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M.Tech Transportation Engineering

 DEFINATION:-Holding apron(run up area, holding bay)is the portion provided

near the end of the run way for engine run up and for hitching vehicles towing
the aircraft. They also serve as area for aircraft waiting for take off.


A defined area of an airport where aircraft hold until the runway is clear for it.

 Holding bays are also known as holding aprons, They are provided at busy
airports near the runways.

 They hold Planes Before its Takeoff to wait till the runway is cleared.

The end of runway is marked with a number that indicates magnetic azimuth.

 Angle measured is clockwise direction from north.

East end of East-West runway will be marked 27 (for 270 degree) and the west end is
marked 9 for 90 degree

Magnetic azimuth is marked to nearest 10 degree

If there are more than one runway in same direction following numbers are added to the
azimuth numbers
1) 2 parallel runways – L, R
2) 3 parallel runways – L, C, R
3) 4 parallel runways – L, R, L, R
4) 5 parallel runways – L, C, R, L, R

The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) has established four ways to
reduce aviation noise, called the Balanced Approach to Aircraft Noise Management.

The four ways are:

1) reduction of noise at source

2) reduction of noise through operational measures

3) reduction of noise through land-use planning

4) restrictions on operations.
Reduction Of Noise At Source:-
• This means identifying ways to reduce the noise that aircraft produce and this is the
single most effective way to cut noise pollution.

Reduction Of Noise Through Operational Measures

• Noise preferential routes (NPR's) are one way of minimising exposure to noise
for people living near airports. Such routes are chosen because they direct
aircraft, where possible, over less densely populated areas, such as heath and
• Continuous Descent Approach (CDA) is another important tool for reducing the
noise of approaching aircraft close to airports.
• It involves starting a continuous steady descent from 6,000ft, or higher, rather than
following a number of short descents.
• The CDA technique results in lower noise levels on the ground through two effects:
1) The CDA flight-path is always higher - being further from the ground also
results in lower noise levels.
2) By keeping the aircraft on a continuous descent, the overall engine power levels
are kept lower, generating less noise than if the aircraft were required to fly level.
• Noise reductions may be achieved by using a Low Power/Low Drag (LPLD) procedure.
In this, the aircraft is flown in a 'clean' condition (i.e. with no flap or wheels deployed) as
long as possible, consistent with safety.
Reduction Of Noise Through Land-use Planning:-
• There are two key ways that it can help with noise reduction:
1) For new airports, it means planners selecting sites away from densely populated areas.
This obviously has to be balanced with practical considerations – airports need to be
accessible to the people who wish to fly.
2) for existing airports, it means planners limiting development under flight paths, or even
potential future flight paths, to try and minimise future noise problems.

Restrictions On Operations:-
This includes things like limitations on operational times – such as not allowing flights to
land or take-off at night – or on the total number of operations. The specific types of aircraft
that could be operated could also be restricted to mitigate impacts on a site-by-site basis.