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The Menstrual Cycle

Presenters: Nurshahidah & Nur Sanjida (1S)

The Menstrual Cycle
Women will undergo menstruation when they reach
puberty. Menstruation marks the beginning of the
menstrual cycle for each woman.

Did You Know?

The menstruation of a
female will stop when she
reaches menopause which is
around 48-55 years old
What is menstruation?

Menstruation is the breakdown of the

lining of the uterine wall and discharge of
blood through the vagina. Menstrual cycle
refers to a series of changes that occurs
in the uterine wall and the ovaries.
Menstrual cycle also involves the
formation and release of mature ovum.
Menstrual cycle is controlled by the brain and
endocrine system which secretes hormone.
Normally, a menstrual cycle lasts for 28 days
and it differs for each individual. There are
various factors that affect the menstrual cycle
such as nutrient intake, abrupt change in body
weight, emotional changes and mental pressure.
The Menstrual Cycle

The follicular phase=Repair

The luteal phase=Premenstrual
The Phases in The Menstrual Cycle
The Phases in The Menstrual Cycle (Explanation)
Day 1-5 (Menstruation/Menstrual phase)

The uterine lining breaks down as menstruation begins & is discharged together with blood, unfertilised ovum & mucus.

Day 6-11 (Repair/Follicular phase)

Uterine lining starts to rebuild & thicken.Blood vessels in uterine lining are formed & ready to receive the implantation
of fertilised ovum.

Day 12-17 (Fertile/Ovulation phase)

An ovum is released from the ovary on the 14th day of the menstrual cycle (ovulation).The uterine lining continues to
thicken.Fertilisation is likely to occur if sperms are present.

Day 18-28 (Premenstrual/Luteal phase)

The uterine lining continues to thicken and becomes richly supplied with blood vessels.Implantation of an embryo is ready
if fertilisation occurs.The menstrual cycle will repeat if fertilisation does not occur.
Importance of Personal Hygiene During Menstruation
Personal hygiene during menstruation is very important to ensure the reproductive system is not
infected with microorganisms like bacteria,virus and fungi.

Ways of practising good personal hygiene during menstruation & their importance:

1.During menstruation,change sanitary 2.A menstruating woman is encouraged to

pad 3-4 times a day to prevent the bathe frequently to clean her body.
infection of bacteria and virus that might
cause urinary tract infection (UTI).
An Irregular Menstruation
Refers to a condition where a woman does not experience menstruation every month, has too long or
too short menstrual cycles.

Several factors: an increase in body weight,hormonal imbalance,emotional disruption,excessive exercise &

cervical tumour.

Negative effects:

1. Infertility-irregular menstrual cycle:early sign of having reproductive system problems.a late

treatment can cause serious health problems:ovarian cancer,cervircal cancer & uterus cancer.

2. Having difficulties in family planning-irregular menstrual cycle causes a woman to have difficulties
in determining her fertile day.hence,it is hard to plan a pregnancy.