Physics PPT

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Physics PPT

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Wave Basics – This is a transverse* wave.

The WAVELENGTH (λ) is the distance between successive wave peaks.

The PERIOD (T) is the time it takes for the wave to move one wavelength.

The FREQUENCY (f) is the reciprocal of the period. f=1/T or T=1/f

The main formula for all waves relates these quantities to the wave speed:

v = λ•f = λ/T

Wavelength (λ)

Amplitude (A)

Wave is propagating to

the right at speed v

*Transverse means the wave propagates perpendicular to the displacement of the Prepared by Vince Zaccone

underlying medium (like waves on water or a string).

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Wave Speeds

•Speed depends on mechanical properties of the medium (i.e. density or tension, etc.)

•All waves in the same medium will travel the same speed*.

•When a wave propagates from one medium to another, its speed and

wavelength will change, but its frequency will be constant.

For the specific case of a wave on a string, we have a formula for speed:

Tension FT

v wave

mass

length

*We will see one exception to this later, when we deal with light (Ch. 23).

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12.6 With what tension must a rope with length 2.5m and mass 0.12 kg be stretched for transverse waves of

frequency 40.0Hz to have a wavelength of 0.75m?

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12.6 With what tension must a rope with length 2.5m and mass 0.12 kg be stretched for transverse waves of

frequency 40.0Hz to have a wavelength of 0.75m?

v ; 0.048

length 2.5m m

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12.6 With what tension must a rope with length 2.5m and mass 0.12 kg be stretched for transverse waves of

frequency 40.0Hz to have a wavelength of 0.75m?

v ; 0.048

length 2.5m m

To use this we need to find the wave speed. Luckily we have a formula for that: v f

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12.6 With what tension must a rope with length 2.5m and mass 0.12 kg be stretched for transverse waves of

frequency 40.0Hz to have a wavelength of 0.75m?

v ; 0.048

length 2.5m m

To use this we need to find the wave speed. Luckily we have a formula for that: v f

v 40Hz 0.75m 30 m

s

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12.6 With what tension must a rope with length 2.5m and mass 0.12 kg be stretched for transverse waves of

frequency 40.0Hz to have a wavelength of 0.75m?

v ; 0.048

length 2.5m m

To use this we need to find the wave speed. Luckily we have a formula for that: v f

v 40Hz 0.75m 30 m

s

Ftension

30 m Ftension 43.2N

s kg

0.048

m

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Constructive Interference:

These waves are “In Phase”

Destructive Interference:

These waves are “Out of Phase”

They are out of sync by ½λ

Interference in action:

Prepared by Vince Zaccone

http://www.kettering.edu/physics/drussell/Demos/superposition/superposition.html

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Standing Waves

When waves are traveling back and forth along the string, they

interfere to form standing waves. These are the only waveforms that

will “fit” on the string. Notice that this pattern gives us our formulas.

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Standing Waves

• Basic formulas for

waves on a string:

2L

n

n

v

fn n n f1

2L

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Standing Waves

• Basic formulas for • For waves in a pipe:

waves on a string: • Both ends open –

2L same as the string

n • One end closed –

n modified formulas

v

fn n n f1 n

4L

; n 1,3,5,7,

2L n

v

fn n ; n 1,3,5,7,

4L

Prepared by Vince Zaccone

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12.18 A wire with mass 40g is stretched so that its ends are tied down at points 80cm apart.

The wire vibrates in its fundamental mode with frequency 60Hz.

a) What is the speed of propagation of transverse waves in the wire?

b) Compute the tension in the wire.

c) What is the frequency and wavelength of the 4th harmonic?

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12.18 A wire with mass 40g is stretched so that its ends are tied down at points 80cm apart.

The wire vibrates in its fundamental mode with frequency 60Hz.

a) What is the speed of propagation of transverse waves in the wire?

b) Compute the tension in the wire.

c) What is the frequency and wavelength of the 4th harmonic?

Since the string is in its fundamental mode (1st harmonic) we have a formula for frequency:

v

f1 1

2L

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12.18 A wire with mass 40g is stretched so that its ends are tied down at points 80cm apart.

The wire vibrates in its fundamental mode with frequency 60Hz.

a) What is the speed of propagation of transverse waves in the wire?

b) Compute the tension in the wire.

c) What is the frequency and wavelength of the 4th harmonic?

Since the string is in its fundamental mode (1st harmonic) we have a formula for frequency:

v

f1 1

2L

Solve this for v:

v (60Hz )(2 80cm) 9600 cm 96 m

s s

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12.18 A wire with mass 40g is stretched so that its ends are tied down at points 80cm apart.

The wire vibrates in its fundamental mode with frequency 60Hz.

a) What is the speed of propagation of transverse waves in the wire?

b) Compute the tension in the wire.

c) What is the frequency and wavelength of the 4th harmonic?

Since the string is in its fundamental mode (1st harmonic) we have a formula for frequency:

v

f1 1

2L

Solve this for v:

v (60Hz )(2 80cm) 9600 cm 96 m

s s

Now we can use our formula for wave speed to find the tension:

v ; 0.05 m

length 0.8m

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12.18 A wire with mass 40g is stretched so that its ends are tied down at points 80cm apart.

The wire vibrates in its fundamental mode with frequency 60Hz.

a) What is the speed of propagation of transverse waves in the wire?

b) Compute the tension in the wire.

c) What is the frequency and wavelength of the 4th harmonic?

Since the string is in its fundamental mode (1st harmonic) we have a formula for frequency:

v

f1 1

2L

Solve this for v:

v (60Hz )(2 80cm) 9600 cm 96 m

s s

Now we can use our formula for wave speed to find the tension:

v ; 0.05

length 0.8m m

Ftension

96 m

s

Ftension 461N

kg

0.05 m

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12.18 A wire with mass 40g is stretched so that its ends are tied down at points 80cm apart.

The wire vibrates in its fundamental mode with frequency 60Hz.

a) What is the speed of propagation of transverse waves in the wire?

b) Compute the tension in the wire.

c) What is the frequency and wavelength of the 4th harmonic?

v

f1 1

2L

Solve this for v:

v (60Hz )(2 80cm) 9600 cm 96 m

s s

Now we can use our formula for wave speed to find the tension:

v ; 0.05

length 0.8m m

Ftension

96 m

s

Ftension 461N

kg

0.05 m

To get the 4th harmonic frequency, just multiply the 1st harmonic by 4

To get the 4th harmonic wavelength, just divide the 1st harmonic by 4

2(80cm)

f4 4 60Hz 240Hz 4 40cm

4 Prepared by Vince Zaccone

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Example: Suppose we have 2 strings. String B has twice the mass density of string A (B is thicker and heavier).

If both wires have the same tension applied to them, how can we adjust their lengths so that their fundamental

frequencies are equal?

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Example: Suppose we have 2 strings. String B has twice the mass density of string A (B is thicker and heavier).

If both wires have the same tension applied to them, how can we adjust their lengths so that their fundamental

frequencies are equal?

v

v

f1 Fundamental frequency

2L

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Example: Suppose we have 2 strings. String B has twice the mass density of string A (B is thicker and heavier).

If both wires have the same tension applied to them, how can we adjust their lengths so that their fundamental

frequencies are equal?

v

v

f1 Fundamental frequency

2L

vA v

We need the fundamental frequencies to be equal: B

2 LA 2 LB

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Example: Suppose we have 2 strings. String B has twice the mass density of string A (B is thicker and heavier).

If both wires have the same tension applied to them, how can we adjust their lengths so that their fundamental

frequencies are equal?

v

v

f1 Fundamental frequency

2L

vA v

We need the fundamental frequencies to be equal: B

2 LA 2 LB

Rearranging this equation: L vB L

B A

vA

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Example: Suppose we have 2 strings. String B has twice the mass density of string A (B is thicker and heavier).

If both wires have the same tension applied to them, how can we adjust their lengths so that their fundamental

frequencies are equal?

v

v

f1 Fundamental frequency

2L

vA v

We need the fundamental frequencies to be equal: B

2 LA 2 LB

Rearranging this equation: L vB L

B A

vA

FT

vB B

Now we can use the formula for wave speed:

vA FT

A

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Example: Suppose we have 2 strings. String B has twice the mass density of string A (B is thicker and heavier).

If both wires have the same tension applied to them, how can we adjust their lengths so that their fundamental

frequencies are equal?

v

v

f1 Fundamental frequency

2L

vA v

We need the fundamental frequencies to be equal: B

2 LA 2 LB

Rearranging this equation: L vB L

B A

vA

FT

vB B A

Now we can use the formula for wave speed:

vA FT B

A

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Example: Suppose we have 2 strings. String B has twice the mass density of string A (B is thicker and heavier).

If both wires have the same tension applied to them, how can we adjust their lengths so that their fundamental

frequencies are equal?

v

v

f1 Fundamental frequency

2L

vA v

We need the fundamental frequencies to be equal: B

2 LA 2 LB

Rearranging this equation: L vB L

B A

vA

FT

vB B A 1

Now we can use the formula for wave speed:

vA FT B 2

A

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Example: Suppose we have 2 strings. String B has twice the mass density of string A (B is thicker and heavier).

If both wires have the same tension applied to them, how can we adjust their lengths so that their fundamental

frequencies are equal?

v

v

f1 Fundamental frequency

2L

vA v

We need the fundamental frequencies to be equal: B

2 LA 2 LB

Rearranging this equation: L vB L

B A

vA

FT

vB B A 1

Now we can use the formula for wave speed:

vA FT B 2

A

1

Finally we can plug this into our previous equation: LB LA

2

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12.19 The portion of string between the bridge and upper end of the fingerboard (the part of the string that is free

to vibrate) of a certain musical instrument is 60.0 cm long and has a mass of 2.81g . The string sounds an A4 note

(440 Hz) when played.

Where must the player put a finger( at what distance x from the bridge) to play a D5 note (587 Hz)? For both

notes, the string vibrates in its fundamental mode.

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12.19 The portion of string between the bridge and upper end of the fingerboard (the part of the string that is free

to vibrate) of a certain musical instrument is 60.0 cm long and has a mass of 2.81g . The string sounds an A4 note

(440 Hz) when played.

Where must the player put a finger( at what distance x from the bridge) to play a D5 note (587 Hz)? For both

notes, the string vibrates in its fundamental mode.

When a string is vibrating in its fundamental mode (i.e. 1st harmonic), its

wavelength is given by λ=2L. In this case λ=1.20m.

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12.19 The portion of string between the bridge and upper end of the fingerboard (the part of the string that is free

to vibrate) of a certain musical instrument is 60.0 cm long and has a mass of 2.81g . The string sounds an A4 note

(440 Hz) when played.

Where must the player put a finger( at what distance x from the bridge) to play a D5 note (587 Hz)? For both

notes, the string vibrates in its fundamental mode.

When a string is vibrating in its fundamental mode (i.e. 1st harmonic), its

wavelength is given by λ=2L. In this case λ=1.20m.

This gives the speed of the waves on this string: v=528 m/s

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12.19 The portion of string between the bridge and upper end of the fingerboard (the part of the string that is free

to vibrate) of a certain musical instrument is 60.0 cm long and has a mass of 2.81g . The string sounds an A4 note

(440 Hz) when played.

Where must the player put a finger( at what distance x from the bridge) to play a D5 note (587 Hz)? For both

notes, the string vibrates in its fundamental mode.

When a string is vibrating in its fundamental mode (i.e. 1st harmonic), its

wavelength is given by λ=2L. In this case λ=1.20m.

This gives the speed of the waves on this string: v=528 m/s

Now we work with the second case, where the finger is placed at a distance x

away from the bridge. The wavelength in this case will be λ=2x.

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12.19 The portion of string between the bridge and upper end of the fingerboard (the part of the string that is free

to vibrate) of a certain musical instrument is 60.0 cm long and has a mass of 2.81g . The string sounds an A4 note

(440 Hz) when played.

Where must the player put a finger( at what distance x from the bridge) to play a D5 note (587 Hz)? For both

notes, the string vibrates in its fundamental mode.

wavelength is given by λ=2L. In this case λ=1.20m.

This gives the speed of the waves on this string: v=528 m/s

Now we work with the second case, where the finger is placed at a distance x

away from the bridge. The wavelength in this case will be λ=2x.

528 ms 587hz 2x

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12.19 The portion of string between the bridge and upper end of the fingerboard (the part of the string that is free

to vibrate) of a certain musical instrument is 60.0 cm long and has a mass of 2.81g . The string sounds an A4 note

(440 Hz) when played.

Where must the player put a finger( at what distance x from the bridge) to play a D5 note (587 Hz)? For both

notes, the string vibrates in its fundamental mode.

wavelength is given by λ=2L. In this case λ=1.20m.

This gives the speed of the waves on this string: v=528 m/s

Now we work with the second case, where the finger is placed at a distance x

away from the bridge. The wavelength in this case will be λ=2x.

Same string – same speed. Substitute into our basic formula to get:

528 ms 587hz 2x

x 45cm

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