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Disposal method for solid waste including potential method

of disposal


• Disposal methods
1. Open dumping
2. Sanitary landfill
3. Incineration
4. Composting
• Potential method of disposal
1. Utilization
2. Recovery and recycling


• The process of selection of the right solid waste disposal

method is a complex one due to the heterogeneity the urban
refuse, but an appropriate selection can save thousads of
rupees and avoid future problems for the average municipality.
• This disposal method should be selected in such a way that the
present requirements are fulfilled and future situations are
• The method should also provide opportunities for recycling of
materials, if possible, and should not pollute the air, the ground
water, the surface water or the land.


• Several disposal methods are being used in the various parts of

the world and the most prominent of these are:
1. Open dumping
2. Sanitary landfill
3. Incineration
4. Composting


• Open dumping of solid wastes is practised extensively in india

because it is cheap and requires no planning
• Generally, the low-lying areas out-skirts of the towns and
cities are used for the purpose
• The open dumps cause public health problems by encouraging
the breeding of flies, rats, mosquitoes and other pests
• They also become a source of objectionable odours and couse
air pollution when the wastes burned in order to reduce their
volume and conserve space


• Sanitary landfilling is an engineered operation, design and

operated according to acceptable standards.
• It may be defined as a method of disposing refuse on land
without creating nuisance or hazards to public health or safety
the operation is carried out without environmental damage and
in areas already spoiled or in need of restoration
• In sanitary landfill operation, refuse is spread and compacted
in their layers within a small area. This layered structure is
usually referred to as a cell. To allow for proper compaction
the cell depth should not exceed about 2 metres. The cell is
then covered with a layer of soil which is spread uniformly
and then compacted. To provide an adequate steel the ‘cover’
should I normally be at least 20 cm thick.

• If the refuse includes large irregular objects it may be

necessary to increase the thickness of the cover
• Hand a cover thickness of less than 15 CM maybe satisfactory
if the refuse has been pulverized
• When a number of cell reach the final desired elevation, final
cover of about 1 m of earth is placed and it is again
compacted. This final cover is necessary to prevent rodents
from burrowing into the refuse.
• Figure show the cross sectional area of a typical sanitary

Fig. Sanitary landfill operation[1]


• Incineration involves the burning of solid waste at high

temperatures; leftover ashes, glass, metals and unburned
combustibles amount of perhaps 25% of the original waste
• this Residue must still be disposed of in some manner
incineration leads to air pollution unless the plant is designed,
equipped and operated to comply with air pollution standards.
• typical air pollutants from incineration are flyash, SO2,
hydrogen chloride and organic acids new techniques of
handling the waste have been developed. Thus, materials
which are not combustible are removed from the waste by
gravity or magnetic separation.


• Many of the separated materials like glass or metals can be

recycled. Air pollution can be controlled by installation of
proper control equipment
• In the chemical process industries, incineration is most
frequently used to dispose of tarry and gummy petroleum and
plastic intermediate wastes in general refuse
• The waste combustibility is characterized by flammability
limits flashpoint and ignition temperature
• The incineration chosen must be capable of handling all types
of wastes generated in the industrial facility. Multi-format
rotary and fluidized bed type incinerators are finding wide
applications in industrial waste disposal


• In contrast to a sanitary landfill, composting of refuse is an

aerobic method of decomposing solid waste
• Many types of microorganisms, already present in the waste,
stabilize the organic matter in the west to produce a soil
• The organisms included bacteria, which predominant at all
stages, fungi, which often appear after the first week and
actinomycetes, which assist during the final stages


• Initially, the process starts with the mesophilic bacteria which

oxidize the organic matter in the refused to carbon dioxide and
liberate heat. The temperature rises to about 45 degree celsius
and at this point is that thermophilic bacteria take over and
continue the decomposition
• During this phase, the temperature for the rises to about 60
degree celsius. The reference is periodically turned over to
allow sufficient oxygen to penetrate to all parts of the material
to support aerobic life.
• After about 3 weeks the compost is stabilized. The end point
of composting operation can be measured by noting a drop in
temperature. The compost should have an earthy smell and
dark brown colour 12

• Modern methods of composting fall into two broad categories:

1.Manual and 2.Mechanical
• For towns with rural bias, the manual windrow system is more
attractive in india
• A modified process, known as a bangalore process, is now
widely adopted by municipal authorities, in trench about a
metre deep
• The material is not done but is digested under essentially
anaerobic conditions whereby decomposition is complete in
four to five months


• Fully mechanised plants involve shredding, grinding and

mechanical saperation of high-density solids. There are
basically four process of mechanical composting available in
india. These are:(a) the bulher process, (b) the dano process,(c)
the tollemache process,(d) the nusoil process.
a. The buhler process
• In the buhler process the material is ground in two stages in
hammer mill; the non-compostible inorganic material are
saperated by strong sifting action on circular swinging sieves,
the material is then decomposed aerobically in open windows;
stabilization may take about two to three months

b. The dano process
• The dano process uses a long rotation drums, called a
biostabilizer unit, for decomposting the refuse, the rotating
drum is inclined so that the waste flows from one end to the
other. The refuse is partially decomposed in the drum and the
outcoming refuse is generally gmfree from odour and
pathogenic organisms. It is then completely decomposed in
windows; the entire operation may take about four weeks
c. The Tollemache Process
• In the tollemache process the refuse is pulverized in a vertical
pulverizer and then passed through a screening plants to screen
out paper and plastic etc. The pulverized-screend refuse is
allowed to decompose in the window for three weeks, with
three to four turnings.
• The decomposed is then cured for four to five weeks, the
complete stabilization this takes about two months
d. The nusoil process
• In the nusoil process, the non-compostible material is
saperated from the refuse which is then pulverized in a
hammer mill. The pulverized matter then goes to a vertical
digester where the decomposition takes place. The digester is a
circular unit having seven sections; the refuse moves
downwards through each sections of the digester. It is kept for
about a day in each section and air flow rate and water
addition are regulated so that decomposition takes place under
optimum condition. The digestion process is completed in
seven days band the resultant compost is satisfactory for direct
field application without the addition of supplimentary

• In recent years new & better methods for solid waste

management have been suggested and developed.
1. Utilization
• Many solids wastes generated by industry can be utilized
directly. Fly & bottom ash from power plants can be used
commercially, largely as cement substitute. New uses are being
developed for fly ash, e.g., To make bricks, to dewater
industrial wastewater sludge, as a land cover, etc. India
produces about 6 * 105 tonnes of bagasse from sugarcane
annually. This bagasse can be utilised for the manufacture of
paper pulp which can displace hardwood pulp of similar
quantity and cost.

2. Recovery and recycling

• Solids wastes contain significant amounts of valuable
materials like steel, aluminium and other metals which, if they
are recovered and reused, would reduce the volume of the
wastes to the collect and at the same time would yield
significant salvage and resale income. Some important solids
wastes that have been successfully reclaimed are paper, glass,
metals and plastics.
a. Paper
• The paper industry treats the incoming waste paper according
to its source. Some paper goes directly to the mills, while other
paper needs considerable processing and sorting.

• Waste paper contains grit, sand, ink, tar, paper clips, plastic
coatings, rubber bands etc. These have to be separated before
paper can be treaded further. Only a small fraction of recycled
paper ends up as virgin paper and, more commonly, used for
printing only a few times because with each recycle the fibres
become somewhat and more frayed with the consequence that
the recycled product is weaker than similar products made
from virgin fibres. The manufacture of paper board is the main
use of waste paper.
• Perhaps the most promising use or reuse of waste paper is the
conversion of the material to energy. It has a high calorific
value, approximately half that of coal and it is not cause air


b. Glass
• Glass is the perfect product for recycling. It is clean, easy to
reprocess, and can be used in many ways. At present, market
exists in India for almost all of the waste glass which can be
collected. Scrap glass, which is known as cullet, can be used
in each new batch of glass produced.
• However, the main problem in any reuse of glass is its
separation from other materials in the solid waste.
• The typical glass separation methods include froth flotation,
dense media separation, and colour sorting. Waste glass can
be used as an aggregate in asphalt instead of crushed stone.
The finished glasphalt product exposes no jagged edges and
is skid resistant. 20

c. Metals
• Metals can be easily recycled from industrial scrap. The
metals arising as scrap include both ferrous as well as
nonferrous types. The ferrous metals are separated first from
nonferrous metals; this can be achieved magnetically. While
it is a simple matter to separate cast iron and steel, much skill
is needed in the recognition of special steels so that their
scrap may be usefully applied.
• The principal nonferrous metals which are subject to
recycling are aluminium, copper and lead. The methods used
for the recovery of aluminium from solid waste include
gravity separation, electric or magnetic separation, and
chemical or thermal separation 21

• Chemical methods are also used for the separation of

aluminium from other materials. For example, “sweating”
which exploits the differences in the melting points of metals
has been used to separate aluminium from lead and zinc
• High purity recycled aluminium can be reused as a substitute
for the pure virgin metal. Aluminium of less purity such as that
recycled from municipal waste contains some other metals
also like iron, zinc, copper, and silicon which can add strength
to the end product. The recycled aluminium is usually melted
in oil fired rotary furnaces and converted into alloys for use in
the die castings industry.


• Copper is usually found in industrial wastes in the form of

weirs and is often covered with insulation. The insulation can
be removed either by mechanical or thermal methods. Pure
copper and its alloys may be melted for reprocessing and cast
into billets or ingots for various applications.
• Lead scrap is readily melted in cast iron or steel kettles and
converted into alloys for cable sheathing. The primary source
of lead scrap is storage batteries, the contents of which may be
melted to produce lead carrying about 3% of antimony. More
antimony is added to bring the final antimony of alloy to 7 or 8
% , and then the lead is refined into new battery plates.

d. Plastics
• In india plastics form a rather small % of the total solid
waste, but their may be increasing at an accelerated pace.
Plastics basically consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but
are bio-degradable. Hence, they remain intact in disposal
operation each as landfills. Many varieties of plastics find
their way into waste disposal but three types – polylefins,
polystyrene and poly vinyl chloride make up more than four-
fifths of the total.
• One possible method plastics is to use it to form in which it
was first manufactured, i.e., By mixing the raw plastic during
the production of new parts. However, there are problems
due to a large number of different grades of material with
each major plastic type, and the grade employed depends on 24

• Another idea which being carefully investigated is the total

decomposition of plastic materials. When exposed to ultra-
violet light, certain chemical groups absorb the light and
increases energy. This energy breaks the polymer chain so that
the plastic loses its strength becomes brittle and is broken up
by the wind and rain. The small pieces then mix with the soil
and can be decomposed by normal soil bacteria into basic


1. Environmental pollution control engineering by C.S. Rao