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Stander Methodology to design of control systems

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General Requirements for Design of any
Control System

Any control system must be

• Stable with cretin degree of stability.
• Fast and minimum value of overshoot.
• Capable to reduce error to minimum.
• Ability to reject the disturbances.
• Not effect with plant parameters variation.

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Classification of feedback control
system
Feedback control systems may be classified in a number of
ways, depending upon the purpose of the classification

1 - According to the number of input and output,

control systems are classified as
• Single input single output (SISO)
• Single input Multi-output (SIMO)
• Multi-input Single-output (MISO)
• Multi-input Multi-output (MIMO

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Coordinated Control System for a boiler-Generator

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2) According to the method of analysis and
design, control systems are classified as

• Linear

• Nonlinear.

• Time Varying

• Time Invariant

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When the magnitudes of signals in
a control system are limited to
ranges in which system
components exhibit linear
characteristics (i.e., the principle
of superposition applies), the
system is essentially linear

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When the parameters of a control
system are stationary with respect
to time during the operation of the
system, the system is called a
time-invariant system.

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In practice, most physical systems contain
elements that drift or vary with time. For
example, the winding resistance of an
electric motor will vary when the motor is
first being excited and its temperature is
rising.
Another example of a time-varying system
is a guided-missile control system in which
the mass of the missile decreases as
the fuel on board is being consumed
during flight.

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A time-varying system without
nonlinearity is still a linear system,
the analysis and design of this
class of systems are usually
much more complex than that of
the linear time-invariant systems.

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Open Loop control vs. Closed Loop control

3 temperature
2 4
1 5
open loop: temperature is imprecise,
depends on ambient temperature and
cooking quantity
but time of heating can be modulated.

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200

120 220 + higher closed loop:

- /lower temperature closely controlled,
requires measurement of the output
variable (temperature)

temperature sensor
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3. According to the main purpose of the system,
• Position control
• Velocity control

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• Control of the speed of a turntable

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Room Temperature Control System

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Elevator Control System for a High-Speed Jet

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Ship Autopilot Control System

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Ship Autopilot Control System

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4. According Controller Parameters

Fixed parameters feedback control

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5. According to signal found in the system,
control systems are classified

• Continuous-Data
• Discrete Data.
1) Sampled-data control systems
2) Digital control systems

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A continuous-data system is one in
which the signals at various parts of
the system are all functions of the
continuous time variable t.

• Discrete-data control systems differ

from the continuous-data systems in
that the signals at one or more points
of the system are in the form of either
a pulse train or a digital code

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• Usually, discrete-data control systems are
subdivided into sampled-data and digital
control systems.
Sampled-dala control systems refer to a
more general class of discrete-data
systems in which the signals are in the
form of pulse data.

• A digital control system refers to the use of

a digital computer or controller in the
system so that the signals are digitally
coded, such as in binary code.
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Continues time feedback control

Digital feedback control

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Sampled-Data feedback control

Digital feedback control

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Digital feedback control

Digital feedback control

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F-22 military fighter aircraft (Engine Digital
control)

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Drug delivery digital control system.
(a) Schematic of a drug delivery system.
(b) Block diagram of a drug delivery system.

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Computer Numerically Control Machine Tool

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6. According number of degree of freedom

Two degree of freedom controller

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6. According number of degree of freedom

Three degree of freedom controller

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6. According number of control loops
I) Single loop control

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I) Multi loops control
Example Flow loop and Temperature loop

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7. Feedback and Feed-Forward Control
Feed-Forward Control

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Feed-forward/feedback control of temperature based on the measured process
fluid flow rate (disturbance input).

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