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VERBAL ABILITY

CRITICAL REASONING

CAT 2018
VERBAL ABILITY/READING COMPREHENSION
PART-1: VOCABULARY (0 – 15%)

 WORD USAGE
 PHRASEL VERBS
 CONTEXTUAL USAGE

PART-2: GRAMMAR (0 – 12%)

 SENTENCE CORRECTION
VERBAL ABILITY/READING COMPREHENSION
PART–3: CRITICAL REASONING (20 – 30%)

 MAIN POINT
 INFERENCE / ASSUMPTION
 STRENGTHEN / WEAKEN
 FACT, INFERENCE & JUDGEMENT
 PARA COMPLETION
 SUMMARY
 ODD STATEMENT OF PARA JUMBLE/SCRAMBLE
 PARA JUMBLE/SCRAMBLE
VERBAL ABILITY/READING COMPREHENSION
PART-4: COMPREHENSION (45 – 70%)
 READING COMPREHENSION
CHAPTER-1
CRITICAL REASONING - CONCEPTS
Most of the Critical Reasoning question contains three parts: a paragraph or
statement(s), the question and the answer choices. Check the following
example;

1) Most of the serious aspirants start their preparation at the right


time, and most of the aspirants study regularly. Furthermore, all the
students who study regularly are goal oriented.
Which one of the following can be inferred from the statements above?

(A) Most goal oriented students start their preparation at the right time
(B) Some serious aspirants are goal oriented
(C) All goal oriented students are serious aspirants
(D) Some not serious aspirants study regularly
(E) All serious aspirants are goal oriented
OBSERVE: PARAGRAPH or STATEMENT(s)
Paragraph or Statement(s) can be classified into two distinct categories:
 Author’s opinion/conclusion
 Set of facts

Logically speaking, opinion or conclusion of the author can be defined as a set


of statements wherein one statement is claimed to follow from or be derived
from the others.

Before we learn more about opinion or conclusion of the author and a set of
facts, lets check the following examples and identify whether it is the opinion or
conclusion of the author or a set of facts.

1) All students are very active. Manoj is a student. So Manoj is very active.

The first two statements provide valid/logical reason(s) to draw the third
statement, which is the opinion or conclusion of the author.
OBSERVE: PARAGRAPH or STATEMENT(s)
2) “2.2 lakh students applied for CAT-2015. 1 lakh students applied for
XAT- 2015. A little over 0.6 lakhs students applied for CMAT-2015.”

The above three statements do not constitute opinion or conclusion of the


author because no conclusion is present. The three statements merely make a
series of assertions without making a judgement.

Notice that reading these sentences does not cause any reaction in most of the
readers. This lack of reaction is an indicator that the reader is not reading
opinion or conclusion of the author and is instead reading just a set of facts.

While reading the paragraph or statement(s), one has to observe several


determinations – primary objectives. Lets go through every objective.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE # 1
Determine whether the paragraph contains opinion or conclusion
of the author or it is only a set of factual statements.

Lets check the following example:


One shouldn’t violate the traffic rules because it can harm others.
It is clearly the opinion or the conclusion of the author. Since a conclusion
must be drawn from a premise, the statement has both premise and
conclusion.
Premise: Because it can harm others
Conclusion: One shouldn’t violate the traffic rules.
PREMISE & CONCLUSION: DEFINITION
PREMISE: Premise is a fact, preposition, or statement from which a conclusion is
made.

Premises support and explain the conclusion. A premise gives a


reason why something should be believed.

To identify the premise(s), the reader has to ask himself/herself,


“What reasons has been used to persuade the reader? What evidence
exists?”

CONCLUSION: Conclusion is a statement or judgement that follows from one


or more reasons.

A conclusion is the point the author tries to prove by using another


statement.

To identify the conclusion, the reader has to ask himself/herself,


“What does the author want the reader to believe?”
PREMISE & CONCLUSION: INDICATORS
PREMISE INDICATORS CONCLUSION INDICATORS
Because Thus
Since Therefore
For Hence
So
For example As a result
For the reason that Consequently
Given that Accordingly
As indicated by Must be that
Due to Shows that
Owing to Concludes that
This can be seen from Shows that
For this reason
PREMISE & CONCLUSION: EXAMPLES
Identify the premise and conclusion and premise and conclusion indicators, if any.

1) Humans cannot live on the Sun because the surface temperature is too
high.
2) World-wide countries are facing financial crisis. Therefore, we must
identify the new methods to improve the situation.
3) We must revise our petrol budget due to sudden hike in the petrol
prices.
PREMISE & CONCLUSION: CONFUSING INDICATOR FORMS
Construction of sentences or paragraphs does not follow any fixed pattern.
Majority of the constructions tests the reader’s ability to understand and
interpret the complexities involved. The indicators of the constructions are
also designed to confuse the common readers. One of the most confusing
forms places a conclusion indicator and a premise indicator back-to-back.
Confusing Indicator forms:
Therefore, since…..
Thus, because……...
Hence, due to………
The above combination of premise and conclusion indicators come together
often confuses the reader a lot. However, the comma at the end of the first
indicator gives the clue to identify the premise and conclusion. The clause
between the two commas is the premise and the remaining part of the
sentence is the conclusion.
PREMISE & CONCLUSION: CONFUSING INDICATOR FORMS
Example:
Therefore, since he scored only 5.2 CGPA in the first year, he must score
at least 6.8 CGPA in the second year to have an aggregate of 6.”

Explanation:
Premise: “He scored only 5.2 CGPA in the first year.”
Conclusion: “He must score at least 6.8 CGPA in the second year to have
an aggregate of 6.”
Even though “therefore” still introduces a conclusion, but the
appearance of the conclusion is interrupted by a clause that contains
the premise.
PREMISE & CONCLUSION: EXERCISE-1
Identify the premise and conclusion and premise and conclusion indicators,
if any.

1) Given that the price of petrol is continuously rising, low income


group people no longer be able to afford the price.

2) The political situation in Middle East is unstable owing to the


inability of political leaders and monarchs.

3) Since we need to have many different interests to sustain us,


scientist’s belief that technology will solve all the problems must be
incorrect.

4) So, as indicated by the newly released data, we should stop the


deforestation.
PREMISE & CONCLUSION: EXERCISE-1

5) Television has a harmful effect on society. This can be seen from the
poor school performance of children who watch significant amounts of
television and from the fact that children who watch more than four
hours of television a day tend to read less than non television watching
children.

6) The rapid diminishment of ecosystem of the southern forests threatens


the entire continent. Consequently, we must take immediate steps to
convince the Indian government that planned development projects
need to be curtailed for the simple reason that these development
projects will greatly accelerate the loss of the currently protected land.
ADDITIONAL PREMISE(s): INDICATORS
Apart from the listed premise and conclusion indicators, there are other
indicators which introduce another premise that supports the conclusion but
may not be essential to the conclusion.

Furthermore
Moreover
Besides
In addition
What’s more
ADDITIONAL PREMISE(s): EXAMPLES

1) Every professor at Madras University teaches exactly one class per


semester. Professor Dr. Subramanian, therefore, is teaching exactly one
class this semester. Moreover, I heard that professor Dr. Subramanian say
he was teaching only a single class.

2) The town’s council ought to ease restrictions on outdoor advertising


because the town’s economy is in slump. Furthermore, the town
should not place restrictions on forms of speech such as advertising.
COUNTER PREMISE
It is common for an author to bring up a premise that actually contains an idea
that is counter or against to the conclusion. This premise is called counter-
premise.

EXAMPLE:
The United States prison population is the world’s largest and consequently we
must take steps to reduce crime in this country. Although other countries have
higher rates of incarceration, their statistics have no bearing on the dilemma we
currently face.
COUNTER PREMISE: INDICATORS

• But
• Yet
• However
• In contrast
• Although
• Even though
• Still
• Whereas
• In spite of
• Despite
• After all
• On the other Hand
• Admittedly
ADDITIONAL & COUNTER PREMISES: EXAMPLES

1) Wine is made by crushing grapes and eventually separating the pulp from
the grapes. However, the separated juice contains impurities and many
wine manufacturers do not filter the juice. These manufacturers claim
that the unfiltered juice ultimately produces a more favourable and
intense wine. Since these manufacturers are experts, we should trust
their judgement and not shy away from unfiltered wine.

2) During last night’s robbery, the thief was unable to open the locker. Thus,
last night’s robbery was unsuccessful despite the fact that the thief stole
several documents. After all, nothing in those documents was as
valuable as the money in the locker.
COMPLEX ARGUMENTS:
So far, we have learnt only simple arguments. Simple arguments contain only a
single conclusion. Complex arguments contain more than one conclusion. One
of these conclusions is the main conclusion and the other conclusions are
subsidiary conclusions.
Simply, a complex argument makes an initial conclusion. Then it uses the initial
conclusion as the premise for another conclusion, thus leads a chain of several
premises and conclusions.

SIMPLE ARGUMENT COMPLEX ARGUMENT


Premise Premise
Conclusion (Premise)
Conclusion Conclusion
COMPLEX ARGUMENTS: EXAMPLE
1) Because Royal Challengers Bangalore have the best bowling attack,
they therefore restrict the opponent’s score. Because they restrict
the opponent’s score, they will win the champions trophy.

2) Anne: Halley’s Comet - orbiting far from the Sun - recently flared
brightly enough to be seen by telescope. No comet has ever been
observed to flare so far from the Sun before, so such a flare must be
highly unusual.
Sue: Nonsense. Usually no one bothers to observe comets when
they are very far from the Sun. This flare was observed only because
a person was tracking Halley’s Comet very carefully.
COMMON COMPLEX CONSTRUCTIONS
 In the second example, each speaker presents premises and
conclusions. As often occurs with this form of question, the two
speakers disagree. As you might imagine, the presence of multiple
viewpoints normally tends to be confusing.
 In fact, a single speaker can raise alternate viewpoints. A viewpoint is
raised at the begging of the paragraph and then disagree with it
thereafter. This construction of argument efficiently raises two
opposing views in a very short paragraph.
It often begin with the phrase:

“Some people propose………”


“Many people believe……….”
“Some critics claim…………..”
“Some scientists believe…..”
COMMON COMPLEX CONSTRUCTIONS: EXAMPLE
Editor: Some people propose that, to allocate funds to welfare programs,
taxes on oil, gas, and coal should be increased. Such a tax, however, would
do more harm than good.

Explanation:
The editor used “some people propose” to introduce one opinion of taxes
and then in the following sentence counters the idea with the view that turns
out to be the editor’s main point.

THE FIRST PRIMARY OBJECTIVE IS OVER. LET’S MOVE FURTHER AND


UNDERSTAND THE NEXT PRIMARY OBJECTIVE.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE # 2
If the paragraph contains a conclusion, determine whether the
conclusion is strong or weak.

Consider the relationship between premise(s) and conclusion to determine


the strength of the conclusion. This must be very simple. The following
questions should be sufficient to identify the strength of the conclusion.
 Do the given premise(s) support the conclusion?
 Does the conclusion seem to go beyond the scope of the information
given in the premises?

Let’s go through the two examples to understand it more.


PRIMARY OBJECTIVE # 2: EXAMPLES
1) Anvesh scored 99.9 percentile. Aditi scored 99.8 percentile. Chitra
scored 99.93 percentile. Therefore, students who want to score more
should learn from Chitra only.

Explanation:
As shown by this example, the acceptability of premises does not
automatically make the conclusion completely acceptable. The reverse is
also true – the acceptability of the conclusion does not automatically
make the premises acceptable.

2) Trees shed their foliage every year are deciduous trees. Red Oak trees
shed their leaves every year. Therefore, Red Oak trees are deciduous.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE # 3
Quantity Indicators and Probability Indicators can mislead. Always pay
attention to them and carefully examine them.

QUANTITY INDICATORS PROBABILITY INDICATORS


All Must
Every Always
Most Not always
Many Likely
Some Probably
Several Would
Few Will
Not all Could
Sole Not necessarily
Only Rarely
None Never
EXERCISE: 2
Directions: Read each statement/paragraph and answer the following:
A) What is the conclusion of the argument, if any?
B) What are the premises?
C) Is the argument strong or weak? And explain why?

1) Every year, news reports appear concerning the health risks posed by
coffee, tea and sugar. This year an article claimed that coffee is dangerous
to one’s health. Previous year one article argued that coffee has some
benefits for one’s health. From these contradictory opinions, we can see
that experts are useless to guide on one’s health.
EXERCISE: 2
2) Constructing a dam on Ganga River would provide water to the dry lands
in its upstream areas; unfortunately, the dam would reduce the
agricultural productivity in the downstream. The productivity loss in the
downstream would be greater than the productivity gain in the upstream,
so building a dam would yield no overall gain in agricultural productivity
in the region as a whole.

3) If the relativity theory is correct, no object can travel forward in time at a


speed greater than the speed of light. Yet quantum mechanics predicts
that the tachyon, a hypothetical subatomic particle, travels faster than
light. Thus, if relativity theory is correct, either quantum mechanics’
prediction about tachyon is erroneous or tachyons travel backwards in
time.
EXERCISE: 2
4) Some faculty members claim that students would not learn even the
important topics if there are no year-end exams. But students with
intense interest would any way learn them, while the behaviour of the
students who has no interest in learning them never worried about the
exams. The year- end exams, therefore, are not essential.

5) In a study, infant monkeys given a choice between – a bare wire structure


equipped with a milk bottle and a soft wire structure equipped with a
milk bottle – they unhesitatingly chose the latter. When given a choice
between a bare wire structure equipped with a milk bottle and a soft wire
structure without a milk bottle, they chose the latter.
EXERCISE: 2
6) Any course that teaches students how to write is one that serve them
well later in life. Therefore, since some philosophy courses teach
students how to write, any student, whatever his or her major, will be
served well in later life by taking any philosophy course.

7) It is well known that many species adapt to their environment, but it is


usually assumed that only the most highly evolved species alter their
environment in ways that aid their own survival. However, this
characteristic is actually quite common. Certain species of plankton, for
example, generate a gas that is converted in the atmosphere into particles
of sulphate. These particles cause water vapour to condense, thus
forming clouds. Indeed, the formation of clouds over the ocean largely
depends on the presence of these particles. More cloud cover means
more sunlight is reflected, and the Earth absorbs less heat. Thus plankton
cause the surface of the Earth to be cooler and this benefits the plankton.
CHAPTER-2
ANALYSIS OF QUESTION TYPES & ANSWER OPTIONS
The question statement is the most important part of the problem because it
specifies the task student must perform in order to answer the problem correctly.

Though question statements cover wider range of tasks, they typically ask the
student to:
1) Identify the details
2) Determine whether the conclusion is strong or weak
3) Identify the Main points, Assumptions and Inferences
4) Recognize the flaw in the reasoning
5) Find the arguments that are identical in structure
6) Describe the tone of the author
7) Title of the paragraph/passage
ANALYSIS OF QUESTION TYPES
Each of these tasks can be classified into one of the following nine different types:

 Must Be True/Most Supported


 Main Point
 Assumption
 Strengthen/Support
 Resolve the Paradox
 Weaken
 Method of Reasoning
 Flaw in the Reasoning
 Parallel Reasoning
ANALYSIS OF QUESTION TYPES
1) Must Be True/Most Supported:
Must be True/Most Supported question asks the student to identify the answer
choice that is best proven by the information given in the paragraph.
Question types:
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true?
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage?

2) Main point
Main point question asks the student to find the primary conclusion of the
paragraph.
Question Type:
1) The main point of the argument is that
ANALYSIS OF QUESTION TYPES
3) Assumption
Question type:
1) Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?

4) Strengthen/Support
These questions ask the student to select the answer choice that provides support
for the author’s argument or strengthen it in some way.
Question Types:
Which one of the following, if true, most strengthen the argument?
Which one of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statements above?
ANALYSIS OF QUESTION TYPES
5) Resolve the paradox
Every Resolve the Paradox statement/paragraph contains a discrepancy or
contradiction. Student must find the answer choice that best resolves the
situation.
Question type:
1) Which one of the following, if true, would most effectively resolve the
apparent paradox above?

6) Weaken
Weaken questions ask you to attack or undermine the author’s argument.
Question type:
1) Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
ANALYSIS OF QUESTION TYPES
7) Method of Reasoning
Method of Reasoning question asks the student to describe, in abstract terms,
the way in which the author made his or her argument.
Question type:
1) Which one of the following describes the reasoning used in the statement /
paragraph?

8) Flaw in the Reasoning


Flaw in the Reasoning question ask you to describe the error of reasoning in
the statement/paragraph
Question type:
1) The reasoning in the author’s argument is flawed because this argument
ANALYSIS OF QUESTION TYPES
9) Parallel Reasoning
Parallel Reasoning questions ask you to identify the answer choice that
contains reasoning most similar in structure to the reasoning used in the
statement/paragraph.
Question type:
Which of the following arguments reasoning is most similar to the above
argument?

The types of questions are already more in number and also could be a good
challenge to deal with. If some of them or all of them have a common root,
then it would be very much easier to understand and also cpuld be less
intimidating.

Let’s check if there is any common root.


GROUPING THE QUESTION TYPES
The more the number of types of questions the more the complexity they
unveil – a strong opinion/conclusion of amateur students . The more we know
about the origins/roots of the types of questions the more the advantages they
bring.
Though there are nine different types of questions but they can be divided into
three clusters.
CLUSTER 1 CLUSTER 2
Must be true Assumption
Main point Strengthen/Support
Method of reasoning Resolve the paradox
Flaw in the reasoning
Parallel reasoning CLUSTER 3
Weaken
CLUSTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Must be true
Main point
Method of reasoning
Flaw in the reasoning
Parallel reasoning

The first cluster questions are based on the principle of using the information in
the statement/paragraph to prove that one of the answer options must be true.
RULE 1: The information given in the statement/paragraph is taken for granted
(even if it contains an error of reasoning) and no additional information
is being added.
RULE 2: Any information in an answer option that does not appear either
directly or indirectly in the statement/paragraph will be incorrect.
CLUSTER 2: INTRODUCTION
Assumption
Strengthen/Support
Resolve the paradox

The Second Cluster questions are based on the principle of assisting or helping
the argument in the statement/paragraph in some way by resolving a paradox.
RULE 1: The information in the statement/paragraph is suspect. There are often
reasoning errors present in the statement/paragraph.
RULE 2: The answer options are accepted as given, even if they include new
information.
CLUSTER 3: INTRODUCTION
Weaken

The Third Cluster question is based on the principle of weakening the conclusion
in the statement/paragraph.
RULE 1: The information in the statement/paragraph is suspect. There are often
reasoning errors present in the statement/paragraph.
RULE 2: The answer options are accepted as given, even if they include new
information.
QUESTION CLUSTERS: IMPORTANT POINTS

Must Be True and Resolve the Paradox questions generally connected to the
statement/paragraph that does not contain conclusions. All remaining question
types must be connected to statement/paragraph with conclusions.
Weaken and Strengthen are polar opposite question types, and both are often
based on flawed argument.
Method of Reasoning and Flaw in the Reasoning questions are of similar types.
While the Flaw in the Reasoning questions explicitly contains an error of
reasoning, Method of Reasoning statement/paragraph contains valid or invalid
reasoning.
EXERCISE - 3
Identify the types of questions and write the answer in the blank:

1) Which of the following can be inferred from the above statement?


MUST BE TRUE

2) Of the following, which one most accurately expresses the main point of
the argument?
MAIN POINT

3) Which of the following statements, if true, would provide the most support
for the scientists’ explanation?
STRENGTHEN
EXERCISE - 3
4) Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the view point
described above?
RESOLVE THE PARADOX

5) Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the reasoning


described above?
WEAKEN

6) Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?


ASSUMPTION
EXERCISE - 3
7) The author challenges critic’s reasoning by
METHOD OF REASONING

8) Which of the following is most like the argument above in its logical
structure?
PARALLEL REASONING

9) The argument to which of the following questions would most help in


evaluating the author’s argument?
EVALUATE

10) The statement above, it true, most strongly supports which of the
following?
MUST BE TRUE
PRESENCE OF “EXCEPT” AND “LEAST” IN THE QUESTIONS
“Except” means “other than”
The word “except” has a dramatic impact if it appears in the question.
For example, if a question asks you to weaken the argument, the one correct
answer option weakens the argument and the other options do not weaken the
argument. If “except” is added to the question, the one correct answer option
does not weaken the argument and the other options weaken the argument.
The word “least” has a similar effect to “except” when it appears in a question.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE # 4
PREPHRASE*: After reading the question statement, try to formulate your
answer without go through answer options.
It is quite common to simply read the question statement and then move on to
the answer choices without further thought. It is definitely disadvantageous,
isn’t it?
One of the most effective way to find the correct answer choice is to
prephrasing. Prephrasing is quickly speculating on what student expect the
correct answer will be based on the information given in the paragraph.

*Prephrase is not a dictionary word.


CHAPTER-3
MUST BE TRUE QUESTIONS (CLUSTER -1)
Must Be True type questions belong to Cluster 1.
The correct answer to a Must Be True question can always be proven by referring
to the facts stated in the statement/paragraph.
Must Be True questions appear in many formats, but the following types come
frequently.
If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?
Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the statements above?
The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?
Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above?
MUST BE TRUE QUESTIONS: EXAMPLES
1) The importance of Ozone layer to terrestrial animals is that it entirely
filters out some wavelengths of light but let’s others pass through it. Dangers
associated with holes of the Ozone layers are well documented. However, one
danger that has not been given sufficient attention is that these holes could lead to
severe eye damage for animals of many species.
Which one of the following, if true, is most strongly supported by the statements above?
A) Some species of animals have eyes that will not suffer any damages even when
exposed to unfiltered sunlight.
B) A single wavelength of sunlight can cause severe damage to the eyes of most
species of animals.
C) All wavelengths of sunlight that can cause eye damage are filtered out by the
ozone layer where it is intact.
D) Some wavelengths of sunlight that cause eye damage is more likely to reach the
earth’s surface where there are holes in the ozone layer than where there are not.
MUST BE TRUE QUESTIONS: EXAMPLES
Explanation: When you are reading the paragraph, you should first identify the
indicators and modifiers. Underline the following words appeared in the
paragraph. (entirely, some, not, could lead to, many)
Answer choice (A): This option has new information. So, it is incorrect
Answer choice (B): The option references “most” species when the paragraph
only discusses “many” species. So, it is incorrect.
Answer choice (C): This is not the correct answer choice. Nowhere in the
paragraph do we have support for stating that all damaging wavelengths are
filtered out by the ozone layer. It only states that some wavelengths are filtered
out. So, this is not the correct answer choice.
Answer choice (D): This is the correct answer option. The ozone layer filters out
some wavelengths of light; holes in the ozone layer are dangerous, but one
overlooked danger is possible eye damage for many species. From the statements
we can infer that the holes must be letting some damaging wavelengths of light
through.
MUST BE TRUE QUESTIONS: EXAMPLES
2) Vitamins are common components of almost all fruits, but a specific
variety of vitamin in apples has been found to be an antioxidant. Antioxidants are
known to be a factor in the prevention of heart disease.
Which of the following can be properly inferred from the passage?
A) A diet composed of fruits and vegetables will help to prevent heart disease.
B) Vitamins are essential to preventing heart diseases.
C) Eating one apple each day will prevent heart disease.
D) At least one type of Vitamins helps to prevent heart disease.
MUST BE TRUE QUESTIONS: EXAMPLES
Explanation: Since there is no conclusion in the paragraph, this is a fact set and not an
argument. So, the question stem is obviously a Must Be True.
The antioxidant connection in the last two premises gives the clear clue. The second
premise indicates that a variety of vitamin in apple is an antioxidant, and the third premise
state that antioxidants are a factor in preventing heart disease. Adding the two points
together, we can deduce that the specific vitamin in apples is a factor in preventing heart
disease.
Answer Choice (A): This is an interesting option and could be true but it is too broad to be
supported by the facts: nowhere are we told that fruits and vegetables prevent heart
disease. There is no guarantee that the diet includes apples.
Answer Choice (B): This is not the correct option. It is clearly mentioned in the paragraph
that antioxidants prevent heart disease not the vitamins.
Answer Choice (C): At first it seems that this option is correct, but the language used here is
too strong. Nowhere it is stated that eating an apple definitely prevents heart disease.
Answer Choice (D): This is the correct answer option. “Helps to prevent” in the options
matches with “factor in prevention” mentioned in the paragraph.
MUST BE TRUE QUESTIONS: FINAL NOTE
In correct answer options types:
 Could be true or likely to be true answers
 Exaggerated answers
 “New” information answers
 The opposite answers
 The reverse answers. The paragraph has some info like “Some people read
many books”. Whereas options present the info like “Many people read some
books”.
EXERCISE - 4
1) Newtonian physics dominated science for over two centuries. It found
consistently successful application, becoming one of the most highly substantiated
and accepted theories in the history of science. Nevertheless, Einstein’s theories
came to show the fundamental limits of Newtonian physics and to surpass the
Newtonian view in the early 1900s, giving rise once again to a physics that has so far
enjoyed wide success.
Which one of the following logically follows from the statements above?
A) The history of physics is characterized by a pattern of one successful theory
subsequently surpassed by other.
B) Long-standing success or substantiation of a theory of physics is no guarantee
that the theory will continue to be dominant forever.
C) Every theory of physics, no matter how successful, is eventually surpassed by one
that is more essential.
D) Once a theory of physics is accepted, it will remain dominant at least for two
centuries.
EXERCISE - 4
2) The solidity of bridge built on pillars depends largely on how deep the pillars are
driven. Prior to 1900, pillars are driven to “refusal,” that is, to the point at which
they refused to go down deeper. In 1818 inquiry into the solidity of pillars of Venice
Bridge, it was determined that the bridge’s builder, Antony, had met the
contemporary standard for refusal: he had caused the pillars driven deeper two
inches more after 24 hammer blows.
Which one of the following options can properly be inferred from the paragraph?
A) The Venice Bridge was built on unsafe pillars.
B) After 1818, no bridges were built on pillars that were driven to the point of
refusal.
C) Antony’s standard of refusal was less strict than that of other bridge builders of
his day.
D) It is possible that the pillars of the Venice Bridge could have been driven deeper
even after the standard of refusal had been met.
EXERCISE - 4
3) Mystery stories often feature a brilliant detective and the detective’s dull
assistant. Clues are presented in the story, and the assistant wrongly infers an
inaccurate solution to the mystery using the same clues that the detective used to
find the correct solution. Thus, the story writer’s strategy of including the dull
assistant gives readers a chance to solve the mystery while also diverting them from
the correct solution.
Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?
A) Most mystery stories feature a brilliant detective who solves the mystery
presented in the story.
B) Mystery readers often solve the mystery in a story simply by spotting the
mistakes in the reasoning of the detective’s dull assistant in that story.
C) Some mystery stories give readers enough clues to infer the correct solution to
the mystery.
D) The actions of the brilliant detective in a mystery story rarely divert readers from
the actions of the detective’s dull assistant.
EXERCISE - 4
4) The fewer the restrictions on advertising of legal services, the more lawyers
advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually
charge less for that service than the lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the
state removes restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not
specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state
retains its current restrictions.
If the statements in the passage are true, which of the following must be true?
A) Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do
not have to specify fee arrangements in the advertisements.
B) More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the
advertising of legal services.
C) If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is
removed, more lawyers will advertise their services.
D) If the only restriction on the advertisement of legal services were those that
apply to every type of advertising, most lawyers would advertise their services.
CHAPTER-3
MAIN POINT (CLUSTER -1)
Main Point questions, as you understand from the name, ask you to summarize
the author’s point of view.
Main Point questions are a subcategory of Must Be True questions and fall into
the First Family type. Because every Main Point question stimulus contains an
argument, correct answer choice to these problems will be rephrasing the main
conclusion of the argument. Even if the answer choice is true according to the
statement/paragraph but fails to capture the Main Point, then the answer option
is incorrect.
Many Main Point problems feature a structure that places the conclusion at the
beginning or in the middle of the statement/paragraph rather than at the end.
CHAPTER-3
MAIN POINT (CLUSTER -1)
QUESTION TYPES:
The Main Point question type is remarkably consistent and it asks you to identify
the primary conclusion of the statement/paragraph. And it is like:
 Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of
the argument?
 Which one of the following most accurately restates the main point of the
passage?
 The main point of the argument is that

INCORRECT ANSWER TYPES:


 Answers that repeat premises of the argument.
 Answers that are true but do not capture the author’s point.
MAIN POINT QUESTIONS: EXAMPLES
1) A free marketplace of ideas ensures that all ideas get a fair hearing. Even ideas
tainted with prejudice and malice can prompt beneficial outcomes. In most
countries, however, the government is responsible for over the half information
released to the public through all media. For this reason, the power of
governments over information needs to be curtailed. Everyone grants that
governments should not suppress free expression, yet governments continue to
construct monopoly over the publication and dissemination of enormous amounts
of information.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion of the argument?
A) The freedom of marketplace of ideas is in jeopardy.
B) The control that governments have over information needs to be reduced.
C) Ideas that have malicious content or stem from questionable sources can be
valuable.
D) Governments have near monopolies on the dissemination of many kinds of
information.
MAIN POINT QUESTIONS: EXAMPLES
Explanation: The conclusion to this argument starts with the conclusion indicator
“For this reason….”
Answer option (A): The option is clearly a good answer but it is not the Main Point
of the argument. It is a premise.
Answer option (B): This is the correct answer option.
Answer option (C): The outcome of an idea is different from stating the ideas
themselves “can be valuable.”
Answer option (D): The paragraph states that governments continue to maintain
monopoly over publication and dissemination of information. Whereas, answer
option states that government already has monopoly over the publication and
dissemination of the information.
MAIN POINT QUESTIONS: EXAMPLES
2) I agree that Hari’s actions resulted in grievous injury to Mohan. And I do not
deny that Hari fully realized the nature of his actions and the effects they would
have. Indeed, I would not disagree if you point out that intentionally causing such
effect is reprehensible, other things being equal. But in asking you to concur with
me that Hari’s actions not be wholly condemned I emphasize again that Hari
mistakenly believed that Mohan to be the robber who had been terrorizing other
apartment buildings for the past several weeks.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion of the argument?
A) The actions of Hari that seriously injured Mohan are not completely
blameworthy.
B) Hari should not be considered responsible for the injuries sustained by Mohan.
C) Hari thought that Mohan was the person who had been terrorizing other
apartment buildings for the last few weeks.
D) The actions of Hari that seriously injured Mohan were reprehensible, other
things being equal.
MAIN POINT QUESTIONS: EXAMPLES
It is difficult to identify the conclusion of this argument because the author does
not use a traditional conclusion indicator. The fourth sentence contains the
conclusion and premise, and the conclusion is that “Hari’s actions should not be
wholly condemned.

Answer option (A): This is the correct answer option.


MAIN POINT QUESTIONS: EXAMPLES
Each of the following questions belong to either a Must Be True or Main Point
question or Expect identifier. Write the type of question in the blank provided:

1) Which one of the following statements is most strongly supported by the


information above?
MUST BE TRUE
2) The information above provides the least support for which one of the
following?
MUST BE TRUE EXCEPT
3) The educators reasoning provides ground for accepting which one of the
following statements?
MUST BE TRUE
MAIN POINT QUESTIONS: EXAMPLES
4) Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion?
MAIN POINT
5) Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage above?
MUST BE TRUE