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Economics of media:
Ratings and Revenues
Economics of media – Ratings=Revenues
Ratings – audience measurement that influences timing,
placements, and markets for media content and
– it determines the number of people who
watches, listens or reads a particular media content

Revenues – income generated from the sale of goods or

services before sny costs or expenses are deducted.
The Opportunity
Creative or copyright-based industries
contributed P661.23 billion to the Philippine
economy which made up about 7.34% of
GDP, thereby, creating hundreds of jobs for
Filipinos (IPOPHIL & WIPO, 2010)
The Challenge
Despite thriving as an industry, the media
remains vulnerable to economic threats.

Piracy is the MOST notorious among the

threats. This is the unauthorized use of
another’s creation or production especially
in infringement of copyright.

Why piracy is prevalent in the world?

Media and Information
for Education
Media and information have made a radical
impact on education. Learning has never
been easier and more complicated but not
in the age of media and information.
The Opportunity
Education – the knowledge, skill, and
understanding that you get from attending a
school or university (Merriam Webster’s
Distance Learning or Online Education – a
trend in society where schools adopt as
offered services where everyone who has
access to the internet need not physically
attend a class to get an education.

This setup is popular among those who wish

to further their education but don’t have time
or energy to deal with regular schools.
Vast network of information and contributors
A student can have multiple experts as
professors, learn from variety of info from
books, articles, videos, etc., and study
according to his learning pathway e.g.
visual, intellectual and experiential.
The Challenge
In education, the ease of access to media
and information for educational purposes
promotes laziness among users and
pressures servers to conduct upgrades and
maintenances around cyberspace.

Tedious process of sorting is caused by the

overwhelming amount of content found
online. (authenticity and credibility issues)
Please see video
Media and Information
for Social Change
The society is heavily influenced by media
and information which become a reflection
of society and vice versa.

Social change – the significant alteration of

social structure.

Social Structure – persistent networks of

social relationships, where interaction of
people or groups has become routine and
Cultural Patterns – shared ways of living and
– System of beliefs and
values that work in combination to provide a
coherent model for perceiving the world.
Cultural patterns are interrelated and do not
operate in isolation.

To say that certain cultural patterns apply to

all members of culture is unwise. (see ex.)
The Opportunity
Development Communication uses
communication to develop the community.
An example of this is community-based
media programs that disseminate info,
promote development advocacies, and
provide medium for social interaction that
pushed positive social change.
The Challenge
Media and information have the power to
sway society’s beliefs and perceptions.
People tend to accept data immediately
WITHOUT confirming its validity or credibility.

If the media fail to provide FACTS, or abuse

their influence, society will be misled. This
scenario hinders TRUE POSITIVE CHANGE.
The Media and Politics
2 perspectives in understanding the
relationship of media and politics

1. The impact of media on an element in

-political debates, electoral campaigns,
fluctuation of polls, political platforms, track
records expose
2. Effects of politics on the media. Politics
regulates the media industry
ex. North Korea restricts what the public must
consume for entertainment and severely
censors news and info.
The Opportunity
The interrelationship of media and politics
provides a fair foundation of media as
source of information. Provisions in the law
like Freedom of Information mandates the
release of public documents to those who
require it, thereby, accelerating the
government’s war on corruption.
The Challenge
The government has given little support that
will help strengthen the media industry
because the government concentrates on
solving national problems like poverty,
unemployment, lack of healthcare, access
on education, and war on drugs and

Creativity, the core of media, receives lack

of support due to shortage of government
The Media Controversies
Stereotyping is the process of labeling an
entire group of people according to the
characteristics of some. The media have
been found guilty of stereotyping multiple

-Gender roles
-Racial Discrimination
Conflict of Interest – situations in which there
are competing professionals,
personal/financial obligations or interests
that compete with the journalist’s obligation
to his outlet and audience.
Forms of Conflict of Interest

1. writing about friends and family members

2. Press junkets trips offered to journalists
3. Accepting hospitality
4. Gifts
5. free tickets
6. paying sources
7. Quid pro quo – promising something in return
8. Investments
9. Political and charitable donations
10. Blogs
Accountability is taking responsibility for
one’s action. It is the core of media ethics.

Media accountability involves self-regulation

by remembering and respecting those who
they are accountable to in their work.
Censorship is any attempt to limit or prevent
the free exchange of information (Steele,
1999). It suppresses information, ideas or
artistic expression.

Forms of Censorship
1. Preventive is exercised before the
expression is made public. Ex. Government
restraints, licensing, and self-sensorship
2. Punitive is exercised after the expression is
made public. This type is penalizing in

3. Taboo is censorship of that which society

deems inappropriate or offensive