8y: DlIver ChrIstIan 0.

0eyparIne
ÌndustrIal Processes - Cement |akIng
rom an engIneerIng vIewpoInt, coolIng Is necessary to prevent damage to
clInker handlIng equIpment such as conveyors.
rom both a process and chemIcal vIewpoInt, It Is benefIcIal to mInImIse
clInker temperature as It enters the clInker mIll. The clInker gets hot In
the mIll and excessIve mIll temperatures are undesIrable. Ìt Is clearly
helpful, therefore, If the clInker Is cool as It enters the mIll.
rom an envIronmental and a cost vIewpoInt, the cooler reduces energy
consumptIon by extractIng heat from the clInker, enablIng It to be used
to heat the raw materIals.
rom a cement performance vIewpoInt, faster coolIng of the clInker
enhances sIlIcate reactIvIty.
The cooled clInker Is then conveyed eIther to the clInker store or dIrectly
to the clInker mIll. The clInker store Is usually capable of holdIng
several weeks' supply of clInker, so that delIverIes to customers can be
maIntaIned when the kIln Is not operatIng.
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The clInker cooler Is an Integral part of the
kIln system and has a decIsIve Influence on
performance and economy of the
pyroprocessIng plant. The cooler has two
tasks: to recover as much heat as possIble
from the hot (1450 `C) clInker so as to return
It to the process; and to reduce the clInker
temperature to a level suItable for the
equIpment downstream.
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eat Is recovered by preheatIng the aIr used
for combustIon In maIn and secondary fIrIng
as close to the thermodynamIc lImIt as
possIble. owever, thIs Is hIndered by hIgh
temperatures, the extreme abrasIveness of
the clInker and Its wIde granulometrIc range.
FapId coolIng fIxes the mIneralogIcal
composItIon of the clInker to Improves the
grIndabIlIty and optImIse cement reactIvIty.
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Cooler · red·hot clInker falls onto the grate, cooled by aIr
blown from beneath. The clInker Is movIng towards the front
of the pIcture. (Pìctµre coµrtesy Cemex 0K Cement)
The clInker coolIng operatIon recovers up to J0º of
kIln system heat, preserves the Ideal product
qualItIes, and enables the cooled clInker to be
maneuvered by conveyors. The most common
types of clInker coolers are recIprocatIng grate,
planetary, and rotary. AIr sent through the clInker
to cool It Is dIrected to the rotary kIln where It
nourIshes fuel combustIon. The faIrly coarse dust
collected from clInker coolers Is comprIsed of
cement mInerals and Is restored to the
operatIon. 8ased on the coolIng effIcIency and
desIred cooled temperature, the amount of aIr
used In thIs coolIng process Is approxImately 1·2
kg/kg of clInker. The amount of gas to be cleaned
followIng the coolIng process Is decreased when a
portIon of the gas Is used for other processes
such as coal dryIng.
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TypIcal problems wIth clInker coolers are
thermal expansIon, wear, Incorrect aIr flows
and poor avaIlabIlIty, whIch work agaInst the
above requIrements.
There are two maIn types of coolers:
PFotary
PCrate.
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TYPES:
PThe Tube Cooler
PThe Planetary Cooler
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The tube cooler uses the same prIncIple as the rotary
kIln, but for reversed heat exchange. Arranged at the
outlet of the kIln, often In reverse confIguratIon, I.e.
underneath the kIln, a second rotary tube wIth Its
own drIve Is Installed. After kIln dIscharge, the
clInker passes a transItIon hood before It enters the
cooler, whIch Is equIpped wIth lIfters to dIsperse the
product Into the aIr flow. CoolIng aIr flow Is
determIned by the aIr requIred for fuel combustIon.
Apart from the speed, only the Internals can
Influence the performance of the cooler.
DptImIsatIon of lIfters must consIder heat exchange
(dIspersIon pattern) versus dust cycle back to the
kIln.
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The planetary (or satellIte) cooler Is a specIal type of rotary cooler.
Several cooler tubes, typIcally 9 to 11, are attached to the rotary
kIln at the dIscharge end. The hot clInker enters through
openIngs In the kIln shell arranged In a cIrcle at each poInt where
a cooler tube Is attached. The quantIty of coolIng aIr Is
determIned by the aIr requIred for fuel combustIon and enters
each tube from the dIscharge end, allowIng counter·current heat
exchange. As for the tube cooler, Internals for lIftIng and
dIspersIng the clInker are essentIal. There are no varIable
operatIng parameter. Igh wear and thermal shock, In
conjunctIon wIth dust cycles, mean hIgh clInker exIt
temperatures and sub·optImum heat recovery are not unusual.
ClInker exIt temperature can only be further reduced by water
InjectIon Into the cooler tubes or onto the shell.
8ecause It Is practIcally ImpossIble to extract tertIary aIr, the
planetary cooler Is not suItable for precalcInatIon. Secondary
fIrIng wIth up to 25º fuel In the kIln rIser area Is possIble,
however.
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TYPES:
PTravellIng Crate Cooler
PFecIprocatIng Crate Cooler, ConventIonal
PFecIprocatIng Crate Cooler, |odern
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CoolIng In grate coolers Is achIeved by passIng
a current of aIr upwards through a layer of
clInker (clInker bed) lyIng on an aIr·
permeable grate. Two ways of transportIng
the clInker are applIed: travellIng grate and
recIprocatIng grate (steps wIth pushIng
edges).
SInce the hot aIr from the aftercoolIng zone Is
not used for combustIon, It Is avaIlable for
dryIng purposes, e.g. raw materIals, cement
addItIves or coal. Ìf not used for dryIng, thIs
cooler waste aIr must be properly dedusted.
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Ìn thIs type of cooler, clInker Is transported by a
travellIng grate. ThIs grate has the same desIgn
features as the preheater grate. CoolIng aIr Is
blown by fans Into compartments underneath
the grate. Advantages of thIs desIgn are an
undIsturbed clInker layer (no steps) and the
possIbIlIty of exchangIng plates wIthout a kIln
stop. 0ue to Its mechanIcal complexIty and poor
recovery resultIng from lImIted bed thIckness
(caused by the dIffIculty of achIevIng an
effectIve seal between the grate and walls), thIs
desIgn ceased to be used In new InstallatIons
around 1980.
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ClInker transport In the recIprocatIng grate cooler
Is effected by stepwIse pushIng of the clInker
bed by the front edges of alternate rows of
plates. FelatIve movement of front edges Is
generated by hydraulIc or mechanIcal
(crankshaft) drIves connected to every second
row. Dnly the clInker travels from feed end to
dIscharge end, but not the grate.
The grate plates are made from heat resIstant cast
steel and are typIcally J00 mm wIde and have
holes for the aIr to pass through them.
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CoolIng aIr Is Insufflated from fans at J00·1000
mmWC vIa compartments located underneath
the grate. These compartments are partItIoned
from one another In order to maIntaIn the
pressure profIle. Two coolIng zones can be
dIstInguIshed:
· the recuperatIon zone, from whIch the hot
coolIng aIr Is used for combustIon of the maIn
burner fuel (secondary aIr) and the precalcIner
fuel (tertIary aIr);
· the aftercoolIng zone, where addItIonal coolIng
aIr cools the clInker to lower temperatures.
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The largest unIts In operatIon have an actIve
surface of about 280 m2 and cool 10000
tonnes/day of clInker. TypIcal problems wIth
these coolers are segregatIon and uneven
clInker dIstrIbutIon leadIng to aIr·clInker
Imbalance, fluIdIsatIon of fIne clInker (red
rIver) and also buIld ups (snowmen) and less
than Ideal lIfe of plates.
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ÌntroductIon and development of modern
technology recIprocatIng grate coolers
started around 198J. The desIgn aImed to
elImInate the problems wIth conventIonal
coolers thus comIng a step closer to optImum
heat exchange and also more compact
coolers usIng less coolIng aIr and smaller
dedustIng systems.
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10/4/2011 5:26 A| DlIver ChrIstIan 0eyparIne" All FIghts Feserved. © 2010
ey features of modern cooler technology are
(dependIng on supplIer):
· modern plates wIth buIlt·In, varIable or
permanent, pressure drop, permeable to aIr but
not clInker;
· forced plate aeratIon vIa ducts and beams;
· IndIvIdually adjustable aeratIon zones ;
· fIxed Inlet;
· fewer and wIder grates;
· roller crusher;
· heat shIelds.
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10/4/2011 5:26 A| DlIver ChrIstIan 0eyparIne" All FIghts Feserved. © 2010
Crand Coulee 0am, whIch used nearly 10 mIllIon cubIc yards
of concrete, makIng It one of the largest portland cement
concrete projects In hIstory

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