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KINEMATICS : study of object in motion

Mechanics which deals with describing the

motion of fluids without necessarily

considering the forces and moments that

cause the motion

IDEAL AND REAL FLUIDS

IDEAL FLUID

• A fluid which can not be compressed and have

no viscosity falls in the category of ideal fluid.

Ideal fluid is not found in actual practice but it

is an imaginary fluid because all the fluid that

exist in the environment have some viscosity.

there is no ideal fluid in reality.

REAL FLUID

• A fluid which has atleast some viscosity is

called real fluid. Actually all the fluids existing

or present in the environment are called real

fluids. for example water.

METHODS OF DESCRIBING THE MOTION

OF FLUIDS

• LAGRANGIAN METHOD

• EULERIAN METHOD

LAGRANGIAN METHOD

• A system of approach to track the velocity and

position of every individual particle of the

fluid

followed at each point. Fluid particles are

determined as the fluid particle move about.)

Louis Langrange

EULERIAN METHOD

• A system of approach to describe the fluid

flow with their control volume through which

the fluid flows in and out

any particular particle, but rather about the

velocity, acceleration, etc of whatever particle

happens to be at a particular location of

interest at a particular time)

Euler.

PATHLINES, STREAK LINES AND

STREAMLINES

PATHLINE

• Is the locus of points traversed by a given

particle as it travels in a field of flow; the

pathline provides us with a history of the

particles locations.

individual fluid particle over some period of

time

STREAKLINE

• Defined as an instantaneous line whose points

are occupied by all particles originating from

some specified point in the flow field.

passed a particular fixed point in the flow

STREAMLINE

• A streamline is a curve, at any given time the

local velocity is tangential to the curve.

Streamlines are often drawn to visualize the

flow field.

• At every point in the flow field, a streamline is

tangent to the velocity vector.

CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWS

Classification Based on Variation with Time

• STEADY FLOW

Flow parameters such as velocity, pressure,

density and discharge do not vary with time

• UNSTEADY FLOW

Flow parameters vary with respect to time

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VARIATION

WITH SPACE

• UNIFORM

The fluid flow is uniform if the flow

parameters remain constant with distance

along the flow path

• NON-UNIFORM

If flow parameters vary and are different at

different points o the flow path

UNIFORM AND NON-UNIFORM FLOW

EXAMPLES

• Steady and Uniform Flow: Flow through a pipeline of constant

diameter with a discharge constant with time.

• Steady and Non-Uniform Flow: Fixed discharge flow through a

tapering pipe. Water flow through a river with a constant discharge is

also a good example of such flow as the span of river generally varies

with distance and amount of water flow in river is constant.

• Unsteady and Uniform Flow: A flow through pipeline of constant cross

section with sudden changes in fluid discharge or pressure.

• Unsteady and Non-Uniform Flow: Pressure surges in a flow through a

pipe of variable cross section. A practical example can be the water

flow in the network of canals during water release.

STREAM TUBE

• A tube whose walls are streamlines.

• Since velocity is tangent to a streamline, no

fluid can cross the walls of a steam tube

• A pipe is a steam tube since its walls are

stream lines

• An open tunnel is a steam tube since no fluid

crosses the walls of the tunnel.

ONE, TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL

FLOW

ONE DIMENSIONAL FLOW

• A flow in which the velocity vector depends on

only one space variable.

• Developed Flows: The velocity profile do not

vary with respect to the space coordinate in

the direction of flow.

• Uniform Flow: The fluid properties are

constant over the area.

4/8/2018

TWO DIMENSIONAL FLOW

• A flow in which the velocity vector depends on

only two space variables

• Plane Flow: The velocity vector depends on

the two coordinates x and y.

THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW

• A flow in which the velocity vector depends on

only three space variables

with pressures and velocities and other flow

properties varying in all directions

• Stagnation Point: The point where fluids come

to rest.

4/8/2018

VISCOUS AND INVISCID FLOWS

*VISCOSITY – a measure of internal stickiness of

fluid

INVISCID FLOW

• Inviscid flow is the flow of an inviscid fluid, in

which the viscosity of the fluid is equal to zero.

• -One in which viscous effects do not

significantly influence the flow and are thus

neglected.

INVISCID FLOW

VISCOUS FLOW

• the effects of viscosity are important and

cannot be ignored

LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW

LAMINAR FLOW

• Fluid particles move along well defined paths

or stream line

• In laminar flow, the fluid flows in layers

parallel to each other. No mixing.

TURBULENT FLOW

• Fluid moves in very irregular paths or zigzag

way

• In turbulent flow, the velocity is fluctuating

with time and a strong mixing occurs between

fluid layers.

REYNOLDS NUMBER

• Named after Osborne Reynolds who

conducted the experiment in the year 1883

REYNOLDS NUMBER

The ratio of inertia force to viscous force

is said to be the Reynolds number

respectively and v is the kinematic viscosity

TYPES OF FLOW BASED ON REYNOLDS

NUMBER

• If Re < 2000, the flow is said to be LAMINAR

• If Re > 4000, the flow is said to be TURBULENT

• If Reynold number i.e. 2000 < RN < 4000,we

observe a flow in which we can see both

laminar and turbulent flow to gather. This flow

is called Transition flow.

EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

• The 2-cm diameter pipe is used to transport

water at 20 degree Celsius. What is the

maximum average velocity that may exist in

the pipe for which Laminar flow us guaranteed?

EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

• Oil of viscosity 0.05 kg/m.s and 860 kg/m3

flows in a 0.1 m diameter pipe with a velocity

of 0.6 m/s. Determine the type of flow.

EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

• Oil of Sp. Gr 0.095 is flowing through a pipe of

20 cm in diameter. if a rate of flow 50

liters/second and viscosity of oil is 1

poise , decide the type of flow.

INCOMPRESSIBLE AND COMPRESSIBLE

FLOWS

INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

• It exists if the density of each fluid particle

remains relatively constant as it moves

through the flow field.

COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

• It exists if the density of fluid changes from

point to point

Mach Number

• Named after Ernst Mach

and the wave speed c = kRT

Mach Number

• IF M<0.3 DENSITY VARIATIONS ARE MOST 3%

AND THE FLOW IS ASSUMED TO BE

INCOMPRESSIBLE

• IF M>0.3, SUCH FLOWS ARE COMPRESSIBLE

ANGULAR VELOCITY AND VORTICITY

Angular Velocity

• The average angular velocity of two

perpendicular line segments of a fluid particle.

Key Concept

• A fluid particle contains a large number of

molecules.

4/8/2018

Irrotational Flows

• Flows where the fluid particles do not rotate.

Vorticity

• Twice the angular velocity; its three

components are

4/8/2018

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