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THE

QUALITIES
OF BEER

SAMPLING: PORTERS AND STOUTS


AGENDA

• Review Beer Week 1


• Alcohol and Beer Strength
• 4 Essential Qualities of Beer
• 7 Flavor Profiles of Beer
• Identifying Beer Flaws
WEEK 1 REVIEW
• What is said to be the oldest known recipe for beer?
– The Hymn to Ninkasi
• What’s another name for the German Purity Law of 1516?
– Rheinheitsgebot
• True of False: The original Rheinheitsgebot allowed for fruit ad spices
to be added to beer
– False – the original Rheinheitsgebot only allowed for Water, Barley,
and Hops (Yeast was added later)
• What are the four primary ingredients in beer?
– Water, Barley, Hops, Yeast
WEEK 10 REVIEW
• What is the process of adding hops to a beer during fermentation
called?
– Dry Hopping
• What is the Fermentation Formula for beer?
– Trick Question! It’s the same as wine! Sugar + Yeast = Alcohol +
CO2
• Choose the Correct Answer:
– Lagers are fermented at (hot/cold) temperatures and are
(top/bottom) fermenting
• Cold and Bottom
• ALSO KNOW THE FERMENTING INFO FOR ALES!
BEER STRENGTH - GRAVITY
Why Measure Gravity?
• Gravity Measures the amount of sugar
in wort (after boiling but) before
fermentation.
• Like Wine Brix!
• Will give a brewer a good idea what the
potential alcohol percentage will be
before fermentation
• Homebrewers measure with a
Hydrometer (pictured right)
Image Source: SaltCityBrewSupply.com
BEER STRENGTH - GRAVITY
Measured in:
• Degrees Plato - % by weight of dissolved solids
– Used by German and Lager Brewers
– 10 degrees Plato beer = 10% Solids
• Original Gravity – OG
– British/American Brewers
– 10 degrees Plato = 1.040 OG
– Rough Measures: 1.050OG ≈ 5% ABV; 1.060 OG ≈ 6% ABV, etc

Image Sources:
Above: Tribecafilm.com
Left: Tasting Beer, Randy Mosher
BEER STRENGTH – ALCOHOL & ATTENUATION
• How do we measure alcohol?
– % by Volume – ABV – Alcohol by Volume)
– % by Weight
• ABV is the current international standard
– But post-prohibition –1933-1990 – USA
used ABW as measurement
• Look like drinks are more temperate
• 4% ABV Beer = 3.2% ABW
– In US, ABV MUST be within .15% of level
specified on label
• Still state laws which limit ABV that
can be sold
Image Source: https://siptemberfest.com/tag/beer-infographic-of-the-week/page/3/ (original source unknown)
BEER STRENGTH – ALCOHOL & ATTENUATION
• Not Every Beer with Same OG
has same alcohol content
– Influencing Factors:
• brewing process, sugars,
adjuncts, fermentation
temperature
• Attenuation – The degree to
which residual sugars have
been fermented OUT of a beer
– Highly Attenuated
• Dry, Little Residual Sugar
– Lower Attenuated
• Heavier, Sweeter Image Source: http://www.beeroftomorrow.com/how-boozy-is-your-beer/
4 ESSENTIAL QUALITIES OF BEER

Color
Carbonation
Aroma
Palate/Body
QUALITIES OF BEER - COLOR
• Color of a beer directly related to the type/roasting of the malt used in the recipe
Measuring Beer Color
Official US Standard:
• American Society of Brewing Chemists
– Standard Reference Method = Degrees SRM
– Ranges from 0-40+
– Sometimes referred to as degrees Lovibond (Joseph Lovibond)
Official European Standard
• European Brewery Convention (EBC Scale)
• EBC = 1.97xSRM (just about double)
SRM SCALE
COLOR CHART FOR EVALUATIONS
Straw 2-3
Yellow 3-4
Gold 5-6
Amber 6-9
Deep amber/light copper 10-14
Copper 14-17
Deep copper/light brown 17-18
Brown 19-22
Dark Brown 22-30
Very Dark Brown 30-35
Black 30+
Black, opaque 40+

Image Source:
https://justbeerapp.com/article/beer-varieties-the-origins-part-three-colour
QUALITIES OF BEER:
CARBONATION AND BEER FOAM
Carbonation (CO2):
– Naturally, a result of the fermentation process:
• Sugar + Yeast = Alcohol & CO2
– Additional Carbonation is created in beer in four possible ways:
• Forced Carbonation
– Process undertaken by most large commercial breweries – adds CO2
post-fermentation
• Bottle Conditioning
– Add yeast or sugar to bottle, and cap, allowing CO2 to form in bottle with
no place to escape until the top is popped
CARBONATION AND BEER FOAM

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is present in beer throughout the sensory process:


– Presentation (sight)
– Aroma
– Taste/Mouthfeel

Warm or Cold Beers?


Beer too warm – you get a gusher!
Beer too cold – its more soluble in the liquid = less apparent CO2/Flat
CARBONATION AND BEER FOAM
CO2 presents itself through –
– Bubble Density: Large/Small bubble
in the glass;
• Flat/Sparkling/Lively/Gusher
– Beer Foam – created through proteins in beer,
released/retained by CO2
• Certain grains (wheat/oats/rye) create great foam
• Detergents/oils/dirt will kill foam
– Head retention
– Glass Lacing
Image Sources:
Top – TriState Carbonation
Right – Ritual Brewing Co via Instagram
CARBONATION AND BEER FOAM
Aroma
– CO2 helps carry the aroma of the beer to the surface of the
glass
• Etched Beer glasses – nucleation sites
– Excessive CO2 often mistaken as “peppery” or
“high alcohol” Sources:
Top – RipCurrent Brewing
Taste/Mouthfeel Below – RayCGuy via YouTube

– The tongue is a haven for carbonation


• Warm temperatures
• Rough surface = lots of nucleation sites
– Excessive CO2 often gives a tingly, burning
sensation and a lighter mouthfeel
CARBONATION AND BEER FOAM

A word about Nitrogen –


–Insoluble in liquid – contributes to a heavy mouthfeel
• Often Described as Smooth/Creamy
– If Nitrogen is used as a beer gas: usually a 70/30 or 75/25
ratio of N to CO2
– Guinness is widely known example
OTHER VISUAL PROPERTIES: HAZE
A LACK OF BEER CLARITY IS CALLED TURBIDITY:
Sources of Haze:
– Chill Haze: At cold temperatures, when malt
proteins bond with the polyphenols (AKA
Tannins) in the hops. When the beer warms
back up, the haze disappears.
– Yeast/Starch Haze – deliberate – Hefeweizen,
Wheat, Rye beers or from sediment due to
bottle fermentation; or accidental (incomplete
conversion of starch)
Brewers CAN eliminate chill haze
through cold conditioning,
filtration, or addition of fining
agents Picture Sources: Above – Stonebrewing.com; Top:
Franziskaner/facebook
HAZED AND CONFUSED
Sources of Haze:
– Permanent Haze: When beer that would
normally just have chill haze is “very old”, the
haziness doesn’t disappear and the protein
becomes permanent, in the form of snowflake
floaties. Also occurs with drastic temperature
swings.
– Yeast flocculation: Some wild yeasts, old beer,
yeast forms flakes.

Picture Sources: Top – talkbeer.com; Above:


definitiveale.wordpress.com
HOPS, BITTERNESS AND BALANCE
• Hops – Contribute Aroma and Bitterness to beer
– Scientific measurement of bitterness is the International Bitterness
Unit (IBU)
– IBUs generally range from 5IBU to well over 100IBU
– Hoo Lawd by Dogfish Head - the highest IBU beer ever created – 685
IBUs
– Average IPA is 40-60 IBUs
• Hop bitterness
– Needed to balance malt sweetness
– Provides a “refreshing” quality
HOPS, BITTERNESS AND BALANCE
Know the Difference between ACTUAL
and PERCEIVED Bitterness
–The IBU is a NUMBER not a taste
–Two 40 IBU beers will taste very
difference based on balance
–A 35 IBU beer may taste more bitter
than a 55 IBU beer – depending on
balance

Image Source:
www.beeroftomorrow.com
7 FLAVOR PROFILES OF BEER

1. Crisp & Clean


2. Hoppy & Bitter
3. Malty & Sweet
4. Dark & Roasty
5. Smokey
6. Fruity & Spicy
7. Sour, Tart & Funky

Image Source: http://www.taptrail.com/non-beer-snobs-guide-to-ordering-craft-beer/


7 FLAVOR PROFILES OF BEER
CRISP AND CLEAN HOPPY AND BITTER
• Clean and refreshing • Solid malt base; bright hop aromas
• Notable Styles: and pronounced bitterness
– Kolsch • Notable Styles:
– Blonde Ale – Pale Ale
– Cream Ale – India Pale Ale (IPA)
– Lager – Imperial Red
– Amber Lager – Amber Ale
– India Pale Lager – American Barleywine
7 FLAVOR PROFILES OF BEER
MALTY AND SWEET DARK AND ROASTY
• Hint of sweetness with notes • Rich, full body with roasted notes of
of nut, caramel, toffee coffee and cocoa
• Notable Styles: • Notable Styles:
– Irish Red Ale – Oatmeal Stout
– Doppelbock – Porter
– Scottish Ale – Irish Stout
– English Bitter – American/English Brown Ale
(ESB) – Black IPA
7 FLAVOR PROFILES OF BEER
SMOKE TART & FUNK
• Literally smells • Ranges from lightly tart
and tastes like and elegant to exceedingly
smoke/peat funky and sour
• Notable Styles: FRUIT & SPICE • Notable Styles:
– Rauchbier • Sweet to Dry; minimal – Berliner Weiss
– Smoked bitterness – Gose
Beer • Notable Styles: – Flanders Red
– Smoked – Witbier/Hefeweizen – Fruit Lambic
Porter
– Saison – Brett Beer
– Belgian Dubbel
DESCRIBING BEER – FLAVOR PROFILES
• Malty/Hoppy are generic terms - paint the word picture!
• Malt descriptors:
• Grainy • Toasty • Espresso
• Bready • Roasty • Raisins
• Caramel • Coffee • Prunes
• Toffee • Chocolate
• Nutty • Dried Fruit

Image Source: Briess


DESCRIBING BEER – FLAVOR PROFILES
• Hop descriptors:
• Grassy • Pineapple • Lavender
• Pine • Grapefruit • Bubblegum
• Floral • Onion • Cat Urine
• Resin • Garlic
• Minty • Citrus
• Pepper • Lemon

• Yeast Descriptors:

• Bready • Banana • Clove


Picture Source: Brookstone Beer Bulletin
FINDING FLAWS – COMMON OFF-FLAVORS
• Band-Aid (aka Chlorophenol): Beer smells like a Band-Aid or
disinfectant. Possibly from residual cleaning solutions; maybe
yeast. Improperly cleaned draft lines
• Butter (aka Diacetyl): sometimes intentionally present; leaks out
of yeast cells; or possible bacteria contamination/dirty draft lines
• Stale Beer/Cardboard (aka Oxidized): In aroma or flavor;
cardboard/paper/stale. Contact with air; can happen in
brewhouse/packaging or with old/stale beer; stored improperly
• Cheesy: Stinky cheese/feet/vomit aroma; indicative of improper
hop storage or bacterial infection
• DMS: aroma of creamed corn, green beans, tomato juice; derived
from malt proteins; usually occurs in brewhouse in boil/wort
cooling
FINDING FLAWS – COMMON OFF-FLAVORS
• Acetaldehyde: Green Apple Aromas – indicative of young/green
beer (not fully fermented) – yeast by-product
• Skunky: Rubbery – Caused by a hop compound/blue light
reaction – only brown glass can protect the beer (Still not
perfect) – not green/clear glass.
• Metallic – Aromas/tastes usually caused by unprotected
metals dissolving into wort during boil; also possibly improperly
stored malt (Almost NEVER from an actual can)
• Barnyard: Horse/Stable Aroma – typical of beers infected or
purposely made with Brettanomyces yeast
• Sulfur – Rotten Eggs – indicative of young/green beer – yeast
by-product
EXPERIMENT – FINDING FLAWS
• Drink some samples.
• Let’s Discuss

• Flawed Sample an example of Stale/Oxidized beer. Was


boiled for 10 minutes. Also an example of what happens to
improperly stored beer
New Belgium Dayblazer
• New Belgium Brewing, Fort Collins, CO
• 4th Largest Craft Brewery in the US
• Style: Golden Ale
• ABV: 4.8%
• IBU: 13
• Sweet, Crisp citrus finish, with a touch
of a honey; quick, clean finish

• 15pk, 12oz Cans, $16.99


PORTERS AND
STOUT S
IS THERE EVEN A DIFFERENCE?
HISTORY OF PORTER
• Where: England
• When: Industrial Revolution – mid-to-late 17th century
• An inexpensive brown malt from Hertfordshire gets to
London
• Patrons start asking for blends at pub level of different
aged beer made with this malt.
• In 1722 – Ralph Harwood (Bell Brewery) makes a popular blend of three beers
called “Three Threads”. First time this beer is commercially produced.
• First name is “Entire Butt” beer (Butt was name of big cask it was made in)
• This becomes popular with the porters who worked at local markets, and the
name was born; becomes one of the first beers to be exported worldwide
• Porter as a style has constantly evolved, and even today there are a wide range
of dark brown beers considered to be “porters”
HISTORY OF STOUTS
• Stout is the son of Porter
• First referred to as Stout Butt Beer – circa
1630; a stronger version of porter
• Whitbread Brewery in London in 1800’s
shows recipes for porters and stouts.
– Stout made from the first mashing
– Porter made from the second, third
or fourth mashing of the same grain
– Stout was just stronger

Further Reading/Source on Porters/Stouts: https://www.beerconnoisseur.com/porter-versus-stout


Bell’s Porter
• Bell’s Brewery, Kalamazoo, MI
• Brewery celebrated its 30th
anniversary in 2015
• Porter was first created in 1987
• Style: Robust Porter
• 5.6% ABV, 35 IBU
• Medium Bodied
• Notes of Chocolate and Coffee
– Hops take a back seat
• $9.99 per 6pack, 12oz Bottles
Smuttynose Porter
• Smuttynose Brewery, Hampton, NH
• Founded in 1994
• Robust Porter
• 6.2% ABV, 60.5 IBU
• From the brewery: “This smooth,
deceptively drinkable beer features
an assertive hop profile which
accentuates signature flavors of
coffee and dark chocolate”
• $9.99 per 6pack, 12oz Bottles
Kalamazoo Stout
• Bell’s Brewery, Kalamazoo, MI
• One of the brewery’s oldest recipes
• Style: American Stout
• 6% ABV, 50+ IBU
• Includes (gelatin-free) Brewer’s
Licorice
• Medium-Full Bodied
• Flavors of Roasted Coffee, Dark
Chocolate, Slight Anise
• $10.99 per 6pack, 12oz Bottles
Left Hand Nitro Milk Stout
• Left Hand Brewery, Longmont, CO
• Originally founded in 1993 as Indian
Peaks Brewing Co.
• Style: British Sweet Stout
• 6% ABV, 25 IBU
• Brewed with Lactose/Milk Sugars
(ALLERGY WARNING)
• Medium-Full Bodied, creamy mouthfeel
• “Milk Sugar in your stout is like cream in
your coffee”
• $11.99 per 6pack, 12oz Bottles
The Guinness Story
• The Guinness Brewery, Dublin, Ireland
• Brewery founded in 1752 with £100
inheritance given to Arthur Guinness
• 1759 Guinness signs a 9,000 year lease on
current brewery in Dublin
• Current beer evolved from Guinness’s
Superior Porter brewed in 1821
• Beer Widget added to cans in 1988; in
1991the widget beats the internet to be
voted best technological achievement in
Britain
• On St. Patrick’s Day, its estimated that 7.5
Million Pints of Guinness are sold! (average
daily pints consumed – 4.4M)
Guinness Draught Can
• The Guinness Brewery, Dublin, Ireland
– Owned by Diageo
• Style: Irish Stout
• 4.2% ABV, ~40 IBU (also one of the
lowest calorie beers available – 125 –
less than OJ!)
• Beer Widget releases Nitrogen into the
beer when opened
• Sweet Aromas of Coffee and Roasted
Malt; smooth, creamy, and balanced
flavors
• $7.49/4pk (14oz cans), $8.49/6pk
(12oz bottles); $13.99/8pk (14oz cans)