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FLUID KINEMATICS

WHAT IS FLUID KINEMATICS???


KINEMATICS : study of object in motion

• FLUID KINEMATICS is a branch of Fluid


Mechanics which deals with describing the
motion of fluids without necessarily
considering the forces and moments that
cause the motion
IDEAL AND REAL FLUIDS
IDEAL FLUID
• A fluid which can not be compressed and have
no viscosity falls in the category of ideal fluid.
Ideal fluid is not found in actual practice but it
is an imaginary fluid because all the fluid that
exist in the environment have some viscosity.
there is no ideal fluid in reality.
REAL FLUID
• A fluid which has atleast some viscosity is
called real fluid. Actually all the fluids existing
or present in the environment are called real
fluids. for example water.
METHODS OF DESCRIBING THE MOTION
OF FLUIDS
• LAGRANGIAN METHOD

• EULERIAN METHOD
LAGRANGIAN METHOD
• A system of approach to track the velocity and
position of every individual particle of the
fluid

(In lagrangian method, a fluid particle is being


followed at each point. Fluid particles are
determined as the fluid particle move about.)

-named after the Italian mathematician Joseph


Louis Langrange
EULERIAN METHOD
• A system of approach to describe the fluid
flow with their control volume through which
the fluid flows in and out

(Not concerned about the location or velocity of


any particular particle, but rather about the
velocity, acceleration, etc of whatever particle
happens to be at a particular location of
interest at a particular time)

-named after the Swiss mathematician Leonhard


Euler.
PATHLINES, STREAK LINES AND
STREAMLINES
PATHLINE
• Is the locus of points traversed by a given
particle as it travels in a field of flow; the
pathline provides us with a history of the
particles locations.

• A pathline is the actual path travelled by an


individual fluid particle over some period of
time
STREAKLINE
• Defined as an instantaneous line whose points
are occupied by all particles originating from
some specified point in the flow field.

• A streakline joins all the particles which have


passed a particular fixed point in the flow
STREAMLINE
• A streamline is a curve, at any given time the
local velocity is tangential to the curve.
Streamlines are often drawn to visualize the
flow field.
• At every point in the flow field, a streamline is
tangent to the velocity vector.
CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWS
Classification Based on Variation with Time

• STEADY FLOW
Flow parameters such as velocity, pressure,
density and discharge do not vary with time

• UNSTEADY FLOW
Flow parameters vary with respect to time
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VARIATION
WITH SPACE
• UNIFORM
The fluid flow is uniform if the flow
parameters remain constant with distance
along the flow path
• NON-UNIFORM
If flow parameters vary and are different at
different points o the flow path
UNIFORM AND NON-UNIFORM FLOW
EXAMPLES
• Steady and Uniform Flow: Flow through a pipeline of constant
diameter with a discharge constant with time.
• Steady and Non-Uniform Flow: Fixed discharge flow through a
tapering pipe. Water flow through a river with a constant discharge is
also a good example of such flow as the span of river generally varies
with distance and amount of water flow in river is constant.
• Unsteady and Uniform Flow: A flow through pipeline of constant cross
section with sudden changes in fluid discharge or pressure.
• Unsteady and Non-Uniform Flow: Pressure surges in a flow through a
pipe of variable cross section. A practical example can be the water
flow in the network of canals during water release.
STREAM TUBE
• A tube whose walls are streamlines.
• Since velocity is tangent to a streamline, no
fluid can cross the walls of a steam tube
• A pipe is a steam tube since its walls are
stream lines
• An open tunnel is a steam tube since no fluid
crosses the walls of the tunnel.
ONE, TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL
FLOW
ONE DIMENSIONAL FLOW
• A flow in which the velocity vector depends on
only one space variable.
• Developed Flows: The velocity profile do not
vary with respect to the space coordinate in
the direction of flow.
• Uniform Flow: The fluid properties are
constant over the area.

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TWO DIMENSIONAL FLOW
• A flow in which the velocity vector depends on
only two space variables
• Plane Flow: The velocity vector depends on
the two coordinates x and y.
THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW
• A flow in which the velocity vector depends on
only three space variables

• In general, all fluids flow three-dimensionally,


with pressures and velocities and other flow
properties varying in all directions
• Stagnation Point: The point where fluids come
to rest.
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VISCOUS AND INVISCID FLOWS
*VISCOSITY – a measure of internal stickiness of
fluid
INVISCID FLOW
• Inviscid flow is the flow of an inviscid fluid, in
which the viscosity of the fluid is equal to zero.
• -One in which viscous effects do not
significantly influence the flow and are thus
neglected.
INVISCID FLOW
VISCOUS FLOW
• the effects of viscosity are important and
cannot be ignored
LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW
LAMINAR FLOW
• Fluid particles move along well defined paths
or stream line
• In laminar flow, the fluid flows in layers
parallel to each other. No mixing.
TURBULENT FLOW
• Fluid moves in very irregular paths or zigzag
way
• In turbulent flow, the velocity is fluctuating
with time and a strong mixing occurs between
fluid layers.
REYNOLDS NUMBER
• Named after Osborne Reynolds who
conducted the experiment in the year 1883
REYNOLDS NUMBER
The ratio of inertia force to viscous force
is said to be the Reynolds number

Where L and V are a characteristic length and velocity,


respectively and v is the kinematic viscosity
TYPES OF FLOW BASED ON REYNOLDS
NUMBER
• If Re < 2000, the flow is said to be LAMINAR
• If Re > 4000, the flow is said to be TURBULENT
• If Reynold number i.e. 2000 < RN < 4000,we
observe a flow in which we can see both
laminar and turbulent flow to gather. This flow
is called Transition flow.
EXAMPLE PROBLEMS
• The 2-cm diameter pipe is used to transport
water at 20 degree Celsius. What is the
maximum average velocity that may exist in
the pipe for which Laminar flow us guaranteed?
EXAMPLE PROBLEMS
• Oil of viscosity 0.05 kg/m.s and 860 kg/m3
flows in a 0.1 m diameter pipe with a velocity
of 0.6 m/s. Determine the type of flow.
EXAMPLE PROBLEMS
• Oil of Sp. Gr 0.095 is flowing through a pipe of
20 cm in diameter. if a rate of flow 50
liters/second and viscosity of oil is 1
poise , decide the type of flow.
INCOMPRESSIBLE AND COMPRESSIBLE
FLOWS
INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW
• It exists if the density of each fluid particle
remains relatively constant as it moves
through the flow field.

COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
• It exists if the density of fluid changes from
point to point
Mach Number
• Named after Ernst Mach

Where V is the gas


and the wave speed c = kRT
Mach Number
• IF M<0.3 DENSITY VARIATIONS ARE MOST 3%
AND THE FLOW IS ASSUMED TO BE
INCOMPRESSIBLE
• IF M>0.3, SUCH FLOWS ARE COMPRESSIBLE
ANGULAR VELOCITY AND VORTICITY
Angular Velocity
• The average angular velocity of two
perpendicular line segments of a fluid particle.
Key Concept
• A fluid particle contains a large number of
molecules.

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Irrotational Flows
• Flows where the fluid particles do not rotate.
Vorticity
• Twice the angular velocity; its three
components are

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