform Corrosion

 This type of corrosion includes the commonly recognized

rusting of iron and other metals.

 This is a localized type of attack, with the rate of corrosion

being greater at some areas than at others. If appreciable
attack is confined to a relatively small, fixed area of metal,
acting as anode, the resultant pits are described as deep. If
the area of attack is relatively larger and not so deep, the pits
are called shallow. Depth of pitting is sometimes expressed by
the pitting factor , the ratio of deepest metal penetration to
average metal penetration as determined by the weight loss
of the specimen. A pitting factor of unity represents uniform

 Iron buried in the soil corrodes with formation of shallow pits,

whereas stainless steels immersed in seawater
characteristically corrode with formation of deep pits.

 when subjected to high - velocity liquids, undergo a pitting

type of corrosion called impingement attack , or erosion
corrosion .
 Copper and brass condenser tubes, for example, are subject to
this type of
Fretting Corrosion
 Fretting corrosion , which results from slight relative motion
(as in vibration) of two substances in contact, one or both
being metals, usually leads to a series of pits at the metal
interface. Metal - oxide debris usually fills the pits so that
only after the corrosion products are removed do the pits
become visible
Cavitation Erosion
 Cavitation – erosion is the loss of material caused by
exposure to cavitation, which is the formation and collapse of
vapor bubbles at a dynamic metal – liquid interface — for
example, in rotors of pumps or on trailing faces of propellers.
This type of corrosion causes a sequence of pits
Selective Corrosion
 Dealloying is the selective removal of an element
from an alloy by corrosion. One form of dealloying,
dezincification, is a type of attack occurring with zinc
alloys (e.g., yellow brass) in which zinc corrodes
preferentially, leaving a porous residue of copper and
corrosion products. The alloy so corroded often
retains its original shape, but its tensile strength and
ductility are seriously reduced. Dezincified brass pipe
may retain sufficient strength to resist internal water
pressures until an attempt is made to uncouple the
pipe, or a water hammer occurs, causing the pipe to
split open.
 Parting is similar to dezincification in that one or more
reactive components of the alloy corrode preferentially,
leaving a porous residue that may retain the original shape of
the alloy. Parting is usually restricted to such noble metal
alloys as gold – copper or gold – silver and is used in gold
refining. For example, an alloy of Au – Ag containing more
than 65% gold resists concentrated nitric acid as well as does
gold itself. However, on addition of silver to form an alloy of
approximately 25% Au – 75% Ag, reaction with concentrated
HNO 3 forms silver nitrate and a porous residue or powder of
pure gold.

 Copper - base alloys that contain aluminum are subject to a

form of corrosion resembling dezincification, with aluminum
corroding preferentially.
Intergranular Corrosion
 This is a localized type of attack at the grain
boundaries of a metal, resulting in loss of strength
and ductility. Grain – boundary material of limited
area, acting as anode, is in contact with large areas
of grain acting as cathode. The attack is often rapid,
penetrating deeply into the metal and sometimes
causing catastrophic failures. Improperly heat -
treated 18 - 8 stainless steels or alloys (4% Cu – Al)
are among the alloys subject to intergranular
corrosion. At elevated temperatures, intergranular
corrosion can occur because, under some conditions,
phases of low melting point form and penetrate
along grain boundaries; for example, when nickel -
base alloys are exposed to sulfur - bearing gaseous
environments catastrophic failures can take place.
This type of attack is usually called sulfidation
Corrosion Fatigue
If a metal cracks when subjected to repeated
or alternate tensile stresses in a corrosive
environment, it is said to fail by corrosion
fatigue . In the absence of a corrosive
environment, the metal stressed similarly, but
at values below a critical stress, called the
fatigue limit or endurance limit , will not fail
by fatigue even after a very large, or infinite,
number of cycles. A true endurance limit does
not commonly exist in a corrosive
environment: The metal fails after a
prescribed number of stress cycles no matter
how low the stress.
Galvanic Corrosion
 Galvanic corrosion (also called “dissimilar metal corrosion”)
refers to corrosion damage induced when two dissimilar
materials are coupled in a corrosive electrolyte. In a
bimetallic couple, the less noble material becomes the anode
and tends to corrode at an accelerated rate, compared with
the uncoupled condition and the more noble material will act
as the cathode in the corrosion cell.
Crevice Corrosion
 Crevice corrosion, corrosion take place in crevices bcz
solutions retained at this place and takes longer time to dry
out. When this occurs, the severity of attack is more severe at
crevices. Crevices are formed bcz of the metal contact with
another piece of the same or other metal or with a
nonmetallic material. Corrosion in crevice is due to deficiency
of O2, Acidity changes,

 Selective corrosion can be found in alloys and resulting from

the fact that the components of the alloy corrode at dif ferent
Methods to Control Corrosion

There are five methods to control corrosion:

 material selection
 coatings
 changing the environment
 changing the potential
 design
 Material Selection! Remember – environment key. Look at
potential pH diagrams!!!
 Eliminate any one of the 4 req’ments for corrosion!
 Galvanic - Avoid using dissimilar metals.
 Or close together as possible
 Or electrically isolate one from the other
 Pitting/Crevice: Watch for stagnate water/ electrolyte.
 Use gaskets
 Use good welding practices
 Intergranular – watch grain size, environment, temperature,
etc.. Careful with Stainless Steels and AL.
Consider organic coating (paint, ceramic,
chrome, etc.) – DANGER IF IT GETS
OR BETTER YET, consider cathodic protection:
 such as zinc (or galvanized) plating on steel
 Mg sacrificial anode on steel boat hull
 Impressed current, etc..

Anodic Protection – Zinc coating of steel. KNOW HOW THIS WORKS!!

DESIGN for Corrosion
DESIGN for Corrosion

Bracket easier
to replace than

Organic paints
Chromating and phosphating:
 The Process - chromating and phosphating are surface-coating processes that enhance the
corrosion resistance of metals. Both involve soaking the component in a heated bath based on
chromic or phosphoric acids. The acid reacts with the surface, dissolving some of the surface
metal and depositing a thin protective layer of complex chromium or phosphorous compounds

Anodizing (aluminum, titanium)

 The Process - Aluminum is a reactive metal, yet in everyday objects it does not corrode or discolor.
That is because of a thin oxide film - Al2O3 - that forms spontaneously on its surface, and this
film, though invisible, is highly protective. The film can be thickened and its structure controlled
by the process of anodizing. The process is electrolytic; the electrolyte, typically, is dilute (15%)
sulfuric acid. Anodizing is most generally applied to aluminum, but magnesium, titanium,
zirconium and zinc can all be treated in this way. The oxide formed by anodizing is hard, abrasion
resistant and resists corrosion well. The film -surface is micro-porous, allowing it to absorb dyes,
giving metallic reflectivity with an attractive gold, viridian, azure or rose -colored sheen; and it can
be patterned. The process is cheap, an imparts both corrosion and wear resistance to the surface.
 Electro-plating
 The Process -Metal coating process wherein a thin metallic coat is deposited on the workpiece by
means of an ionized electrolytic solution. The workpiece (cathode) and the metallizing source material
(anode) are submerged in the solution where a direct electrical current causes the metallic ions to
migrate from the source material to the workpiece. The workpiece and source metal are suspended in
the ionized electrolytic solution by insulated rods. Thorough surface cleaning precedes the plating
operation. Plating is carried out for many reasons: corrosion resistance, improved appearance, wear
resistance, higher electrical conductivity, better electrical contact, greater surface smoothness and
better light reflectance.

 Bluing
 Bl uing is a passivation process in which steel is partially protected against rust, and is named after the
blue-black appearance of the resulting protective finish. True gun bluing is an electrochemical
conversion coating resulting from an oxidizing chemical reaction with iron on the surface selectively
forming magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), the black oxide of iron, which occupies the same volume as normal iron.
Done for bolts called “blackening ”

 Hot-dip Coating (i.e. galvanizing)

 H o t d i p p i n g i s a p r o c e s s f o r c o a t i n g a m e t a l , m a i n l y f e r r o us m e t a l s , w i t h l o w m e l t i n g po i n t m e t a l s us ua l l y z i n c a n d i t s
a l l o y s . T h e c o m p o n e n t i s f i r s t d e g r e a s e d i n a c a us t i c ba t h , t h e n pi c k l e d ( t o r e m o v e r us t a n d s c a l e ) i n a s ul f ur i c a c i d ba t h ,
i m m e r s e d ( d i p p e d ) i n t h e l i q ui d m e t a l a n d, a f t e r l i f t i n g o ut , i t i s c o o l e d i n a c o l d a i r s t r e a m . T h e m o l t e n m e t a l a l l o y s w i t h
t h e s ur f a c e o f t h e c o m p o n e n t , f o r m i n g a c o n t i n uo us t h i n c o a t i n g . W h e n t h e c o a t i n g i s z i n c a n d t h e c o m po n e n t i s s t e e l ,
t h e pr o c e s s i s k n o w n a s g a l v a n i z i n g .
 T h e p r o c e s s i s v e r y v e r s a t i l e a n d c a n be a ppl i e d t o c o m po n e n t s o f a n y s h a pe , a n d s i z e s up t o 3 0 m x 2 m x 4 m . T h e c o s t
i s c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h a t o f p a i n t i n g , but t h e pr o t e c t i o n o f f e r e d by g a l v a n i z i n g i s m uc h g r e a t e r , be c a us e i f t h e c o a t i n g i s
s c r a t c h e d i t i s t h e z i n c n o t t h e un d e r l y i n g s t e e l t h a t c o r r o de s ( " g a l v a n i c pr o t e c t i o n " ) . P r o pe r l y g a l v a n i z e d s t e e l w i l l
s ur v i v e o ut d o o r s f o r 3 0 - 4 0 y e a r s w i t h o ut f ur t h e r t r e a t m e n t .

Discuss and show Bolts!!!


 Importance of Oxide films

 The fundamental resistance of stainless steel to
corrosion occurs because of its ability to form an
oxide protective coating on its surface. This thin
coating is invisible, but generally protects the steel
in oxidizing environments (air and nitric acid).
However, this film loses its protectiveness in
environments such as hydrochloric acid and
chlorides. In stainless steels, lack of oxygen also
ruins the corrosion protective oxide film, therefore
these debris ridden or stagnant regions are
susceptible to corrosion.

 Cathodic protection (CP ) is a technique to control the corrosi on of a

metal sur face by making it work as a cathode of an electrochemi cal cell .
This is achieved by placing in contact with the metal to be protected
another more easily corroded metal to act as the anode of the
electrochemi cal cell . Cathodic protection systems are most commonly
used to protect steel, water or fuel pipelines and storage tanks, steel pier
piles, ships, of fshore oil platforms and onshore oil well casings.
 Types of CP:
 sacrificial anodes – zinc, magnesium or aluminum. The sacrificial anodes
are more active (more negative potential) than the metal of the structure
they’re designed to protect. The anode pushes the potential of the steel
structure more negative and therefore the driving force for corrosion halts.
The anode continues to corrode until it requires replacement,
 Impressed current CP – done for large structures (pipes, offshore platforms,
etc) where a galvanic (or sacrificial) anode can not economically deliver
enough current.
 Galvanized steel – again, steel is coated with zinc and if the zinc coating is
scratched and steel exposed, the surrounding areas of zinc coating form a
galvanic cell with the exposed steel and protects in from corroding. The zinc
coating acts as a sacrificial anode.
See Exxon Mobil example
Aluminium anodes mounted on a steel
jacket structure – using galvanic corrosion
for corrosion control! Called cathodic
protection (aka sacrificial anode)