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Group Members:

Chin Jing Ting

Lim Chia Yie
Tan Jia Xin
Benjamin Ooi
 Learning objectives describe the measurable skills, abilities, knowledge, or values
that students should be able to do or demonstrate as a result of a completing a
program of study, a course, or lesson.
 Learning objectives are student-centered rather than teacher-centered, in that they
describe what the students will do, not what the instructor will teach.
Objectives are:
Goals are: narrow / specific
•concrete, easy to measure / assess
broad / general
•usually set for a short term
intentions or
directions Learning Objectives to support the goal:
abstract, hard to e.g. :
By the end of this course, students will be able
measure to:
•Explain how to use cases to construct legal
usually have a
longer time frame •Predict the probable judicial resolution of
simulated legal disputes
•Describe the nature and sources of ethical
standards of the legal profession
 The creation of learning objectives focuses attention away from the delivery of instruction and
onto the students. This re-focusing may also help in the following areas:

1. Managing learning: Management of learning suggests a more active role by the student.
Students can use objectives to guide their learning efforts -- choosing appropriate
materials, reading selectively, etc. Objectives can also be used for self-evaluation, which
may direct the student's efforts (e.g., skipping ahead or reviewing).

2. Planning instruction: Once you have developed learning objectives for a course or
module of learning, it can become easier to sequence instruction, allot time to topics,
assemble materials, and organize instructional time. Learning objectives can also be used
as a guide to developing learning activities, which can engage learners in ways that match
the desired learning outcome, (e.g., small-group work, independent study, Socratic
questioning, etc.).
3. Enhancing learning: If the student has a set of learning objectives which
provide information about the content to be learned and the way in which
he/she will have to demonstrate adequate knowledge, that student can make
more appropriate choices about study methods and content emphasis.
4. Facilitating assessment: Learning objectives can facilitate various forms of
assessment, which may be formative or summative. Learning objectives can
form the basis for grading or for determining levels of student achievement.
The goal of formative assessment is to gather feedback that can be used by
the instructor and the students to guide improvements in the ongoing
teaching and learning context. The goal of summative assessment is to
measure the level of success or proficiency that has been obtained at the
end of a course or instructional module. This can be more effectively
accomplished by comparing student work with the learning objective(s).
5. Designing or redesigning curriculum: To revise the curriculum or
instruction in a particular course, you may begin with the learning
objectives for that course and/or program outcomes for the program and
work backwards. Sets of learning objectives for one course may be
compared with the expected entry behaviors for the next course in the
sequence. The two should interlock; where they do not, curriculum
adjustments can be made.

6. Producing new insights: The process of clarifying objectives may produce

major changes in those who engage in the effort. For example, instructors
who spend time developing learning objectives are said to acquire
increased understanding about what is a feasible goal.
 For each daily lesson plan, we must include the learning objectives into it to state
the specific ‘behaviour’ needed to be achieved by the students.
 For example:
By the end of the lesson, pupils will be able to:
Answer 4 out of 5 questions from the poem in the worksheet given
with appropriate language.
Able to fill in all the blanks of the paragraph in the appropriate
Able to complete a poster with the correct slogan.
 Once you establish all the behaviours, conditions and degrees of mastery for each
objective, you can use them to determine what types of assignments, tests or alternative
assessment (e.g. a portfolio) you should use in the course.


 After writing learning objectives, you should to think about how to assess the students'
achievement of the different learning objectives.

 Different learning objectives define the scope and methods of assessment.

 Relating different levels of objectives with assessment instruments and all items that are
graded will make sure you achieve your specific objectives.
School Based Assessment (SBA) is a holistic assessment of the rating of
cognitive, affective and psychomotor in line with the National
Education Philosophy and the national educational curriculum. These
assessments need to be designed, built, managed, checked, recorded
and reported by the respective school teachers.

Under this assessment, standards performance is used to evaluate the

progress and growth of learning and achievement of primary schools'
School Based Assessment (DSKP BI Year 4)

 Formative assessment is a part of school-based assessment. Formative

assessment, or assessment for learning is an important aspect of teaching
and learning in the classroom and good pedagogy always includes
 Formative assessment is carried out for teachers to gain feedback on their
pupils’ learning and provide them with the necessary information regarding
their pupils’ learning so that they can make changes to their teaching to
enhance their pupils’ learning. Thus, formative assessment is carried out
during teaching and learning in the classroom.
School Based Assessment (DSKP BI Year 4)

 In order to help teachers to carry out effective school based assessment, the
assessment element has been incorporated into this document together with
the content and learning standards.
 Teachers should refer to the Performance Standard to help them ascertain the
level of their pupils’ acquisition of the various learning standards. The levels
are meant to help teachers gauge the level of their pupils’ understanding and
acquisition of the skills taught.
 With this knowledge, teachers may change their approach or methodology to
help their pupils master the intended learning standard.
School Based Assessment (DSKP BI Year 4)

 Teachers many also use this document to assess their pupils after
a few units of study or at the end of the term to help them
determine the achievement levels of their pupils. Pupils are
assessed to determine their performance level in the different
skills of listening and speaking, reading, writing and language

 Multiple sources of evidence like checklists, observations,

presentations, quizzes and tests can be used to document the
attainment of the learning standards. Through this process,
teachers will be able to build a profile of their pupils’ language
development through an ongoing assessment.
 To assess students’ understanding and
achievements of learning outcomes, we need to
incorporate assessment into our daily lesson plan.
 In can come in the form of tests, quizzes or even
performances at the end of the class.
 For example, students can be instructed to act out a
role play in the end of a listening and speaking