This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Superposition Theorem. Thevenin¶s Theorem. Norton¶s Theorem. Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC Circuits. Millman¶s Theorem. Reciprocity Theorem. Tellegen¶s Theorem.

, 16 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

2010

Next

1

Network Theorems

Some special techniques, known as network theorems and network reduction methods, have been developed. These drastically reduce the labour needed to solve a network. These also provide simple conclusions and good insight into the problems.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

2

Superposition Principle

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

3

Superposition Theorem

The response (current or voltage) in a linear network at any point due to multiple sources (current and/or emf) (including linear dependent sources), can be calculated by summing the effects of each source considered separately, all other sources ³turned OFF´ or ³made inoperative´.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

4

´Turning offµ the sources

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

5

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

6

Linear Dependent Source

It is a source whose output current or voltage is proportional only to the first power of some current or voltage variable in the network or to the sum of such quantities. Examples :

**v s ! 0.6i1 16v 2 is linear, v s ! 0.6i
**

2 1

but,

or

**v s ! 0.6i1v 2 is not linear.
**

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

7

Application

Problem : Consider two 1-V batteries in series with a 1- resistor. Let us apply the principle of superposition, and find the power delivered by both the batteries. Solutions : Power delivered by only one source working at a time is P1 = 1 W

, 16 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

2010

Next

8

Therefore, the power delivered by both the sources, P = 2P1 = 2 W The above answer is obviously wrong, because it is a wrong application of the superposition theorem.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

9

Example 1

Find the current I in the network given, using the superposition theorem.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

10

Solution :

0.5 v 0.3 0.15 I1 ! ! ! 0.375 A 0.1 0.3 0.4

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

11

80 v 10 3 I2 ! ! 0.2 A 0.1 0.3 @ I ! I 1 I 2 ! 0.1 A

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

12

Example 2

Using superposition theorem, find current ix in the network given.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

13

Solution :

**10 i1 ! ! 0.05A 50 150
**

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

14

150 i2 ! 40 v ! 30 A 50 150

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

15

**50 i3 ! 120 v ! 30 A 50 150
**

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

16

ix ! i1 i2 i3 ! 0.05 30 30 ! 0.05 A

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

17

Benchmark Example 3

Find voltage v across 3- resistor by applying the principle of superposition.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

18

Solution :

**Using current divider,
**

1 2 i ! 4v ! A 1 (2 3) 3

@

2010

v4 ! i v R ! (2/3 A) v (3 ) ! 2.0 V

, 16 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

19

Using current-divider, the voltage v5 across 3-

« » 1 v5 ! ¬ 5 v A ¼ v (3 ;) ! 2.5V 1 (2 3) ½

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

20

**By voltage divider,
**

3 v6 ! 6 v ! 3.0 V 1 2 3

@

2010

v ! v4 v5 v6 ! 2.0 2.5 3.0 ! 2.5 V

, 16 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

21

Example 4

Find current i2 across R2 resistor by applying the principle of superposition. Where R1=R2=R3=1and S=10 , b= 5 , = .

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 22

Thevenin¶s Theorem

It was first proposed by a French telegraph engineer, M.L. Thevenin in 1883. There also exists an earlier statement of the theorem credited to Helmholtz. Hence it is also known as Helmholtz-Thevenin Theorem. It is useful when we wish to find the response only in a single resistance in a big network.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

23

Thevenin¶s Theorem

Any two terminals AB of a network composed of linear passive and active elements may by replaced by a simple equivalent circuit consisting of

1. 2.

an equivalent voltage source Voc, and an equivalent resistance th in series.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

24

The voltage Voc is equal to the potential difference between the two terminals AB caused by the active network with no external resistance connected to these terminals. The series resistance Rth is the equivalent resistance looking back into the network at the terminals AB with all the sources within the network made inactive, or dead.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

25

Illustrative Example 3

**Using Thevenin¶s theorem, find the current in
**

resistor R2 of 2 .

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

26

Solution :

1. Designate the resistor R2 as ³load´.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

27

2. Pull out the load resistor and enclose the remaining network within a dotted box.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

28

3. Temporarily remove the load resistor R2, leaving the terminals A and B open .

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

29

4. Find the open-circuit voltage across the terminals AB,

28 7 21 I! ! ! 4.2 A; 5 4 1 VAB ! 7 4.2 v 1 ! 11.2

5. This is called Thevenin voltage, VTh = VAB = 11.2 .

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

30

6. Turn OFF all the sources in the circuit

**Find the resistance between terminals A and B. This is the Thevenin resistance, RTh. Thus,
**

1v 4 RTh ! 1 ; || 4 ; ! ! 0.8 1 4

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

31

7. The circuit within the dotted box is replaced by the Thevenin¶s equivalent, consisting of a voltage source of VTh in series with a resistor RTh,

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

32

**8. The load resistor R2 is again connected to Thevenin¶s
**

equivalent forming a single-loop circuit. The current I2 through this resistor is easily calculated,

VTh 11.2 I2 ! ! !4 A RTh R2 0.8 2

Important Comment The equivalent circuit replaces the circuit within the box only for the effects external to the box.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

33

Example 4

Using Thevenin¶s Theorem, find the current in the ammeter A of resistance 1.5 connected in an unbalanced Wheatstone bridge shown.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

34

Solution :

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

35

12 I1 ! ! 0.75 A and 12 4 12 I2 ! ! 1.5 A 26 @ Voc ! VAB ! VAD VBD ! 0.75 v 4 1.5 v 6 ! 6 V

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

36

Ans. -1 A

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

37

Benchmark Example 5

Again consider our benchmark example to determine voltage across 3- resistor by applying Thevenin¶s theorem.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

38

Solution : We treat the 3- resistor as load. Thevenin voltage VTh is the open-circuit voltage (with RL removed). We use source transformation.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

39

@

VTh ! 5 v 1 ! 5 V

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

40

To compute RTh, we turn off all the sources in the circuit within box and get the circuit

Thus, RTh = 3 .

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

41

3 VL ! 5 v ! 2.5 V 3 3

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

42

**Thevenin¶s Theorem for dependent sources
**

Case-I : When circuit contain both dependent and independent sources.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

2010

The open circuit voltage is determined as usual with the sources activated or alive. A sort circuited is applied across the terminal ab and the value of sort circuit current isc is found as usual. Now the thevenin¶s resistance Rth = Voc/isc

, 16 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

43

**Thevenin¶s Theorem for dependent sources
**

Case-II : When circuit contain only dependent sources.

(i) (ii)

(iii)

In this case, Voc = 0. We connect 1A source to terminal ab and calculate the value of Vab. Now the thevenin¶s resistance Rth = Vab/1

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

44

WORKED EXAMPLE 3

Find Thevenin¶s Equivalent circuit across terminal ab.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 45

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 46

Norton¶s Theorem

It is dual of Thevenin¶s Theorem. A two terminal network containing linear passive and active elements can be replaced by an equivalent circuit of a constantcurrent source in parallel with a resistance.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

47

The value of the constant-current source is the short-circuit current developed when the terminals of the original network are short circuited. The parallel resistance is the resistance looking back into the original network with all the sources within the network made inactive (as in Thevenin¶s Theorem).

, 16

2010

Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

48

Example 6

Obtain the Norton¶s equivalent circuit with respect to the terminals AB for the network shown, and hence determine the value of the current that would flow through a load resistor of 5 if it were connected across terminals AB.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

49

Solution : When terminals A-B are shorted

@

, 16 2010

10 5 I ! I1 I 2 ! ! 2.5 5 10

Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

50

Turning OFF the sources,

@

, 16 2010

5 v 10 10 ! RN ! 5 10 3

Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

51

RN (10 / 3) IL ! IN ! 2.5 v ! 1A RN RL (10 / 3) 5

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

52

**Norton¶s Theorem for dependent sources
**

Case-I : When circuit contain both dependent and independent sources.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

2010

The open circuit voltage is determined as usual with the sources activated or alive. A sort circuited is applied across the terminal ab and the value of sort circuit current isc is found as usual. Now the Norton¶s resistance RN = Voc/isc

, 16 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

53

**Norton¶s Theorem for dependent sources
**

Case-II : When circuit contain only dependent sources.

(i) (ii)

(iii)

In this case, ISC = 0. We connect 1A source to terminal ab and calculate the value of Vab. Now the thevenin¶s resistance RN = Vab/1

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

54

Find Norton¶s Equivalent circuit across terminal ab.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 55

WORKED EXAMPLE 3

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 56

Power Transferred to the Load

Consider the circuit :

r E

p

(Variable)

RL

Source

Load

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

57

p pmax

Maximum power is transferred when RL = r.

0

RL = r

RL

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

58

Proof

¨ E ¸ ¹ RL p!© ©R r¹ ª L º 2 dp 2 ( RL r ) v 1 RL v 2( RL r ) v 1 @ !E 4 dRL ( RL r ) or maximizing, e put numerator equal to zero. ( RL r )?( RL r ) 2 RL A! 0

2

r RL
! 0

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

59

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Maximum power is drawn form a source when the Load Resistance is equal to the Source Internal Resistance. When maximum power transfer condition is satisfied, we say that the load is matched with the source. Under maximum power transfer condition, the efficiency of the source is only 50 %.

, 16 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

2010

Next

60

Available Power

What is the maximum power that a source of emf E and internal resistance r can ever deliver ?

Click

Ans.

E 4r

2

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

61

Prove that under maximum power transfer condition, the efficiency of the source is only 50 %.

Po I RL ! 2 v 100 % L| Pin I ( RL r ) ! 50 %

2

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

62

Example 7

The open-circuit voltage of a standard car-battery is 12.6 V, and the short-circuit current is approximately 300 A. What is the available power from the battery ?

Click

Solution : The output impedance of the battery,

**Voc 12.6 Ro ! ! ! 0.042 ; I sc 300
**

Therefore, the available power

Click

2 Th 2 oc 2

**V V (12.6) Pavl ! ! ! ! 945 W 4 RTh 4 Ro 4 v 0.042
**

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

63

Millman·s Theorem

A number of parallel voltage sources V1, V2, V3 «, Vn with internal resistances R1, R2, R3«, Rn, respectively can be replaced by a single voltage source V in series with equivalent resistance R.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

64

Equivalent Circuit

and

, 16 2010

**V1G1 V2G2 V3G3 ... Vn Gn V! G1 G2 G3 ... Gn 1 1 R! ! G G1 G2 G3 ... Gn
**

Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

65

Reciprocity Theorem

In a linear bilateral network, if a voltage source V in a branch A produces a current I in any other branch B, then the same voltage source V acting in the branch B would produce the same current I in branch.

**The ratio V/I is known as the transfer resistance.
**

Let us verify the reciprocity theorem by considering an example.

, 16

Click

2010

Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

66

Example 8

In the network shown, find the current in branch B due to the voltage source of 36 V in branch A. Now transfer the voltage source to branch B and find the current in branch A. Is the reciprocity theorem established ? Also, determine the transfer resistance from branch A to branch B.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

67

Solution : The equivalent resistance for the voltage source,

Req ! 2 [12 || (3 1)] 4 ! 2 3 4 ! 9 ;

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

68

**The current supplied by the voltage source = 36/9 = 4 A. Using current divider, the current I in branch B,
**

12 I ! 4v !3A 12 4

Now, transferring the voltage source to branch B,

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

69

**The equivalent resistance for the voltage source,
**

Req ! 3 [12 ( 2 4)] 1 ! 3 4 1 ! 8 ;

The current supplied by the voltage source = 36/8 = 4.5 A. Using current divider, the current I¶ in branch A, 12 I ' ! 4. 5 v !3A 12 6 The transfer resistance

V 36 Rtr ! ! ! 12 I 3

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

70

Tellegen¶s Theorem.

It was published in 1952 by Bernard Tellegen. It is valid for any lumped network that contains any elements, linear or nonlinear, passive or active. It simply state that the sum of instantaneous power delivered to each branch of a network is zero. If there are b branches in a lumped circuit, and the voltage uk, current ik of each branch apply passive sign convention, then we have

b

§

, 16 2010

u k ik ! 0

Ch. 4 Network Theorems

k !1

Next

71

Example 9

In the network shown in Fig 42, Verify Tellegen's theorem. The

values of components used are presented below. V1=15V, V2= 6V, R1=2 , R2=3 , R3=3 , R4=2 R5= 5 , R6=3 .

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

72

Review

Superposition Theorem. Thevenin¶s Theorem. Norton¶s Theorem. Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC Circuits. Millman¶s Theorem. Reciprocity Theorem.

, 16 2010 Ch. 4 Network Theorems

Next

73

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Calculating the Equivalent Thevenin Source Voltage and Series Resistance is Actually Quite Easy
- Basic Electronics
- Kirchhoff
- Me6 Lab Manual 2012-2
- B_DL377SI(RU)_SI2.00.pdf
- analysisOfSCCmfbCircuit
- UT70A Eng Manual
- Lab Assignment
- CHAPT.4-Dc Equivalent Circuit
- Tda 2003
- Syllabus for BSNL TTA Exam
- 14A Non-Isolated Flyback Report
- N-D-12 R09
- SolutionChap33.pdf
- ee lab manual
- Electronics
- Resistors
- e1-03.pdf
- DK1913_CH10
- 02 Frank Hertz
- 10.1.1.126
- Electrical Circuit
- TP15AT AC/DC Converters
- F2014 8B Lec2 MT1
- r05010401 Network Analysis
- Ohms Law
- RESISTENCIAS
- SS9A- Parallel and Series Circuits
- Resistor Fusible
- ELECS1_GROUP2
- UNIT-3 Network Theorems