Ionic Equilibrium

Acid-base equilibrium Solubility equilibrium

Acid – base Equilibrium
The Arrhenius Theory 1. Acid-substances that dissociate in water to produce H+ eg: HA (aq) H2O H+ (aq) + A- (aq) 2. Base-substance that dissociate in water to produce OHeg: M(OH) (aq) M+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

Limitations a) Cannot account for the basic properties of certain compounds that do not contain –OH groups/ ions in their molecules such as amines,RNH2,NH3,NA2CO3 and C2H5ONa2 NH3(aq) + HCl( aq) NH4Cl(g)

NH3 reacts with HCl by receiving proton or H+ but not by donating OH-

Eg: Negative ion or neutral molecule with a lone pair of electrons which can form a dative covalent bond with the proton such as H2O..Bronsted Acid: Acid substance( molecule or ion) that can donate a proton.accepts Its proton proton to form to form base an acid . HSO4.HCO33. H+ to another substance/to a base Eg: HCl. HNO3.loses .species formed when when a H+ is added to a base . NH3 and OHHA + B BH+ + AAcid Base Conjugate Conjugate Acid Base Proton Proton Donor Acceptor . Anionic and cationic salts that have proton that can be transferred/donated such as NH4 +.F-.species formed when a proton is removed from an acid .HF 2. Base-substance that can accept a proton from an acid/another substance.BRONSTED-LOWRY THEORY 1.

Species differ by a proton HA & AAcid Conjugate Base B & BH+ Base Conjugate Acid Water is an amphoteric solvent Acts as a base CH3COOH(aq) + H20(l) Acid Base Proton Donor ∼ Proton Acceptor coz has lone pair of ē Acts as an acid NH3(aq) + H20(l) Base Acid Proton Acceptor Proton Donor 2. CH3COO-(aq) + H30+(aq) Conjugate Conjugate Base Acid hydroxonium ion/ oxonium ion/ hydronium ion NH4+ (aq) + Conjugate Acid OH-(aq) Conjugate Base .Acid-base conjugate pair 1.

eq. B + H2O BH+ + OH– B is a stronger base (α = degree of dissociation) hexaaquo complexes. Be2+) act as Bronsted–Lowry acids in water.can be used to define acids & bases in gaseous phase. [M(H2O)6]n+ which have small highly charged cations (such as Al3+. when HA is a stronger acid.Can be used to discuss the strength of an acid or a base. [Al(H2O)6]3+ + H2O acid (proton donor) base (proton acceptor) [Al(H2O)5OH]2+ + H3O+ . eg. position lies to the right. HA + H2O A– + H3O+ α is increased. Fe2+. HCl (g) + NH3 (g) → NH4Cl (g) acid base (proton donor) (proton acceptor) . Cr3+.ADVANTAGES .

H2O H2O H2O Mn+ Central metal ion .empty valence orbitals H2O H2 O H2 O .

a) Cl – – b) C2H5O – c) NH2OH – d) C6H5NH2 – e) HCO3 – – f) OH – – .eg: BF3 EXERCISE 1 Classify the underlined substances in the following equations as either acids or base according to Bronsted-Lowry’s definition. a) HCO3 – + HCl H2CO3 + Cl– b) NH4+ + NH2– 2NH3 c) CH3CONH2 + H20 CH3CONH3+ + OH– d) NaH + H20 NaOH + H2 EXERCISE 2 Give the formula of the conjugate acids for the following base.LIMITATION Chemical species that do not contain H+ are not defined as acids .

Eg: H3PO4 H2PO4 HPO4 2H3PO4 H+ + H2PO4 –(K1) H+ + HPO4 2.THE BASICITY OF AN ACID ACID Monoprotic acid .H2CO3 Polyprotic acids dissociate in stages and have more than one Ka. HNO3 Polyprotic acid/Polybasic acid -Donates more than one proton permolecule of the acid on dissociation.(K2) H+ + PO4 3.Produces only one single proton permolecule on dissociation OR Monobasic acid . eg: Diprotic acid are – H2SO4.] [H3PO4] . CH3COOH.Forms only one conjugate base permolecule of the acid Eg: HCl .(K3) 3H+ + PO4 3- Ka for H3PO4 = K1 X K2 X K3 = [H+]3 [PO4 2.

. AlCl3 Base – species that has an unshared electron pair which can form a dative bond with an atom.electron pair donor ..reducing agents . . . all the positive ions 2.Lewis Theory Acid . BeCl2.negative ions .molecules with lone pair of electrons such as molecules with an incomplete octet of electrons such as BF3. :NH3. .eg : 1. BCl3. molecule or ion.electron pair acceptor. oxidising agents 3. ion or molecule ) which can form a dative covalent bond by accepting one pair of electron from a base. R-CH .species( an atom.

Neutralisation The formation of a dative covalent bond between a species that donates an electron pair (Lewis base) and the species that accepts an electron pair( Lewis Acid) H + : O H– + : : H+ + : NH3 ↓ An acid.Lowry Theory) A reaction where an electron pair of a base is accepted by an acid through the formation of Cl a dative covalent bond. H Eg. :NH3 + BCl3 H N B Cl Lewis base Lewis acid : : O H H H N H H + H H Cl .base reaction( Bronsted.

eg: OH HO B + H2O HO OH Lewis Lewis acid base eg: – OH B OH OH – + H+ Cu2+ Lewis acid (Central metal ions) + 4NH3 Lewis base (liquids) H3N : : H2N : Cu :NH 3 : 2+ NH3 Complex ion .

. Bronsted acid. Acid-base reaction can be extended to include reactions in which protons are not involved.because it cannot accept an electron pair. Lewis bases are also Bronsted – Lowry bases as all electron pair donors can accept a proton. So. Metal ions) need not be Bronsted – Lowry acids ( proton donors). Lewis acids includes not only H+ ions but also cations and molecules with empty valence orbitals that can accept electron pairs from a Lewis base. Lewis Theory broadens the concept of an acid. is not an acid from the point of Lewis Theory. eg.LIMITATION • HCl(g). BF3 + NH3 Acid Base BF3 NH3 (No transfer of proton) 2. Lewis acids( eg. 3. ADVANTAGES 1.

( because they do not have mobile ions) Electrolytes Strong electrolytes Example . H2SO4) . Ba(OH)2) ionic salts.1.Organic . <0 ( partially ionised) Poor .Alkalis ( NaOH. Ca(OH)2.Mineral acids (HCl. NH3 ) . KOH.( because of the presence of free/ mobile ions) 2.A chemical compound that cannot conduct electricity both in molten state or in aqueous solution. Degree of dissociation ~ 100% Electrical conductivity .Organic bases (amines.Low ( most of them remain as undissociated molecules) . HNO3.electrolyte.Low < 0.Good [ions].high Weak Electrolytes acids (CH3COOH) .1. ElectrolyteA chemical compound that will conduct electricity in molten state or in aqueous solution. Non.

log [ H+] •0 •Acid 7 14 neutral base Degree of dissociation •The [ ] must be the same •α Strength the dissociation constant • At •pH value changes with [ ] * Not a good way because [ ] must be the same in order to compare. % dissociation [HA] dissociate x 100% [HA] initial constant T. • Degree of dissociation varies with [ ].Ka Strength of acid or Kb Strength of base • Dissociation constant will not change with [ ] • It only depend on the T • Commonly used to compare the strength of acid/ base •[]↓. questions Can be compared by pH •pH = .α ↑ α 1.The strength of acids & bases Obj.0 1 [ ] [ ] .

Arrange the acids in ascending order of the strength of the acid.68 4.Exercise 1.90X10-10 7.09X10-4 3.80X10-5 4.75 9. Ka/M HCOOH CH3COOH HCN H2CO3 Solution: 2.30 1.35 p Ka HCN < H2CO3 < CH3COOH < HCOOH acid (Ka ↑ strength or p increase Ka ↓ ) .47X10-7 6.

↑ .

1 M 2 x 0.01 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid ii) 0.1 M  pH = – log [H+] Calculate the pH of i) 0.80 x 10–5 M) determine [H+] by [H+] = √ Ka⋅ C = cα c = concentration of weak acid pH = –log [H+]  .01 mol dm–3 CH3COOH (Ka = 1. : HCl . H2SO4 . HNO3 HCl + H2O → H3O+ + Cl– (almost complete dissociation) α [H+} pH Ka p Weak Acids -Organic acids Eg.Acids Strong Acids -Most mineral acids Eg. : CH3 COOH CH3 COOH + H2O CH3COO– + H3O+ < 100%     (partially dissociates) : : : : : ̴ 100%     Ka Way to determine pH :  determine [H+]  –[H+] is obtained directly from [acid] eg: [H+] = [monoprotic acid] 2[H+] = [dibasic acid] eg: H2SO4  2H+ + SO42– 0.

1 M  pOH = –log [OH – ] eg: Ba(OH)2  Ba2+ + 2OH– 0. : NaOH. Ba(OH)2 NaOH → Na+ + OH– α : ̴ 100% (almost completely dissociated) [OH – ] pOH Kb p Weak Bases Amines. KOH.1 M  determine [OH – ]   pH = 14 – pOH   pOH = – log [OH] – pH = 14 – pOH .1 M 0. NH3 NH3 + H2O NH4 + + OH– ̴ 10% (partially dissociated)     : : : :     Kb Way to determine pH : determine [OH+] by –[OH – ] is obtained directly from [base] [OH – ] = √ Kb⋅ C eg: NaOH  Na+ + OH – = cα 0.Bases Strong Bases Eg.1 M 2 x 0.

Calculate the pH of i.5M of Ba(OH)2 ii. 50 cm3 of 0.5M of NH3 (Kb NH3 = 1.Calculate the pH of 50 cm3 of 0. moles c . Kb For weak Acids HA + H2O H3O+ + Initial moles in c 3 1dm solution No.75 x 10–5 mol dm–3 ) 2.5M of NH3 + 50 cm3 of 1M of H2SO4 Ostwald Dilution Law ― shows relationship between the concentrations of weak acids / bases and α / Ka. of moles dissociated/ formed Eq. 50 cm3 of 0.cα cα cα o A– o cα cα cα .Exercise 1.

α ) (1 2 1-α ∼ ∼ √ Kb c [A–] [H3O+] [HA] [BH+] [OH–] [B] cα ⋅ cα c (1 .[A–] [H3O+] [HA] [OH–] [BH+] [B] cα ⋅ cα c cα .α ) .

cα BH + + OH– o = √ Ka C ∴ [H+] = √ Ka ⋅ C cα cα cα cα . of moles dissociated/formed cα Eq.Ostwald Dilution Law (continued) cα 2 Ka = 1-α For weak acids. α ∼ very small.α ∼ 1 2 ∴ Ka = cα α = √ Ka c [H+] = cα =α √ Ka c For weak bases B + H2 O Initial moles in 1dm3 solution c o No. is ∴1 . moles c .

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