# Socrates 2004

FRICTION AND LUBRICATION REGIMES

E. Ciulli
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione

University of Pisa Pisa - Italy

Porto, Portugal, May 2004 FRICTION AND LUBRICATION REGIMES 1/40

SUMMARY
1 STRIBECK AND LAMBDA CURVES 2 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 3 FLUID FILM RESULTS 3.1 Nonconformal contacts 3.2 Conformal contacts 3.3 Comparison with theory 4 MIXED AND BOUNDARY RESULTS 4.1 Experimental nonconformal data 4.2 Wear and other problems 4.3 Theoretical observations 5 CONCLUSIONS

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1

STRIBECK AND LAMBDA CURVES

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1 STRIBECK AND LAMBDA CURVES

General considerations
Friction related problems are very important for engineering systems, in particular for a good design as regards elements life and energy savings. Friction losses can be measured directly on real machines, but a preliminary tribological research, experimental and/or theoretical, can be very useful for time and costs reduction. One of the most required data for design is the friction coefficient, also employed in simulation programmes useful to reduce the number of experimental tests. Unfortunately it is not always easy to find a realistic friction coefficient because there is a large number of variables (such as lubricant, velocity, load, geometry, roughness and materials) influencing its value.
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1 STRIBECK AND LAMBDA CURVES

Lubrication regimes
The evolution of the friction coefficient is especially influenced by the parts of load supported by the lubricant and by the surface asperities of the solids, essentially depending on load, speed and lubricant viscosity values. Three different lubrication regimes, ranging from fluid-film to boundary, are usually considered:  fluid-film (or full fluid) lubrication  mixed lubrication  boundary lubrication Useful ways to represent the evolutions of the friction coefficient f, evidencing the transition between the different lubrication regimes, are the so-called ´Stribeck curvesµ and ´lambda (0) curvesµ.

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1 STRIBECK AND LAMBDA CURVES

Stribeck curve
boundary lubrication mixed lubrication full fluid lubrication

Fs Fh T ! fs  fh f ! F F F
F ! Fs  Fh

T ! fs Fs  fh Fh
fs friction coefficient in boundary lubrication (Coulomb) fh friction coefficient for full lubricated conditions F total load Fs part of the total load carried by the asperity contacts Fh part of the total load carried by the full lubricated zones T total friction force

Sommerfeld number

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1 STRIBECK AND LAMBDA CURVES

Influence of some parameters under mixed lubrication

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1 STRIBECK AND LAMBDA CURVES

Altezza adimensionale del meato 
Per avere bassi attrito e usura è importante che la coppia funzioni in regime di lubrificazione completa. Questo si verifica per un·altezza del meato sufficientemente grande rispetto alla rugosità superficiale.  Ai fini dell·efficacia della lubrificazione è pertanto più significativa un·altezza adimensionale del meato, indicata spesso con 0, funzione dello spessore del meato h e delle rugosità quadratiche medie delle superfici dei corpi a contatto, Rq1 e Rq2.

0!

h
2 2 Rq1  Rq 2

Il valore di 0 per cui si ha il cambio di regime dipende dal tipo di accoppiamento lubrificato. Valori indicativi sono comunque:

0>3

0}1

0< 0.1 ÷ 1

lubrificazione limite

Meati con stessa altezza nominale h ma diverse rugosità e relativi valori di 0 (indicativi)

1 e 0 e 2 ÷ 5 lubrificazione mista
0>5

lubrificazione completa

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1 STRIBECK AND LAMBDA CURVES

Inclusion of the effects of different surface roughness: 0 curve

h 0! W
W=(Rq12+ Rq22)0.5

l L0 u m 1 0!K Fn W

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2

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

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2 EXPERIMENTAL WORKS

Experimental rig

specimens
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2 EXPERIMENTAL WORKS

discs

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3

FLUID FILM RESULTS

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3.1

Nonconformal contacts

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3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.1 Nonconformal contacts

lubricant: temperature: viscosity:

Test conditions ² non conformal contacts
T = 30°C (10°C)

bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (pure diester)

L0 = 0.042 Pa s (0.138 Pa s)

pressure-viscosity coefficient: E = 1.8Ú 10-8 Pa-1 load: rolling speed: F = 20 N u = (us + ud)/2 = 0.01, 0.0125, 0.02, 0.025, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06, 0.075, 0.08, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 m/s S = (us - ud)/u = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1

slide-to-roll ratio:

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3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.1 Nonconformal contacts

Friction coefficient for a spherical specimen against a glass disc for two lubricant temperatures

0 08

S=0.25

S=0.5

S=1

0 08

S=0.25

S=0.5

S=1

f
0 06
0=1 0=3

glass disc D7 Toil=10°C

f
0 06
0=1 0=3

glass disc D7 Toil=30°C

0 04

0 04

0 02

0 02

0 00 02 04 06 08 10

0

u [m/s]

00

02

04

06

08

10

u [m/s]

(spherical specimens S4, with diameter *=41.275 mm and roughness Rq=0.03 Qm) FRICTION AND LUBRICATION REGIMES 16/40

3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.1 Nonconformal contacts

Friction coefficient for a spherical specimen against steel discs for two lubricant temperatures

0 08

0=1

0=3

S=0.25

S=0.5

S=1

0 08

0=1

S=0.25

S=0.5

S=1

f
0 06

f
steel disc A10 Toil=10
0 06

steel disc A9 Toil=30

0 04

0 04

0 02

0 02

0 00 02 04 06 08 10

0 00 02 04 06 08 10

u [m/s]

u [m/s]

(spherical specimens S4, with diameter *=41.275 mm and roughness Rq=0.03 Qm) FRICTION AND LUBRICATION REGIMES 17/40

3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.1 Nonconformal contacts

Friction coefficient for a cylindrical specimen against a glass disc

,

=0.25

=0.5

=1

0,02

=0.5 T il=10°C

,
0=1

gl ss isc D7 T il C
0=3

gl ss disc D7
0,015

S=0.5 T il=30°C

,

0,01

,

0,005

0 , , ,

u [m s]

,

,

,

0,0

0,2

0,

u [m s]

0,

0,

1,0

(cylindrical specimens C4, with diameter *=42 mm and roughness Rq=0.14 Qm) FRICTION AND LUBRICATION REGIMES 18/40

3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.1 Nonconformal contacts

Line contacts

Specimen C1 C2 C3 C5

Material AISI 316 Aluminum 88 Mn V 8 K40

E [N/m2] 2.1·1011 7.0·1010 2.1·1011 5.7·1011

R 0.30 0.33 0.30 0.22

Rqa [Qm] 0.045 0.330 0.060 0.035

Rqc [Qm] 0.015 0.030 0.030 0.015

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3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.1 Nonconformal contacts

Different specimens ² same test conditions

Surface roughness of the cylindrical specimens
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3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.1 Nonconformal contacts

Lambda diagram

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3.2

Conformal contacts

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3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.2 Conformal contacts

Test conditions ² conformal contacts
lubricant: temperature: viscosity: load: speed: bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (pure diester) T = 20°C
L0 = 0.075 Pa s

F = 10, 20, 30 N
(u = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 m/s

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3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.2 Conformal contacts

Friction coefficient for a tilting pad tested against a glass disc
0,04

f
0,03

10 N

20 N 0,02 30 N 0,01

0,00 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,

(u [ /s]

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3.3

Comparison with theory

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3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.3 Comparison with theory

Nonconformal contacts: friction coefficient formulas 
isothermal conditions  Newtonian behaviour of the lubricant  mean viscosity calculated introducing the mean Hertzian contact pressure in the Barus formula  mean velocity gradient (u/hc (with (u=S u sliding speed and hc central film thickness)  Hertzian contact area as a reference surface

L0 e E p m u f ! S pm hc

By introducing one of the most used formulas for hc

f ! 1 . 614

L 0 .32 u 0 .32 0 F 0 .27

R 0 .22 E 0 .53 E 0 .58

e Epm S

For Eyring fluids (Jacod-Venner-Lugt formula)
ASME Journal of Tribology, 123 (2001)

¨ 2 L0 e E p H u ¸ X0 © S¹ f ! arcsinh ©5 X0 hc ¹ pH ª º
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3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.3 Comparison with theory

Nonconformal contacts: experimental friction coefficient compared with numerical results
(Newtonian and Eyring behaviour of the lubricant)
0,04

ex (S=0.25) f ex (S=0.5) f ex (S=1)

f New (S=0.25) f New (S=0.5) f New (S=1)

f Eyr (S=0.25) f Eyr (S=0.5) f Eyr (S=1)

0,03

0,02

0,01

0,00 0 0,2 0,4

u[

s]

0,

0,

1

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3 FLUID FILM RESULTS - 3.3 Comparison with theory

Conformal contacts: friction coefficient for a tilting pad against glass and steel discs compared with numerical results
0 04

F=10N F=20N
0 03

F=30N nu eri al

0 02

f !C

L 0 0 .5 (u 0 .5 F 0 .5

L 0 .5

0 01

0 00 0 0E+00 2 0E-03 4 0E-03 6 0E-03

8 0E-03

(L0 (u L F)0 5

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4

MIXED AND BOUNDARY RESULTS

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4.1

Experimental nonconformal data

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4 MIXED AND BOUNDARY RESULTS - 4.1 Experimental nonconformal data

Friction coefficient for the spherical specimen S4 against a steel disc at 30°C
0,16 S=0.25 S=0.5 S=1

f
0,12

s

disc A il=30°

0,08

0=1

0,04

0 0 0, 0,4 0,6 0,8 1

u[

s]

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4 MIXED AND BOUNDARY RESULTS - 4.1 Experimental nonconformal data

Comparison of friction trends for different specimens (S=0.5)

0,16

S4 (spherical, 41.275 mm) S3 (spherical, 24.606 mm)

0,16

f
0,12

f
0,12

steel disc A5

S4

R4 (cylin rical, 8 mm) R2 (cylin rical, 4 mm)

C4

0,08

steel isc A9

0,08

0,04

0,04

0 0 1 2 3 4

0

0

0,0

0,2

0,4

0

0,6

0,8

1,0

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4.2

Wear and other problems

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4 MIXED AND BOUNDARY RESULTS - 4.2 Wear and other problems

Evolutions of friction coefficient for two cylindrical specimens under mixed conditions in presence of wear
04
u=0.0125 /s u=0.025 /s u=0.05 /s u=0.075 /s u=0.1 /s u=0. /s

f
03

S= S= S= S= S= S= 0 25 0 5 1 0 25 0 5 1 0 25 0 5 1 0 25 0 5 1 0 25 0 5 1 0 25 0 5 1 lu iniu speci en

steel speci en 5

02

01

steel disc 6
0

ti e

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5

CONCLUSIONS

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5 CONCLUSIONS

Considerations on the friction trends
0,16 =0.25 0,14 S=0.5 S=1

steel disc A8
0,12

0,1

Differences between values of f easured for the different S decrease by decreasing u at low speeds
(when boundary lubrication approaches)

f
0,08

and by increasing u at high speeds
(when ther al effects for the highest values of S beco e ore significant)

0,06

f increases by increasing S
0,04

0,02

0 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0, 0,8 0, 1

u [ /s]

Specimen S4 against disc A8 (³Stribeck-like´ curves)
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5 CONCLUSIONS

Generalized lambda (0) diagram with lubrication regimes

destructive wear

conformal

predominant turbulence effects

nonconformal

predominant thermal effects

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5 CONCLUSIONS

Final remarks
The evolutions of the friction coefficient, in particular for nonconformal contacts, can be very different from the one of the typical Stribeck or 0 diagram. Many variables such as shape and dimension of the lubricated contact, roughness, materials, characteristics of the lubricant and thermal effects influence the friction trends. Many lubricated pairs of the most common machines do not work under steady-state but under transient conditions. Stationary results can be extended to real conditions only with a certain degree of approximation. Investigation under transient conditions show the presence of a loop on the Stribeck diagram.

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5 CONCLUSIONS

Friction coefficient in variable speed conditions
S = 0 .2 5 C4
0 .3
0 .2 5

S = 0 .5

-

C4
0 .3

S=1

-

C4

cylindrical specimen
0 .2 5
0 .2 5 u [m /s ]

0 .2

f * 10 0 .2

u [m /s ]
0 .2

f * 10

u [m /s ]

0 .1 5

f * 10

0 .1 5
0 .1

0 .1 5

0 .1
0 .0 5

0 .1

0 .0 5
0 0 2 4 6 8 10

0 .0 5

0 0 2 4 6 8 10

0 0 2 4 6 8 10

tim e [s ]
S = 0 .2 5 - S 4 0 .3 0 .3

tim e [s ]
S = 0 .5 - S 4 0 .3

tim e [s ]
S =1 - S 4

spherical specimen
0 .2 5 0 .2 5 f * 10 0 .2 u [m /s ] 0 .2 0 .2 0 .2 5

f * 10

0 .1 5 f * 10 0 .1

0 .1 5

0 .1 5

u [m /s ]

0 .1

u [m /s ]

0 .1

0 .0 5

0 .0 5

0 .0 5

0 0 2 4 6 8 10

0 0 2 4 tim e [s ] 6 8 10

0 0 2 4 6 8 10

tim e [s ]

tim e [s ]

f (multiplied by 10) as a function of time for specimen C4 (top) and S4 (bottom) for three values of the slide-to-roll ratio S (S=0.25, 0.5, 1, left to right). Test frequency 0.1 Hz. The trend of the rolling speed is also shown on each diagram.

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5 CONCLUSIONS

Summary of results under variable speed conditions
m e a n c y c le - 0 .1 H z - C 4 0 .0 3 0 .0 3

m e a n c y c le - 0 . 5 H z - C 4
0 .0 3

m e a n c y c le - 1 H z

-

C4

0 .0 2 5

0 .0 2 5

cylindrical specimen
S =1

0 .0 2 5

0 .0 2 S =1

0 .0 2

0 .0 2

0 .0 1 5 f

0 .0 1 5

0 .0 1 5

S =1

f

0 .0 1

0 .0 1

f
0 .0 1 0 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 5 S = 0 .2 5 S = 0 .5 0 S = 0 .2 5 S = 0 .5 0 - 0 .0 0 5 - 0 .0 0 5 0 0 .0 5 0 .1 0 .1 5 0 .2 0 0 .0 5 0 .1 0 .1 5 0 .2

0 .0 0 5 S = 0 .2 5 0 S = 0 .5

- 0 .0 0 5 0 0 .0 5 0 .1 u [m /s ] 0 .1 5 0 .2

u [m / s ] m e a n c y c le 0 . 5 H z - S 4
0 .0 3 0 .0 3 S =1

u [m / s ]
m e a n c y c le - 1 H z - S 4

m e a n c y c le - 0 . 1 H z - S 4
0 .0 3 S =1

0 .0 2 5

0 .0 2 5 S =1

0 .0 2 5

0 .0 2 S = 0 .5 0 .0 1 5 f

0 .0 2

0 .0 2 S = 0 .5 0 .0 1 5 f

0 .0 1 5 S = 0 .2 5

S = 0 .5

0 .0 1

f
0 .0 1 S = 0 .2 5 0 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 5

0 .0 1

S = 0 .2 5

0

0

spherical specimen
0 0 .0 5 0 .1 0 .1 5 0 .2

0

- 0 .0 0 5 0 0 .0 5 0 .1 u [m /s ] 0 .1 5 0 .2

- 0 .0 0 5

- 0 .0 0 5 0 0 .0 5

u [m / s ]

0 .1 u [m /s ]

0 .1 5

0 .2

Filtered values of the friction coefficient f as a function of the rolling speed u for three values of the slide-to-roll ratio S and three values of the test frequency (0.1, 0.5 and 1 Hz, from left to right).

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Formulas for Lambda ratio and minimum film thickness
To limit the influence of the differences of roughness that, even low, can play an important role at the very low speeds, f can be plotted as a function of the dimensionless film thickness 0 instead of the speed u

!

h
2 2 Rq1  Rq 2

h minimum film thickness, Rq root mean square roughness

h ! 2.65 U 0.7 h ! 1.69 U 0.68

0.54

W 0.13  R W 0.076  R

line contacts point contacts

0.49

U=Qu/(E¶R), G=EE¶ , W=F/(tE¶R), W=F/(E'R2), R specimen¶s radius
Q lubricant viscosity - u rolling speed, (us+ud)/2 with ud and us surface speeds of disc and specimen E¶=2[(1-Rs2)/Es+(1-Rd2)/Ed]-1 compound elastic modulus (E and R respectively Young and Poisson moduli of the materials) - E pressure-viscosity coefficient - F applied normal load - t axial width of the cylindrical specimen

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Numerical data
Specimen glass S4 steel glass S3 steel glass C4 steel glass R4 steel glass R2 steel 2,20E+11 2,20E+11 1,21E+11 0,01 - 0,4 1,51667E-05 9,56E-13 - 3,82E-11 3955 0,012 0,075 3,41E+08 0,01 - 0,10 2,20E+11 1,21E+11 0,01 - 1 7,58E-06 2,75833E-05 4,78E-13 - 4,78E-11 1,74E-12 - 6,95E-11 3955 2175 0,018 0,017 0,105 0,101 2,42E+08 2,53E+08 0,01 - 0,26 0,01 - 0,10 2,20E+11 1,21E+11 0,01 - 1 1,44E-06 1,38E-05 9,10E-14 - 9,10E-12 8,69E-13 - 8,69E-11 3955 2175 0,04 0,024 0,242 0,142 1,05E+08 1,79E+08 0,02 - 0,53 0,01 - 0,26 2,20E+11 1,21E+11 0,01 - 1 6,01E-07 2,63E-06 1,55E-13 - 1,55E-11 1,65E-13 - 1,65E-11 3955 2175 0,119 0,054 0,044 0,326 6,76E+08 7,81E+07 0,01 - 0,16 0,02 - 0,53 E' 1,21E+11 0,01 - 1 2,14E+07 1,09E-06 9,26E-14 - 9,26E-12 2,83E-13 - 2,83E-11 3955 2175 0,141 0,145 0,063 0,066 4,79E+08 4,54E+08 0,01 - 0,21 0,01 - 0,17 u [m/s] W 3,89E-07 U 1,68E-13 - 1,68E-11 G 2175 Hertzian area Hertzian hal width [mm] [mm^2] 0,172
¡

Hertzian pressure [N/m^2] 3,21E+08

hmin [µm] 0,01 - 0,22

0,093

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Main characteristics of some specimens

*Supplier¶s
data

S4
Material Diameter [mm] Rq [Qm] ardness RC AISI 52100 41.275 0.05 60-66*

S3
AISI 52100 24.606 0.04 60-66*

C4
88MnV8 42 0.15 64

R4
AISI 52100 8 0.08 61

R2
AISI 52100 4 0.06 60 44/40

FRICTION AND LUBRICATION REGIMES

Main characteristics of some discs

D7
Material Machining Rq [Qm] ardness V01 Crown glass lapping 0.03 700

A8
38NCD4 fine grinding 0.06 300

A9
38NCD4 fine grinding 0.07 500

A5
AISI 316 grinding 0.15 200 45/40

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2 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

Stribeck curves for specimen C3 for different loads and temperatures

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Rotational speed of specimen and disc for S=0 and S=1
2,4 2,2 2,0 1,8 1,6 1,4 2,4

wp [giri/s] - f wd [giri/s] - f

2,2 2,0 1,8 1,6 1,4

wp [giri/s] - f wd [giri/s] - f

f [1/ ]

f [1/ ]

1,2 1,0 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0,0 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,1
¤

1,2 1,0 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0,0

0,11 0,12 0,13 0,14 0,15 0,16 0,17 0,18 0,19

0,2

0

0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09

0,1
¤

u [m/ ] 


u [m/ ] 


disc speed

speci e speed

dis speed

speci e speed

160 140 120

160 140 120 ity [rp ] 100 80 60 40 20 0 

el city [rp ]

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 t [s]

el

0

20

40

60

80

100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 t [s]

FRICTION AND LUBRICATION REGIMES

¥¤ £ ¢

¢

¢ 

¢

¦

¨

§

¥¤ £ ¢

S4 - fr qu nz provino
¢ ¢ ¢

i

o - S=0

S4 - fr qu nz provino

i

o - S=1

¦

0,11 0,12 0,13 0,14 0,15 0,16 0,17 0,18 0,19

0,2 

¨ §

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Some references
R. Bassani, E. Ciulli, B. Piccigallo, "Theoretical and experimental results on friction for line contacts in mixed and elastohydrodynamics lubrication regimes", in Lubrication at the frontier: The role of the interface and surface layers in the thin film and boundary regime, Proceedings of the 25th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Lyon, F, 8th-11th September 1998, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.215-222, 1999. R. Bassani, E. Ciulli, "Friction in boundary and mixed lubricated line contacts with different roughness", in Thinning films and tribological interfaces, Proceedings of the 26th LeedsLyon Symposium on Tribology, Leeds, UK, 14th-17th September 1999, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.759-768, 2000. E. Ciulli, µµFriction in lubricated contacts: from macro- to microscale effects¶¶, in: Fundamentals of Tribology and Bridging the Gap Between the Macro-and Micro/Nanoscales, NATO Sciences Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, ISBN 07923-6837-1, 2001, pp. 725-734. R. Bassani, E. Ciulli, "Experimental evaluation of shape effects on friction in lubricated nonconformal contacts", in Tribology research: from model experiment to industrial problem, Proceedings of the 27th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Lyon, France, 5th-8th September 2000, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.403-414, 2001. R. Bassani, E. Ciulli, ³Friction from fluid-film to boundary lubricated conditions´, Invited paper al 29th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, in Tribological research and design for engineering systems, Proceedings of the 29th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Leeds, UK, 3-6 September 2002, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.821-834, 2003, ISBN 0-444-51243-8.

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