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# Simple Linear Regression

##  Simple Linear Regression Model

 Least Squares Method
 Coefficient of Determination
 Model Assumptions
 Testing for Significance

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Simple Linear Regression

##  Managerial decisions often are based on the

relationship between two or more variables.
 Regression analysis can be used to develop an
equation showing how the variables are related.
 The variable being predicted is called the dependent
variable and is denoted by y.
 The variables being used to predict the value of the
dependent variable are called the independent
variables and are denoted by x.

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Simple Linear Regression

##  Simple linear regression involves one independent

variable and one dependent variable.
 The relationship between the two variables is
approximated by a straight line.
 Regression analysis involving two or more
independent variables is called multiple regression.

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Simple Linear Regression Model

##  The equation that describes how y is related to x and

an error term is called the regression model.
 The simple linear regression model is:

y = b0 + b1x +e

where:
b0 and b1 are called parameters of the model,
e is a random variable called the error term.

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Simple Linear Regression Equation

E(y) = b0 + b1x

## • Graph of the regression equation is a straight line.

• b0 is the y intercept of the regression line.
• b1 is the slope of the regression line.
• E(y) is the expected value of y for a given x value.

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Simple Linear Regression Equation

##  Positive Linear Relationship

E(y)

Regression line

Intercept Slope b1
b0
is positive

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Simple Linear Regression Equation

##  Negative Linear Relationship

E(y)

Intercept
b0 Regression line

Slope b1
is negative

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Simple Linear Regression Equation

 No Relationship

E(y)

## Intercept Regression line

b0
Slope b1
is 0

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Estimated Simple Linear Regression Equation

ŷ  b0  b1 x

## • The graph is called the estimated regression line.

• b0 is the y intercept of the line.
• b1 is the slope of the line.
• ŷis the estimated value of y for a given x value.

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Estimation Process

## Regression Model Sample Data:

y = b0 + b1x +e x y
Regression Equation x1 y1
E(y) = b0 + b1x . .
Unknown Parameters . .
b0, b1 xn yn

Estimated
b0 and b1 Regression Equation
provide estimates of ŷ  b0  b1 x
b0 and b1 Sample Statistics
b0, b1

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Least Squares Method

##  Least Squares Criterion

min  (y i  y i ) 2

where:
yi = observed value of the dependent variable
for the ith observation
y^i = estimated value of the dependent variable
for the ith observation

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Least Squares Method

##  Slope for the Estimated Regression Equation

b1   ( x  x )( y  y )
i i

 (x  x ) i
2

where:
xi = value of independent variable for ith
observation
yi = value of dependent variable for ith
_ observation
x = mean value for independent variable
_
y = mean value for dependent variable
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Least Squares Method

##  y-Intercept for the Estimated Regression Equation

b0  y  b1 x

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Simple Linear Regression

##  Example: Reed Auto Sales

Reed Auto periodically has a special week-long sale.
As part of the advertising campaign Reed runs one or
more television commercials during the weekend
preceding the sale. Data from a sample of 5 previous
sales are shown on the next slide.

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Simple Linear Regression

##  Example: Reed Auto Sales

Number of Number of
TV Ads (x) Cars Sold (y)
1 14
3 24
2 18
1 17
3 27
Sx = 10 Sy = 100
x2 y  20

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Estimated Regression Equation

##  Slope for the Estimated Regression Equation

b1   ( xi  x )( y i  y ) 20
 5
 ( xi  x ) 2
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 y-Intercept for the Estimated Regression Equation
b0  y  b1 x  20  5(2)  10
 Estimated Regression Equation
yˆ  10  5x

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Coefficient of Determination

## SST = SSR + SSE

 i
( y  y ) 2
  i
( ˆ
y  y ) 2
  i i
( y  ˆ
y ) 2

where:
SST = total sum of squares
SSR = sum of squares due to regression
SSE = sum of squares due to error

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Coefficient of Determination

##  The coefficient of determination is:

r2 = SSR/SST

where:
SSR = sum of squares due to regression
SST = total sum of squares

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Coefficient of Determination

## r2 = SSR/SST = 100/114 = .8772

The regression relationship is very strong; 87.72%
of the variability in the number of cars sold can be
explained by the linear relationship between the
number of TV ads and the number of cars sold.

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Sample Correlation Coefficient

## rxy  (sign of b1 ) Coefficient of Determination

rxy  (sign of b1 ) r 2

where:
b1 = the slope of the estimated regression
equation yˆ  b0  b1 x

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Sample Correlation Coefficient

rxy  (sign of b1 ) r 2

yˆ  10  is
The sign of b1 in the equation 5 x“+”.

rxy = + .8772

rxy = +.9366

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Assumptions About the Error Term e

## 2. The variance of e , denoted by  2, is the same for

all values of the independent variable.

## 4. The error e is a normally distributed random

variable.

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Testing for Significance

## To test for a significant regression relationship, we

must conduct a hypothesis test to determine whether
the value of b1 is zero.

## Two tests are commonly used:

t Test and F Test

## Both the t test and F test require an estimate of  2,

the variance of e in the regression model.

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Testing for Significance

 An Estimate of  2
The mean square error (MSE) provides the estimate
of  2, and the notation s2 is also used.

s 2 = MSE = SSE/(n  2)

where:

SSE   ( yi  yˆ i ) 2   ( yi  b0  b1 xi ) 2

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Testing for Significance

 An Estimate of 
• To estimate  we take the square root of  2.
• The resulting s is called the standard error of
the estimate.

SSE
s  MSE 
n2

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Testing for Significance: t Test

 Hypotheses

H0 : b1  0
H a : b1  0

 Test Statistic

b1 s
t where sb1 
sb1 S( xi  x ) 2

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Testing for Significance: t Test

 Rejection Rule

## Reject H0 if p-value < 

or t < -t or t > t

where:
t is based on a t distribution
with n - 2 degrees of freedom

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Testing for Significance: t Test

## 1. Determine the hypotheses. H0 : b1  0

H a : b1  0
2. Specify the level of significance.  = .05

b1
3. Select the test statistic. t 
sb1

## 4. State the rejection rule. Reject H0 if p-value < .05

or |t| > 3.182 (with
3 degrees of freedom)

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Testing for Significance: t Test

b1 5
t   4.63
sb1 1.08

## 6. Determine whether to reject H0.

t = 4.541 provides an area of .01 in the upper
tail. Hence, the p-value is less than .02. (Also,
t = 4.63 > 3.182.) We can reject H0.

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Testing for Significance: F Test

 Hypotheses

H0 : b1  0
H a : b1  0
 Test Statistic

F = MSR/MSE

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Testing for Significance: F Test

 Rejection Rule

Reject H0 if
p-value < 
or F > F
where:
F is based on an F distribution with
1 degree of freedom in the numerator and
n - 2 degrees of freedom in the denominator

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Testing for Significance: F Test

H a : b1  0

## 4. State the rejection rule. Reject H0 if p-value < .05

or F > 10.13 (with 1 d.f.
in numerator and
3 d.f. in denominator)

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Testing for Significance: F Test

## 6. Determine whether to reject H0.

F = 17.44 provides an area of .025 in the upper
tail. Thus, the p-value corresponding to F = 21.43
is less than .025. Hence, we reject H0.
The statistical evidence is sufficient to conclude
that we have a significant relationship between the
number of TV ads aired and the number of cars sold.