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Chapter 34

Assessment of Digestive and
Gastrointestinal Function

Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question Is the following statement True or False? Lipase is an enzyme that aids in the digestion of protein. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .

Trypsin is an enzyme that aids in the digestion of protein. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .Answer False Lipase is an enzyme that aids in the digestion of fats.

Functions of the Digestive Tract • Breakdown of food for digestion • Absorption of nutrients produced by digestion into the bloodstream • Elimination of undigested foodstuffs and other waste products Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .

Terms • Digestion: phase of the digestive process that occurs when enzymes mix with ingested food and when proteins. and sugars are broken down into their component molecules. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . vitamins. fats. when waste products are eliminated from the body. • Absorption: phase of the digestive process that occurs when small molecules. • Elimination: phase of the digestive process that occurs after digestion and absorption. and minerals pass through the walls of the small and large intestine and into the bloodstream.

Occurs when enzymes mix with ingested food and when proteins. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . D. and sugars are broken down into their component molecules. C. Occurs when food is taken into the GI tract via the mouth and esophagus. when waste products are eliminated from the body. Occurs after digestion and absorption.Question What is ingestion? A. Occurs when small molecules. and minerals pass through the walls of the small and large intestine and into the bloodstream. fats. vitamins. B.

fats. and minerals pass through the walls of the small and large intestine and into the bloodstream. Digestion occurs when enzymes mix with ingested food and when proteins. when waste products are eliminated from the body. and sugars are broken down into their component molecules. vitamins. Elimination occurs after digestion and absorption.Answer A Ingestion occurs when food is taken into the GI tract via mouth and esophagus. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . Absorption occurs when small molecules.

Organs of the Digestive System Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .

pepsin.Major Enzymes and Secretions • Mouth: saliva. salivary amylase • Stomach: hydrochloric acid. intrinsic factor • Small intestine: amylase. lipase. trypsin. bile Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .

history of GI surgery or problems. nausea and vomiting. and nutritional assessment including weight patterns • Psychosocial. teeth. fecal continence. need for patient education Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . jaundice.History • Include all information related to GI function – Abdominal pain. constipation.Assessment. appetite and eating patterns. change in bowel patterns. diarrhea. dyspepsia. gas. spiritual. characteristics of stool. and cultural factors • Assess knowledge.

Common Sites of Referred Abdominal Pain Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .

Quadrants of the Abdomen Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .

Patient undergoing gastroscopy Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .

percussion.Question Which is the correct order to complete an abdominal assessment? A. auscultation. palpation B. Inspection. auscultation. inspection. auscultation D. Palpation. palpation. percussion. percussion C. Percussion. Auscultation. inspection palpation. inspection Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .

auscultation. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .Answer A The correct order for an abdominal assessment is inspection. percussion. and palpation.

MRI • Upper GI tract study • Lower GI tract study • GI motility studies • Endoscopic procedures • Other Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . PET.Diagnostic Tests • Stool specimens • Breath tests • Abdominal ultrasound • Imaging studies: CT.

Colonoscopy Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .

Question Is the following statement True or False? When a colonoscopy is done. and ascending colon. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . transverse. the flexible scope is passed through the rectum and sigmoid colon into the descending.

and ascending colon. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . transverse. the flexible scope is passed through the rectum and sigmoid colon into the descending.Answer True When a colonoscopy is done.