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Presented By

:
Imran Khan
Apprentice Engineer
P. No. 20320
Batch # 14

Objective

 Multi-layered vessel fabrication

 Welding and fabrication techniques

 Modifications in Reactor

 Stamicarbon Urea Synthesis Process

Outlines
 Urea Synthesis Process
 Specifications of Urea Reactor (UR-211)
 Mechanical Construction
- Shell
- Leak Detection System
- Hemispherical Heads
- Sieve Trays
- Top Cover & Nozzles
- Insulation
 Installation of Siphon Jet Pump
 Current Status
- Stamicarbon Inspection
- Lining Repair Job

Urea Synthesis Process

Urea is produced from carbon dioxide and ammonia and composed of
two chemical reversible reactions

1) 2NH3 + CO2 NH4COONH2 (-28.4 Kcal/ Mole)

2) NH4COONH2 NH2CONH2 + H2O (+5.97 Kcal/ Mole)

The first reaction is fast and takes place in very short period of time,
whereas second reaction is relatively slow and requires longer time

Off Gases Off Gases to Vent thru UC-291 4kg/cm2 Absorber Carbamate Solution from UP-271 HV-221.02 Gas Liquid HV-221.07 LV-231.04 to LP Section .10 34% Urea Solution NH3 from HP-Pump (UP- 211) CO2 In from CO2 Compressor Urea Solution 54% HV-231.09 HV-231.

 Fabricated by M/s.Specifications of Urea Reactor (UR-211)  Internally lined/overlayed multilayered vertical vessel with sieve trays & overflow pipe as internals. Nooter Corporation USA in year 1997-98.  Process Design  Codes & Standards .

Construction Details R8 R8 R7 • Reactor Shell R7 • Hemispherical Heads R 66 R • Inlet Nozzles • Reactor Overflow R 55 R • Sieve Trays • Top cover & Outlet Nozzles R 44 R • Insulation R 33 R • Modifications •Siphon jet pump Installation R2 R2 •Provision of Manholes in Trays R1 R2 .

) Width = 3669 mm .Shell Can 3 Plates per Wrap. B Liner (01 Nos.94mm Material = SA-724 Gr. Length= 3669 mm Thickness = 7.) Plates per Shell Can Width = 3042mm .1 mm Material = SA-724 Gr. B .) Core Plate (01 Nos. Length = 9242 mm Thickness = 19. Total 39 Wrap Plates (13 Nos.

9018-D1 as filler rod Groove for Barrier 3669 mm layer faces Leak Detection Grooves(3×5 9242 mm mm) 19 mm .Reactor Shell  Core Plate  Machining of Leak detection grooves and barrier layer faces  Weld seam barrier layer is overlayed on pre-machined faces by using 310 MoL (25:22:2) through plasma arc welding (PAW) on inside of core plate  Longitudinal welding : SMAW with E.

Welding of Wrap Plates  Drilling of vent holes prior to welding for venting of welding gases  Qty : 04 (Both ends of each Shell Can )  Dia.5 mm up to core plate in first 3 wrap plates and 19. : 9. of plates  At 90 degrees apart radially drilled in wrap plates  Longitudinal seams : SMAW process  Electrode : E-9018-D1 .5 in the remaining 10 Nos.

Liner Welding  04 plates are rolled.Welding technique : PAW (Plasma Arc Welding) . Final Liner weld seam after insertion in shell can .03 longitudinal butt welding of rolled plates . welded and inserted in each shell can .

Shell Cans Welding  Both ends of each Shell Can are build-up using SMAW and E-9018-D1 as Electrode for integrating core and all wrap plates  Circumferential welding joint  Root pass : SMAW & E-9018D1 as Electrode (at core plate )  02 barrier layers welded by using plasma arc welding with 310 MoL prior to final circumferential weld joint of the liner .

Leak Groves & Liner Welding B A A B See Details .

Hemispherical Heads Material : A-516 Gr-70 Plate thickness : 135 mm Process : Hot forging Thickness after forging : 119mm Heat treatment : Normalizing (To relieve work hardening stresses) •After dimensional checks bevels were made on circumferential ends as per drawing (at 8˚). .

.  After this welding the inside surface of heads is strip overlayed by Plasma Arc Welding technique using 310 MoL as filler in 03 layers.Hemispherical Heads  Manhole and nozzles are fabricated and installed by full penetration welding  Manhole is welded by SMAW using E.9018 D1 as Electrode.

Liner Plate 30 ̊ Head Overlay . Head to Shell Weld Seam STD. Head Core Plate 25 Min. 8⁰ U-Bevel 3 To 1 Taper Weld Build up Hemi.

of Holes Hole Dia. 8. SIEVE TRAYS Total No. 3 1270 8 52 2 4. 10 570 8 79 . 9. 5. No. 2. of segments per tray : 06 EA Material : 316 L (BC01) Thickness : 10 mm Clamping Nut Bolts : M14 (25/22/2) # Tray No. 6 920 8 62 3 7. of Sieve Trays : 10 EA Overflow Pipe No. Pitch (mm) (mm2) 1 1.

D (Serrated type with PTFE envelope.5 Tons Number of Nozzles : One 6” and other is 3” Overlay : 9. BC-03) Detail of bolting Number of bolts : 16 each Size of bolts : M-90 X 6 Length of Bolts : 632 mm Material of Bolts : A-193 Grade B7 .D x 854 mm O.Top Cover & Bolting Top cover Outside Diameter : 1220 mm Thickness of Cover : 331 mm Material of Cover : A-266 class 2 Top Cover Weight : 2. PAW) Number of Holes : 16 (diameter: 96 mm) Gasket : 804 mm I.5 mm (310 Mol .

Top Cover .

Siphon Jet Pump Skirts  Reduction of HS steam consumption (25-60 Kg/hr) in stripper  Improvement in urea conversion  Improvement in gas-liquid mixing  Improvement in equal temperature distribution throughout the reactor  Reduction in stagnant zones in reactor  Easy to install on conventional trays with minor modifications .

400 570 79 6 9. of Holes Hole Dia. (mm) Modification 1 1. 2 730 1270 52 2 3 600 3 4 600 920 8 62 4 5. 10 345 . Pitch (mm2) No. 6 480 5 7. 8.Sieve Trays after Modification S.No Tray No. of Holes after No.

Siphon Jet Pump Skirts SIPHON SKIRT GUIDE RING OVERFLOW PIPE EXISTING SIEVE TRAY MANHOLES .

Installation Details 900 mm Siphon Skirt 08 Segments 500 mm Guide Ring .

Siphon Jet Pump Skirts .

15mm/yr and 0.e. 0.Inspection History of UR-211  TA-2000 &TA-2001 :  Jointly executed by FFBL & Stamicarbon  Revealed no major abnormality  UT of Liner revealed a corrosion rate of about 0.  TA-2004  Siphon jet skirts were installed  Minor repair of pinholes defects was carried out using pencil grinder  TA-2006  Minor repairs were carried out as previously  But increase corrosion rate of liner observed as compared to previous years  TA-2007  To confirm the thickness monitoring results achieved during TA-2006  Increase in corrosion rate i.41mm at top compartment .213 mm/yr  Minimum thickness of 7.05 mm/yr.

1 7.11 10 (Bottom) 8. DPT revealed cracking and subsequent grinding indicated the ~4mm deep crack  Liner Thickness Measurement: Compartment 1997 2009 (mm) Corrosion Average(mm) Min.04 .Inspection History of UR-211  TA-2009  Inspection and Eddy Current thickness measurement by Stamicarbon  SIIC cracks found by Eddy Current testing just below the top head to shell circumferential weld  Surface was ground smooth using pencil grinder.6 7. Max.78 0.67 8.67 7. Rate (mm/yr) 1 (Top) 8.38 1.61 7.5 8.2 7.35 0.15 5 (Middle) 8.2 8.5 8. Avg.

relining to be checked after 1 year .Inspection History of UR-211  Stamicarbon TA-09 Inspection Recommendations:  Partial Relining of the top compartment within 1-2 years  Lower the liquid level in the reactor up to ½ meter below the top circumferential weld seam  Improve insulation gas phase area in top  Next inspection after 4 years effective on-stream time  But.

.

Shell Liner  Plates are hot rolled. 01) BACK . solution annealed and pickled.4 mm  Quantity : 04 plates per shell can (total 32 plates in 08 shell cans)  Material : SS-316 LN (Stamicarbon BC.  dimensions  Length : 3680 mm  Width : 2292 mm (radius)  Thickness : 8.

.Liner long Weld seam Section A-A 38mm Core Plate Leak detection Grooves 16mm 5mm 5 mm 30⁰ Liner PAW Weld seam barrier layer overlaid on pre-machined 60 ⁰ 8 Min. Gap faces (PAW).

Liner long Weld seam BACK .

Vent Holes located 90 apart thru each end of each Shell 152 mm Can ½’’-3000# Half coupling 128.05 mm Liner 8. Circumferential Weld seam 4 Nos.4 mm .5 mm Wrap Plates 3 mm 30 ̊ Core Plate 19.

Liner Circumferential Weld Seam BACK .

Leak Groove 10mm Leak Groove Long.Leak Groove and Hole ¾ ’’ SCH-160 Pipe SS-316L ½’’-NPT with SS Plug Circ. Leak Groove BACK .

such cracks are also observed in the liquid phase because an electrolyte is always present.  Other conditions can enhance this failure mode. BACK . and  large number of pressure cycles (start/stops). Plastic deformation of the liner plates will always occur during start up of the plant (heating the synthesis section with steam).  an increased gap between the liner plates and the shell .  Plastic deformation (=strain) of the liner material. such as :  inferior liner material and/or weld quality .Strain Induced Integranular Cracking (SIIC)  SIIC is an electrochemical corrosion mechanism in combination with deformation (strain).  presence of chloride and/or sulphur in the porous oxide layer . The following conditions are a pre-requisite for occurrence of these cracks :  The presence of an electrolyte as a result of condensation of ammonium carbamate in the gas phase or liquid phase. If the liquid level is extremely high.

SIIC-(Grinding using Pencil grinder) BACK .

22 (BC.8-7.03 18-20 8-12 --. 0. 1 2 0.1-0.03 17-18.40 2 0.03 17-20 8-12 --.5 Safurex (BE.5 0.5 0.22 316L 0.5-2.4 06) BACK .16 25 22 2 (BC.03 16-18 10-14 2-3 0.8-1.5 13-15 2.2-3 1 2 0.75 2 0.6 0.3-0.10 304L U.01) X2CrNiMo 24. 0.10 316L U. 05) 25.9-2.5- 0.5 1.G (BB) 0.75 2 0.G 0.3 0.03 28-30 5.Chemical Compositions Material C Cr Ni Mo Si Mn N (max) 304L 0.02 21-23 1.

5 / 16.5 / 12.5 / 16.5 184 Safurex 650 / 465 800 / 717 > 25 11.5 184 BACK . Steel 248 / 202 482 / 482 >16 12.5 184 BC.5 / 11.Mechanical Properties Material Yield Tensile Elongation Thermal Module of strength strength (%) Expansion Elasticity (Mpa) (Mpa) 20 ̊/225 ̊C * 10-6/ ̊C N/mm2 at 20 ̊/225 ̊C 20 ̊/225 ̊C 20 ̊/225 ̊C 20 ̊/225 ̊ C.01 190 / 135 490 / 412 > 40 16.5 190 BC.05 270 / 195 580 / 495 > 30 16.

Safurex • Corrosion Resistance • Low overall cost • Low weight BACK .

arc welding (PAW) is a advanced version of the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). This leads to a lack of concentrated power in the work- piece. PAW uses a constricting nozzle and employs two separate gas flows. which results in a bigger seam and a larger heat- affected zone.000-18. the arc power increases and the arc diameter also increases.Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) Plasma•. Unlike GTAW-welding torches. The plasma column is now stabilized along the axis of the electrode and is more intense than the GTAW-welding arc.000 K in case of GTAW .000-24. which is unstable and tends to wander in the low current range.000 K as BACK compared to 8. GTAW has a free-burning arc. With increase in current.  The column temperature in PAW is 10. which give rise to a concentrated plasma arc having a narrow columnar shape.

2º C at inlet & 183º C at outlet Flow Rate of Inlet Gas : 198 m3/hr Flow Rate of Inlet Liquid : 219 m3/hr Reactor Hold up Volume : 192 m3 Residence Time : 60 minutes (at 100 % load) Inside Diameter of Reactor : 2917 mm Number of Sieve Trays : 10 Height of Reactor : 29100mm .7-126 Kg/m3 Operating Temperature : 170.Process Design Type of Reactor : Plug Flow Reactor Density of Inlet Liquid : 990-1130 Kg/m3 Density of Inlet Gas : 114.

Section VIII. 1995 Design Pressure : 162 Kg/cm2 (2304 psig) Design Temp : 190º C (374º F) Hydro test Pressure : 2880 psig Corrosion allowance : 1mm Ext. & Lining Wind Loading : Per UBC 88. Division-2. 2mm Int. Exposure ‘C’ Radiography : 100 % all liner. on Head & Shell.Codes& Standards Design Code : ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. Wind Speed = 150 Km/hr. Shell can and shell to head weld joints PWHT : Heads only .

Leak Detection System • 8 Nos. of Inlet air lines • Leak Detection Grooves • Ammonia Analyzer .

HP Urea Synthesis Loop .

)  Reactor Overflow R5  Inlet / Outlet Nozzles R4 Overflow Pipe  Modifications R3  Siphon Jet Pump Installation  Provision of Manholes in Trays R2 R1 Bottom Hemispherical Head 34% Urea Liquid Inlet Gas Inlet . M90 Studs Construction Details (16 nos) Top Hemispherical Head Multilayer  Reactor Shell Shell Can. 3670 mm (Typical) R8  Hemispherical Heads (Typical) R7 Sieve Trays (10  Sieve Trays R6 Nos.