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# TS4447 Highway Geometric Design

Horizontal Alignment
Horizontal Alignment

 Horizontal Curve
• Full Circle (FC)  Tugas 3
• Spiral Circle Spiral (SCS)  Tugas 4
• Spiral Spiral (SS)  Tugas 4
 Sight Distance on Curve  Tugas 5
• Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)
• Passing Sight Distance (PSD)
 Widening on Curve  Tugas 5
 Superelevation Diagram  Tugas 6
 Stationing  Tugas 6
Design Classification
Design Type & Class
Design Speed
Design Vehicles
Cross Section

R = V2/127(e+f)

## R’ << R FC / SCS / SS R’ << R

Dij  Ti + Tj

A B
A B

Sight Distance
on Curve

Widening on Curve

Superelevation
Diagram

Stationing
Rmin = V2 / 127 ( e + f )

## R  minimum radii (m)

V  design speed (kph)
e  superelevation (%)
f  side friction
Superelevation
Tiga Macam Lengkung Horisontal
PI

## 1. Full Circle (FC) CT

PI

TC
CS

2. Spiral-Circle-Spiral (SCS)
SC
TS
PI ST

SS
3. Spiral-Spiral (SS)

TS ST
Geometric Design
… normally seeks to ensure uniformity of
alignment and maximum levels of safety
and comfort for drivers using the road,
within given economic constraints.
Compromise are inevitable to achieve an
acceptable solution and not all objectives
can be fully met. Often, however, it is
implications of design features are
considered at the design stage.
TC CT
Potongan Melintang Rencana

## Tipe Jalan : Kolektor Sekunder

Kecepatan Rencana : 40 Kph
Kendaraan Rencana : Single Unit (SU)
Transition Section [RSNI T-14-2004 p.31].
Vr (kph) Rmin (m) Vr (kph) Rmin (m)

## 100 5.000 60 1.500

90 3.000 50 1.200

80 2.500 40 800

70 2.000 30 500
Azimuth, Intersection Angle,
distance between PI
PI X Y Azimuth Angle Distance
Start 63.07 166.20
58.483 131.287
1 174.99 97.57 47.918
106.401 182.287
2 349.86 149.04 35.323
71.078 113.112
End 456.86 112.36
Panjang Bagian Lengkung Minimum
[RSNI p.27 table.11]

VR (kph) L (m)
100 170
90 155
80 135
70 120
60 105
50 85
40 70
30 55
RFC Minimum Sesuai Syarat [RSNI p.27 table.11]
Check dij  Ti + Tj
Azimuth, Intersection Angle,
distance between PI
PI X Y Azimuth Angle Distance
Start 63.07 166.20
58.483 131.287
1 174.99 97.57 47.918
106.401 182.287
2 349.86 149.04 35.323
71.078 113.112
End 456.86 112.36
Latihan
• Pilih 2-3 PI yang bersebelahan,
• Coba desain tikungan pada PI tersebut
dengan jenis FC.
Tugas 3
1. Azimuth, , distance between PI
3. Curve type FC
4. Stopping Sight Distance
5. Widening on curve
6. Stationing
7. Superelevation diagram Dikumpulkan via Email,
Minggu 23 Ags 09 (pk.
8. AutoCAD drawing 12:00) dan CDRW, Senin
24 Ags 09 (pk. 12:00) di TU
Sipil
Tiga Macam Lengkung Horisontal
PI

## 1. Full Circle (FC) CT

PI

TC
CS

2. Spiral-Circle-Spiral (SCS)
SC
TS
PI ST

SS
3. Spiral-Spiral (SS)

TS ST
FC SCS
TFC < TSCS
FC vs SCS
FC vs SCS
CLOTHOID (Spiral) CURVE
TRANSITION (Spiral) CURVE

## To provide a natural, easy-to-follow path

for drivers, where centrifugal force
To provide a convenient desirable
arrangement for superelevation run-off.
To provide a flexible change in lane-width.
To enhanced the appearance of the
highway, to avoid the noticeable breaks at
the beginning and ending of circular
curves
Tangent Runout is the general term
denoting the length of highway needed to
accomplish the change in cross slope from a
normal section to a section with the
adverse cross slope removed, or vice-
versa.
0%
2% 2% 2%

0%
2% 2% 2%
Superelevation Runoff,
Runoff is the general term
denoting length of highway needed to
accomplish the change in cross slope from
a section with adverse crown removed to a
fully superelevation section, or vice-versa.
2%
0%
2% 2%

2%
0%
2% 2%
Superelevation
TR
menambah
Runoff
jarak antar
TS !!!

Tangent
Runout
Check dij  Ti (+TR) + Tj (+ TR)
Minimum Length of Transition Sections

## • Minimum Maneuver Time for Traveling on

Transition Curve [RSNI T-14-2004 p.30].
LS = (Vr/3,6) x t
Vr  design speed (km/h)
t  running time (2 sec)
Minimum Length of Transition Sections

## • Minimum Length of Superelevation Runoff

[RSNI T-14-2004 p.30].
LS = W 1/ (ed + eNC)
LS = W 1/ ed  AASHTO
  relative slopes ratio (m/m)
eNC  normal cross fall (%)
ed  design superelevation (%)
Superelevation
TR
menambah
Runoff
jarak antar
TS !!!

Tangent
Runout
2% 2%

Full-Circle,
Normal Cross-Fall

2%

2%

Spiral-Circle-Spiral
or Spiral-Spiral
Reverse Cross-Fall
or Superelevation
FC min 
Spiral-Circle-Spiral (SCS)
s  (90  )( Ls R) c    2s
Lc  Rc  20m Ltotal  Lc  2 Ls
180
2 4
Xs  Ls[1  ( Ls 2)  (
Ls 4 )]
40 R 3456R
2 2 4
Ys  Ls [1  ( Ls 2)  (
Ls 4 )]
6R 56 R 7040R
K  Xs  R sin s
P  Ys  R (1  cos s )
Ts  [( R  P) tan  ]  K
2
Es  [( R  P ) sec  ]  R
2
Check dij  Ti (+TR) + Tj (+ TR)
SCS vs SS
SCS vs SS
Tiga Macam Lengkung Horisontal
PI

## 1. Full Circle (FC) CT

PI

TC
CS

2. Spiral-Circle-Spiral (SCS)
SC
TS
PI ST

SS
3. Spiral-Spiral (SS)

TS ST
Spiral-Spiral (SS)
s   2
Ls  Rs Ltotal  2 Ls
90
2 4
Xs  Ls[1  ( Ls 2)  (
Ls 4 )]
40 R 3456R
2 2 4
Ys  Ls [1  ( Ls 2)  (
Ls 4 )]
6R 56 R 7040R
K  Xs  R sin s
P  Ys  R (1  cos s )
Ts  [( R  P) tan  ]  K
2
Es  [( R  P ) sec  ]  R
2
Ls max
Ls min
Ls SS
Check dij  Ti (+TR) + Tj (+ TR)
Latihan
• Pilih 1-2 PI yang tidak memenuhi syarat
desain FC,
• Coba desain tikungan pada PI tersebut
dengan jenis SCS atau SS.
Tugas 4
1. Azimuth, , distance between PI
3. Curve type SCS & SS
4. Stopping Sight Distance
5. Widening on curve
6. Stationing Dikumpulkan via Email,
7. Superelevation diagram Minggu 30 Ags 09 (pk.
12:00) dan CDRW, Senin
8. AutoCAD drawing 31 Ags 09 (pk. 12:00) di TU
Sipil
BRAKING DISTANCE
S = 15.9 d x f ±e
x B%
100% Braking – Four Wheel Lock-up Skid or full ABS –
Where f = 0.75 and S = 80km/hr
Front Brakes Only – 70% d = 48 meters
Rear Brakes Only – 30% d = 112 meters
One Front Brake – 35% d = 96 meters
One Back Brake – 15% d = 225 meters !!!
STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCE

2
DSSD  0,278  V  T  0,039V
a
[RSNI T-14-2004 p.22]
Potongan Melintang Rencana

## Tipe Jalan : Kolektor Sekunder

Kecepatan Rencana : 40 Kph
Kendaraan Rencana : Single Unit (SU)
Minimum Stopping Sight Distance
[Table 10 p. 23 RSNI 2004]
Design Design SSD (m)
Speed SSD (m) Speed
(kph) (kph)

100 185 60 85
90 160 50 65
80 130 40 50
70 105 30 35
PASSING SIGHT DISTANCE

## DPSD  d1  d 2  d 3  d 4 DPSD min  2 d 2  d 3  d 4

3
Sight Distance on Horizontal Curve
Sight Distance on Horizontal Curve
Sight Distance on Horizontal Curve

M  R[1  cos(28,65Ss )]
[RSNI T-14-2004 p.23] R
Potongan Melintang Rencana
A B

## Tipe Jalan : Kolektor Sekunder

Kecepatan Rencana : 40 Kph
Kendaraan Rencana : Single Unit (SU)
Sight Distance on Horizontal Curve
Sight Distance on Horizontal Curve
Widening on Curve
Widening on Curve
A traffic lane on a curve
must be widened
because:
• The rear wheels do not
track the front wheels
• Vehicle’s front overhang
lateral space
• Difficulty of driving on
curves justifies wider
lateral clearance
Widening on Curve
w  wc  wn
w c  N (U  C ) (N  1)FA  Z
U  u R  R  L2 2

FA  R A(2L  A)  R
2

Z  (0,104 )(V / R )
Widening on Curve
Wn  width of traveled way on tangent, m.
U  track width of vehicle (out-to-out tires), m.
C  lateral clearance per vehicle assumed 0,6/0,75/0,9 for W n of
6,0/6,6/7,2 respectively
FA  with of overhang, m.
Z  extra width allowance for difficulty of driving on curves, m.
u  track width on tangent (out-to-out) 2,6m.
R  radius of centerline of 2-lane highway, m.
L  wheelbase, m.
A  front overhang, m.
V  design speed of highway, km/h.
Widening on Curve
Potongan Melintang Rencana

## Tipe Jalan : Kolektor Sekunder

Kecepatan Rencana : 40 Kph
Kendaraan Rencana : Single Unit (SU)
Latihan
• Pilih 2-3 PI,
• Periksa syarat Stopping Sight Distance
dan kebutuhan Widening on Curve.
Tugas 5
1. Azimuth, , distance between PI
3. Curve type
4. Stopping Sight Distance
5. Widening on curve
6. Stationing
7. Superelevation diagram
Dikumpulkan via Email,
8. AutoCAD drawing Minggu 6 Sep 09 (pk.
12:00) dan CDRW, Senin 7
Sep 09 (pk. 12:00) di TU
Superelevation
Superelevation
Superelevation
Superelevation Diagram

## SCS - Right Turn

TS SC CS ST
emax

cl
en
emax

Ls Lc Ls
Latihan
• Pilih 2-3 PI dengan jenis tikungan SCS/SS
belok Kanan/Kiri
• Gambarlah (skets) Diagram Superelevasi
Stationing
Stationing [cont’d]
Tugas 6
Dikumpulkan via Email,
1. Azimuth, , distance Minggu PI
between 13 Sep 09 (pk.
12:00) dan CDRW, Senin
2. Minimum radius 14 Sep 09 (pk. 12:00) di
3. Curve type TU Sipil

## 4. Stopping Sight Distance

5. Widening on curve
6. Stationing
7. Superelevation diagram