ASTN/ASON and GMPLS Overview and Comparison

By, Kishore Kasi Udayashankar Kaveriappa Muddiyada K

1 

Motivations 
Complex process of provisioning of end-to-end transport service  Heterogeneous transport networks  Automation of end-to-end provisioning  Ability to offer more service  Directly integrate IP clients over WDM 

How? 
³intelligence´ into the control plane of OTN  automatic and seamless circuit provisioning  unified control binding technologies 

Benefits? 
cost reduction and better quality of network operation  simplified and rapid network configuration  switched services and dynamic bandwidth assignment

ASTN/ASON 
ITU-T Recommendation G.805/G.8080  Architecture that defines the components and interactions between components  Distributed control plane  Task of control planes  Call and connection control  Path control based on network state  Discovery for self configuration

ASTN/ASON (Continued«) 
Protocols must support multi-layer, multi-vendor network 

Layering  Administrative partitioning  Operational partitioning  Types of interfaces in the control plane

GMPLS 
Unified control plane for packet and circuit switching technologies  Four interfaces.  Interface Switching Capability  No NNIs.

GMPLS (Continued«) 
Extension of routing protocols  OSPF-TE and ISIS-TE  Signaling protocols, RSVP-TE and CR-LDP  Label Switched Paths (LSP)

Multi-layer Resource Model Representation In GMPLS 
Basic topology abstraction is TE link  Link interface can support one or more interface switching types defined  Interface Switching Capability (ISC)  ISC descriptor describes related TE properties  A particular resource on a link is represented by a label

In GMPLS (Continued...) 
Basic service abstraction is a LSP Concept of hierarchical LSP  LSP in server region represented as TE link or Forwarding adjacency in client region  Client LSP routed over a TE link == tunneled within a server LSP

Multi-layer Resource Model Representation In ASON 
ISC concept has been reduced  Optical part of OTN hierarchy is mapped to LSC  Digital path layers of OTN and SDH hierarchy is mapped to TDM

In ASON (Continued«)

In ASON (Continued«) 
Transport networks functional model G.805  Client/server association between adjacent layers  Each layer partitioned to reflect internal structure

In ASON (Continued«) 
Partitioning concepts 
Starting from the smallest indivisible subnetwork  Contained and containing subnetwork  Contained subnetwork cannot provide connectivity not available in containing subnetwork  Ports on boundary of containing subnetworks and interconnection capability are represented by contained subnetworks

In ASON (Continued«) 
Partitioning concepts (contd«)

In ASON (Continued«) 
Layering concepts 
Layer networks in a client-server model  Termination and Adaptation Functions  Topology and connectivity not visible to client

In ASON (Continued«)

Overview of MPLS/GMPLS Concepts 
Forward Equivalence Class  Label  LSR  LSP Label allocation  Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry (NHLFE)  Route selection

From: Dr. Harry Perros, Connection Oriented Networks (CSC 576), Fall µ06

From: Dr. Harry Perros, Connection Oriented Networks (CSC 576), Fall µ06

Control Plane Architecture In GMPLS 
Peer model  Overlay model Augmented model

Control Plane Architecture In ASON 
Protocol neutral way  Support various transport infrastructure  Applicable irrespective of control plane that has been subdivided into domains

In ASON (Continued«) 
General model of policy 
System is a collection of components  System boundary  Nested system boundaries  Policy port as filters

In ASON (Continued«) 
General model of federation  Creation, deletion and maintenance of connections across multiple domains  Community of domains  Domains cooperate for connection management  Joint Federation Model and Cooperative model

In ASON (Continued«)
Joint federation Model Cooperative Model

In ASON (Continued«) 
Architectural components  Connection controller (CC) component  Routing controller (RC) component  Link resource manager component  Traffic policing (TP) component  Call controller component  Discovery agent (DA)

GMPLS Control Plane, Policy-based Management and Information Modeling 
Policy based Management (PBM)  Improve collaboration between management and GMPLS control plane.  Extending Policy Core Information models (PCIM) with policy events.  Diverse local and global decision logic distributed among multiple network elements and network layers.

Discussion Items 
   

Advantages and Features. Types of GMPLS policies and actions ± few examples Control plane and PBM architecture. GMPLS managed entities Two uses cases to explain PBM in GMPLS

Advantages
Dynamic, flexible and cooperative interworking Traffic engineering (TE) capabilities brought by GMPLS. Improve operational efficiency. New services requires complex and dynamic configurations of network resources.  Avoid configuring node-by-node and consider entire network domain as a whole.  Increase automation by using rule sets. 
  

Features 
Standardized operational processes in multi-vendor environments.  Policy rule - Network operator has control over state changes for a given network function.  Adapting and changing behavior at runtime.  Translating SLA, network and management areas (eg. Routing, configuration, fault management) into policies.  Adding/deleting/modifying policies in policy repository.

Features (Continued«) 
PBM Framework 
Policy based admission control. 

Policy Information Models 
³Policies are used to control the state that a managed object is in at any given time; the state itself is modeled using an information model´.  Policy core Information Model (PCIM), MIB, PIB.  Policy rule ± It is a binding of a set of policy actions to a set of policy conditions.

Policies and Policy Actions 
Admission Control Policy 
Call/connection admission action, Call/connection Rejection Action. 

Signaling Control Policy 
Signaling recovery action 

TE Routing Policy 
Link State Advertisement action, Manage TE Info action 

Path Computation and Selection Policy 
Path computation action, Link Type selection action 

Load Distribution Policy 
Load distribution action 

Recovery related policies««

Control Plane and PBM Architecture 
Need for a separate Control Plane (CP)  Fundamental principles of GMPLS CP 
Separating protocol generic and application specific mechanisms.  TE Link as a unique application specific entity.  Two-stage OSPF architecture and database. 

TE Link ± resource aggregates that are encoded as links with TE attributes.  OSPF-TE with opaque LSA capabilities along with topology LSA distribution.

GMPLS Managed Entities 
Features of NOBEL Information Model. 
Specifies managed entities and represents control plane (CP)  Components, capabilities, interworking of CP components. 

CP Element represents a control plane instance hosted by a CP node.  Separate instances of managed entities for control plane and transport plane entities.

Managed entities representing CP Elements and components

Use Case 1 
Combined call and connection setup via User Network Interface (UNI). 
Considering circuit switch capable GMPLS network.  SLA/SLS information installed in policy and service admission repository.  Global call admission directives in global Call admission policy decision point (PDP) downloaded by policy execution point (PEP).  Local and node specific connection admission policies in global connection admission PDP.

Call and Connection Setup via UNI

Description
[1] connection request using call setup messages over UNI [1b] comparing client id and port with call admission directives, does not match. [2a] call level parameters translate into network resource related requirements and evaluated by LPDP. [2b] requirements verified against general connection admission policy [3] May be asked to renegotiate due to network or node limitation

Continued«
[4] connection setup is delegated to TEC which checks against path selection policy rules with LPDP [5] signaling controller (SgC) requests LPDP to check against signaling control policy rules. [6] ingress node signals modified call setup request.

Use Case 2 
Event Driven TE Policy action for TE link utilization threshold crossing event. 
Emits threshold crossing alert (TSA).  use case example - Predefined percentage (say 85%) of the current forwarding adjacency (FA) packet switched connection (PSC) link unreserved bandwidth is consumed.  TE link utilization thresholds are set. 

TE Control action ± 
New FA PSC LSP  New FA TDM LSP eg. At the server layer.

Event Driven TE Policy Action

Description
[1a] TE link emits TCA to TEC, internal signal. [1b] TE link emits TCA to Management Plane (MP), CP-MP interaction notification. [2] TEC requests PEP to invoke event policy rule. [3] PEP forwards decision request to PDP (local, global or both) [3a],[3b] LPDP evaluates load-distribution action policy rule. If it does not succeed, create LSP create action policy is evaluated with global PDP.

Continued«
[4] LPDP evaluates path computation/selection policy rules and delegates TEC to enforce policy decisions. [5] TEC triggers SgC for setup of server layer. [6] If success, TEC will check LSA update policy and Information dissemination policy to initiate LSA update. [7]. TEC updated TEDB with new FA-LSP and notifies MP about result of policy decision [8a] [8b] TE Link emits state change notification to inform MP.

Bibliography
‡ G.805 ITU-T specification ‡ G.8080 ITU-T specification ‡ ASON Current status of standardization work, B. Zeuner, G. Lehr, Deutsche Telekom ‡ ASON and GMPLS ± The battle of optical control plane
± Data connection limited.

‡ Control plane for Optical networks: The ASON Approach, Andrzej Jajszczyk, AGH University of science and technology, Krakow, Poland ‡ ASON and GMPLS ± Overview and Comparision, S. Tomic, B. Statovci-Halimi, A. Halimi ‡ GMPLS Control Plane, policy based management, and information Modelling, H.Lonsethagen, et. al.

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