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Special Topics in Engineering

(unit 6)

Special Topics
 Ergonomics
 Stress Management
 Designing Layout of Office Space
 Total Quality Management
 Value Chain Analysis
 Lean Management

Ergonomics is defined as the scientific study of
the relationship between man and his working
environment. The primary aims of ergonomics
is to optimize the functioning of a system by
adapting it to human capacities and needs.

Objective of Ergonomics
 To enhance the effectiveness with which work
and other human activities are carried out
 To maintain or enhance certain desirable human
values in the process, health, safety, satisfaction
 To enhance and preserve human health and
 To optimize the human performance in a system

Importance of Ergonomics
 Its Scope is not limited to any particular industry or
 Work systems, sports and leisure, health and safety should all
embody ergonomics principles if well designed.
 The ability of people to do their job is influenced by the
person's capabilities (physical and mental), the job demand
(physical and mental) and the condition (physical and
organizational environment) under which the person is
carrying out the job.
 Concerned with both employees’ well-being as well as
organization well-being.
 The keywords of ergonomics are; health, comfort and
 Stress is the mental, physical and emotional reactions
you experience as a results of demands of your life.
 In medical terms stress is described as, "a physical or
psychological stimulus that can produce mental
tension or physiological reactions that may lead to
 When you are under stress, your adrenal gland
releases corticosteroids, which are converted to
cortisol in the blood stream.

Cause of Stress at Work
 To meet out the demands of the job.
 Your relationship with colleagues.
 To control staff under you.
 To train your staff and take work from them.
 Support you receive from your boss, colleagues and
 Excessive work pressure.
 To meet out deadlines.
 To give new results.
 To produce new publications if you are in research area.
Cause of Stress at Work
 Working overtime and on holidays.
 New work hours.
 Promotion or you have not been promoted or your junior
has superseded you.
 Argument or heated conversations with co-workers or
 Change of job.
 Work against will.
 Harassment.
 Sexual molestation.

Stress Management
 Take deep breath for instant stress relief
 Be organized. Manage time
 Know your stressors
 Know your capabilities & limits
 Avoid negative thinking
 Talk to others
 Be physically active (Yoga/Exercise/Dietary Habits)
 Stress Management Trainings

Office Layouts
 Office layouts are arranged so that staff can work
together in departmental and team groupings,
providing the best opportunity for efficient work
flow, communication and supervision.
 In many organizations, office layouts are subject to
frequent changes. This process is referred to as churn
rate, expressed as the percentage of the staff moved
during a year.

Layouts Considerations
 Business Needs
 Partition
 Services
 Staff Welfare Facilities

Quality Definition
Definition 1 (General Definition)
Measure of excellence or state of being free from defects, deficiencies, and significant
The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears its ability to
satisfy stated or implied needs.

Definition 2 (Manufacturing Definition)

Strict and consistent adherence to measurable and verifiable standards to achieve
uniformity of output that satisfies specific customer or user requirements.

Definition 3 (Objective Definition)

Measurable and verifiable aspect of a thing or phenomenon, expressed in numbers or
quantities, such as lightness or heaviness, thickness or thinness, softness or hardness.

Definition 4 (Subjective Definition)

Attribute, characteristic, or property of a thing or phenomenon that can be observed and
interpreted, and may be approximated (quantified) but cannot be measured, such as
beauty, feel, flavor, taste.

Poor quality is responsible to increase scrap and production loss

Dimension of Quality
“Quality” is a difficult concept to define with any precision

In order to develop a more complete definition of quality, we must consider

some of the key dimensions of a quality product or service.

Dimension 1: Performance
Dimension 2: Features
Dimension 3: Reliability
Dimension 4: Conformance
Dimension 5: Durability
Dimension 6: Serviceability
Dimension 7: Aesthetics
Dimension 8: Perception/Price

Poor quality is responsible to increase External failure

Cost of Poor Quality
1. Internal Failure Costs.
These are costs of deficiencies discovered before delivery which are
associated with the failure (nonconformities) to meet explicit
requirements or implicit needs of external or internal customers.
2. External Failure Cost
These are costs associated with deficiencies that are found after product
is received by the customer. Also included are lost opportunities for
sales revenue.
3. Appraisal Costs (A specific category of quality control costs)
These are the costs incurred to determine the degree of conformance to
quality requirements.
Companies pay appraisal costs as part of the quality control process to
ensure that their products and services meet customer expectations and
regulatory requirements. These costs could include expenses for field
tests and inspections.
4. Prevention Costs
These are costs incurred to keep failure and appraisal costs to a

The Total Cost Of Quality is the sum of the 4 categories above.

Total Quality Management
 TQM is an integrated approach in delighting customers
(both external and internal) by meeting their expectations
on a continuous basis through everyone involved with
the organization working on continuous improvement in
all products, services and process along with proper
solving methodology.
 TQM companies are focused on the systematic
management of data of all processes and practices to
eliminate waste and pursue continuous improvement.
Primary Elements of TQM
 Customer Focused
 Total Employee Improvement
 Process Centered
 Integrated System
 Strategic and systematic approach
 Continual improvement
 Fact-based decision making
 Communications

PDCA Cycle
Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance
with the expected output. By making the expected output the focus, it differs from
other techniques in that the completeness and accuracy of the specification is also
part of the improvement.

Implement the new processes. Often on a small scale if possible.

Measure the new processes and compare the results against the expected results
to ascertain any differences.

Analyze the differences to determine their cause. Each will be part of either one
or more of the P-D-C-A steps. Determine where to apply changes that will
include improvement. When a pass through these four steps does not result in the
need to improve, refine the scope to which PDCA is applied until there is a plan
that involves improvement.
PDCA Cycle
Tools of Quality
 Cause and Effect Diagram
 Check Sheet
 Control Chart
 Histogram
 Pareto Chart (Line + Bar Chart)
 Scatter Diagram
 Flowchart

Ishikawa Cause & effect diagrams
 Cause-and-effect diagrams are Purpose of Fish Bone Diagram
diagrams that show the causes of a
certain event.
 The cause factors & the
relationship are displayed
 Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram
are product design and quality defect
prevention, to identify potential factors  Identifies problem areas where
causing an overall effect. data should be collected and
 Each cause or reason for imperfection
is a source of variation.

 Promoted by Kawasaki
Ishikawa Cause & effect diagrams
Control Chart
 Is a graph used to study how a process changes over time
 Data are plotted in time order.
 Control chart always has a central line for the average, an
upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for
the lower control limit
 Average, UCL, LCL lines are determined from historical
 Comparing current data to average, UCL and LCL lines,
we draw conclusions whether the process variation is
consistent (in control) or is unpredictable (out of control,
affected by special causes of variation).

Control Chart

Quality Gurus
What is a quality guru?
 a wise person and a teacher of quality
 plus have a concept and approach to quality within
business that has made a major and lasting impact.
 The gurus mentioned in this section have done, and
continue to do, that, in some cases, even after their death.

The gurus:
 There have been three groups of gurus since 1940’s:
 Early 1950’s Americans who took the messages of quality
to Japan
 Late 1950’s Japanese who developed new concepts in
response to the Americans
 1970’s-1980’s Western gurus who followed the Japanese
industrial success
 Benchmarking is the process of comparing one's
business processes and performance metrics to industry
bests or best practices from other industries.
Dimensions typically measured are quality, time and

 Management identifies the best firms in their industry,

or in another industry where similar processes exist,
and compares the results and processes of those studied
(the "targets") to one's own results and processes.

Value Chain Analysis

Cost Advantage: by better understanding costs and squeezing them out of

the value-adding activities.

Differentiation: by focusing on those activities associated with core competencies

and capabilities in order to perform them better than do their
Lean Management
 The core idea is to maximize customer value while minimizing
waste. Simply, lean means creating more value for customers
with fewer resources.
 A lean organization understands customer value and focuses
its key processes to continuously increase it. The ultimate goal
is to provide perfect value to the customer through a perfect
value creation process that has zero waste.
 To accomplish this, lean thinking changes the focus of
management from optimizing separate technologies, assets,
and vertical departments to optimizing the flow of products
and services through entire value streams that flow
horizontally across technologies, assets, and departments to
Lean Management
 Eliminating waste along entire value streams, instead of at
isolated points, creates processes that need less human effort,
less space, less capital, and less time to make products and
services at far less costs and with much fewer defects, compared
with traditional business systems. Companies are able to respond
to changing customer desires with high variety, high quality, low
cost, and with very fast throughput times. Also, information
management becomes much simpler and more accurate.

Principles of Lean
The thought process for guiding the implementation of lean
techniques is easy to remember, but not always easy to
1. Defining value from the standpoint of the end
2. Identifying each step in a business process and
eliminating those steps that do not create value
3. Strive for perfection by continually removing wastes

Lean principle

Lean Manufacturing
 Is a systematic method for waste minimization within
a manufacturing system without sacrificing
 It takes into account waste created through
overburden and waste created through unevenness in
work loads
 Consumer Perspective: "value" is any action or
process that a customer would be willing to pay for.
 Lean manufacturing makes obvious what adds value,
by reducing everything else that doesn't add value
 Toyota Production System a suitable example of
Goals of Lean Manufacturing
 Improve Quality
 To stay competitive in today's marketplace, a company must understand its
customers' wants and needs and design processes to meet their expectations
and requirements.

 Eliminate Wastes
 Waste is any activity that consumes time, resources, or space but does not
add any value to the product or service.

 Reduce Time
 Reducing the time it takes to finish an activity from start to finish is one of
the most effective ways to eliminate waste and lower costs.

 Reduce Total Cost

 To minimize cost, a company must produce only to customer demand.
Overproduction increases a company’s inventory costs because of storage
Wastes as Classified by TPS
 Transport (moving products that are not actually
required to perform the processing)
 Inventory (all components, work in process, and
finished product not being processed)
 Motion (people or equipment moving or walking
more than is required to perform the processing)
 Waiting (waiting for the next production step,
interruptions of production during shift change)
 Overproduction (production ahead of demand)

Wastes as Classified by TPS
 Over Processing (resulting from poor tool or product
design creating activity)
 Defects (the effort involved in inspecting for and
fixing defects)
Wastes Later Added
 Unused Human Resources
 Manufacturing goods or services that do not meet
customer demand or specifications
 Unused Space

Achieving Lean Manufacturing
 Design a simple manufacturing system
 Decreased cycle time
 Less inventory
 Increased productivity
 Increased capital equipment utilization
 Recognize that there is always room for improvement
 Continuously improve the lean manufacturing system