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ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

•General
•Immiscible Displacement
•Miscible Displacement
•Chemical Recovery
•Thermal Recovery
•Microbial Recovery
•Factors Affecting EOR

By :
Septoratno Siregar
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Introduction
• Enhanced Oil Recovery is a means of
producing oil with the introduction of
external fluids,substances and energy into
the oil reservoir
• Fluids,substances:water, steam, chemical,
microbes
• Energy: mechanic, thermal or combination
of the two
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Introduction
• EOR:
Immiscible Displacement
Miscible Displacement
Thermal Recovery
Chemical Recovery
Microbial EOR
Vibro Seismic
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Introduction
• Objective of EOR: to improve oil recovery
by considering the economics

• The most known EOR: Waterflood (gives oil


recovery as much as 30% of initial reserve)
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Immiscible Displacement
• Immiscible displacement:
injection of fluid that is immiscible with oil

• Immiscible displacement:
Water, Gas (Hydrocarbon, CO2, Nitrogen,
Air)
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Miscible Displacement
• Injection of fluid which is miscible with oil

• Displacement fluids:
hydrocarbon solvent, CO2, Flue Gas, N2
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Chemical
•Surfactant:
– mixture of polymer, alcohol, sulfonate
– reduce interfacial tension
– reduce capillary pressure
– increase microscopic displacement
efficiency
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Chemical
• Polymer:
– Improving water-oil mobility ratio (↓)
– Increasing Sweep Efficiency (ES) - Macroscopic
– Often used in combination with surfactant

• Most widely used polymer in EOR:


– Polyacyrlamide:artificial, flexible
– Polysaccharide:fermentation, rigid, effective
for reservoir with high viscosity oil
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Chemical
• Alkaline:
– Increase pH until 11 – 12
– Could reduce interfacial tension to 0.01
dyne/cm
– NaOH in water: 0.05 – 0.2% (500 – 2000 ppm)
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Thermal
• Thermal recovery is a process to improve
oil recovery by introducing heat to the oil
reservoir so the oil viscosity will be reduced
or oil phase changes into vapor phase
• Thermal recovery:
– Hot – water flood
– Steam processes
– In situ combustion
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Thermal
• Steam processes:
– Cyclic Steam Stimulation (Huff ’n’ Puff)
– Steam Drive (Steam Flood)

• In Situ Combustion:
– Injecting air and burn some oil
– Reducing oil viscosity, changing oil into vapor
phase, and displacing with combination of
steam, hot water and gas
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Thermal
• Steam processes:
– Cyclic Steam Stimulation (Huff ’n’ Puff)
– Steam Drive (Steam Flood)

• In Situ Combustion:
– Injecting air and burn some oil
– Reducing oil viscosity, changing oil into vapor
phase, and displacing with combination of
steam, hot water and gas
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Microbial EOR
• MEOR is a process to improve oil recovery by
using microbes

• Microbe characteristics:
– Able to live in high pressure and high temperature
– Anaerobe
– Able to live in low pH and high salinity
– Able to live in less nutrition environment
– Able to use Hydrocarbon as nutrition source
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Microbial EOR
• MEOR mechanism:
– Producing acid
• dissolve rock matrix so that will increase porosity
and permeability
– Producing gas (basically similar with CO2 flood)
– Producing solvent (ethanol, butanol, acetone,
isopropanol)
• miscible with oil, and reducing oil viscosity and giving
better mobility ratio.
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Microbial EOR
• MEOR mechanism:
– Producing surfactant
• basically similar with surfactant flood
– Selective plugging
– Producing polymer
• reducing water mobility and able to control water
mobility by increasing water viscosity
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
Factors Affecting EOR
» Wettability
» Petrophysical properties
» Rock type
» Oil type
» P & T of the reservoir
» Reservoir driving mechanism
» Formation water salinity
» Heterogenity
» Present Oil Saturation
» Remaining Oil Reserves
» Reservoir Dip
» Economics
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

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