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Using Instructional Software

in Teaching and Learning

Integrating Educational Technology
into Teaching

 In 1960s and 1970s, Control Data’s PLATO
system was developed by William Norris.

 Norris believed that if computers were to
take over much of the traditional role of
teachers, education could become more

 Programs written in computer languages
can do human tasks is called application
software, or simply programs.

Classifying Software by its
 CAI: Computer-assisted instruction
 CBI: Computer-based instruction
 CBL: Computer-based learning

 Drill (or drill and practice) software.
 Tutorial software.
 Simulation software.
 Instructional games.
 Problem-solving software.

Drill and Practice Activities

 The well-designed drill and practice
programs should have the following
1. Control over the presentation rate.
2. Appropriate feedback for correct answers.
3. Better reinforcement for correct answers.

 Most basic drill and practice functions are
often described as a flashcard activity.

Using Drill and Practice Software in Teaching  Immediate feedback  Motivation  Saving teacher time  In place of or supplemental to worksheets and homework  In preparation for tests .

Tutorial Activities  Tutorials are used to deliver entire instructional sequences similar to a teacher’s classroom instruction.  Tutorials are often categorized as linear and branching (Alessi and Trollip.  Courseware focuses on the acquisition stage of learning.1991). .

.)  A linear tutorial gives its user the same instructional sequence of explanation. Data collection and management features make tutorials more useful to teachers.89). Tutorial Activities( cont. and feedback regardless of differences in user performance (IETIT p.  Some tutorials have computer-management capabilities. practice.

– Thorough user control. – Appropriate and comprehensive teaching sequences. . – Adequate answer-judging and feedback capabilities. – Extensive interactivity. The Elements of Well- Designed Tutorial Programs  Tutorials are geared toward learners who can read fairly well and usually older students or adults.

.  Tutorials in Teaching: 1. Self-paced reviews of instruction 2. Tutorials  Tutorials (teacher-directed methods) deliver traditional instruction in skills rather than letting students create learning experiences through generative exercises and project development. Permit instruction when teachers are unavailable. 3. An alternative learning strategy.

.  Simulations differ from tutorial and drill and practice activities because they provide less structured and more learner- directed activities. Simulation Activities  A simulation is a computerized model of a real or imagined system designed to teach how a certain system or a similar one works(IETIT p93).

Types of Simulations  Physical simulations: Users manipulate objects  Process simulations: Usually use for biological simulations  Procedural simulations: Used for medical or mechanical problems and flight simulators  Situational simulations: Hypothetical problem situations & reactions to them .

– Make the impossible possible. – Get students involved. Using Simulations in Teaching – Compress time. – Make experimentation safe. – Save money and other resources. . – Repeat with variations. – Make situations controllable. – Slow down processes. – Supplement or replace lab experiments.

 The function of a games is to hold student’s attention or supply a reward for accomplishing other activities. Instructional Games  Games are usually listed as a separate form of courseware because their instructional connotation to students is slightly different. . (IETIT p99).

Types of Games  Adventure  Arcade  Board  Card or gambling  Combat  Logic  Psychomotor  Role-playing  TV quizzes.  Word .

are overused and misused (McGinley. especially computer-based ones. .” and games draw attention away from learning.  Others believe that games convince students that they are “escaping from learning.Instructional Game Issues  Many educators believe that games. 1990).

Problems with Games & Their Use in Teaching  Other teachers worry that students can become confused about which part of the activity is the game and which part is the skill they are learning.  Teaching with Games: – Replacement for worksheets and exercises – Foster cooperation and group work – As a reward .  Difficulty transferring skills to nongame situations.

. thinking skills. reasoning. use of logic.  Mayes(1992).“ teaching-sequenced planning to solve problems to high ability learners could interfere with their own effective processing”(p101). decision making. and inference skills.Problem-Solving Courseware  Synonyms term for problem-solving include: critical thinking. higher level thinking. higher-order cognitive outcomes.

b. Using a scientific approach to problem solving. . Identify problem-solving skills or general capabilities to build or foster: a. Solving one or more kinds of content - area problems. c. Six Steps Help Teachers Integrate P-S Courseware 1. Components of problem solving. Decide on a series of activities that would help teach the desired skills. 2.

5. Demonstrate the courseware and the steps to follow in solving problems. .Six Steps Help Teachers Integrate P-S Courseware 3. Determine where the courseware fits into the teaching sequence. 6. Build in transfer activities and make students aware of the skills they are using in the courseware (IETIT p103). Examine courseware to locate materials that closely match the desired abilities. 4.

a work schedule. goals.Seven Steps for Integrating Problem-Solving Courseware 1. 2. . Allow students sufficient time to explore and interact with the software. and organized times for sharing and discussing results. Vary the amount of direction and assistance depending on the needs of each student. provide some structure in the form of directions.

Point out the relationship of courseware skills and activities to other kinds of problem solving. Promote a “ reflective learning environment. 4. . Stress thinking processes rather than correct answers.Seven Steps for Integrating Problem-Solving Courseware 3. 5.” let students talk about their work and the methods they use.

. Let students work together in pairs or small group. 7. If assessments are done. use alternatives to traditional paper-and pencil tests (IETIT p105).Seven Steps for Integrating Problem-Solving Courseware 6.

Integrated Learning Systems  Integrated learning systems are the most powerful and the most expensive type of courseware because they require more than one computer. a combination instruction and management system that runs on microcomputers connected to a larger computer. .  An ILS is a network.

Instructional objective specified. problem solving. with individual lessons tied to those objectives.Integrated Learning Systems  An ILS can offer a combination of drill and practice. and tool courseware integrated into a total curriculum support package. tutorial.  The General characteristics of an ILS: 1. simulation. .

Integrated Learning Systems 2. Lessons integrated into the standard curriculum. Management systems that collect and record results of student performance. 3. (IETIT p105) . 5. Courseware that spans several grade levels in a comprehensive fashion. 4. Courseware delivered on a networked system of microcomputers or terminals with color graphics and sound.

. which is connected via a network to a series of microcomputers (IETITp105).Integrated Learning Systems  ILS courseware and related management software are housed on a computer called a file server.  Each ILS offers a variety of instructional techniques in one place.

Using an ILS in Teaching  Remediation for those students traditional instruction has failed to reach  Mainstream delivery system which provides instruction on content instead of remediation or backup .

and data collection systems (IETITp109). it provides a rich environment for student learning.  An ITS will include some kind of information bank(s). symbol pads (e.Constructivist Applications in Networked Environments  ITS stands for integrated technology system. word processing and/or desktop publishing software).g. construction kits(e...g. Logo or other graphic languages or tools). .

. – Logo program characteristics.Essential Characteristics of Logo in Education – Logo screen devices. – Logo programming elements.

Types of Logo Resources  Logo programming languages.  Lego-controlled robots.  Logowriter. .  Microworlds packages.  LEGO TC Logo.  HyperStudio with HyperLogo.

What Educators Heard About Logo  Logo will:  Promote better mathematics problem- solving skills  Make children become interested in school or learning mathematics  Make students perform better on math tests .

1987 p23).  By technocentric. calling it technocentric thinking”(p113).” .What Educators Heard About Logo  “Papert rejected almost all research about Logo. he meant that people seemed to focus on “THE effect of THE computer on cognitive development” (Papert. rather than on determining how computers can help to create a better “culture of learning.

Using Logo in Teaching  When & How should intervention be handled ?  Are there techniques for structuring the learning environment ?  How is mediation done ? .

.” those who have implemented Logo in classrooms agree that teachers must provide some structure  (IETIT p115). Using Logo in Teaching  “Timing and degree of teacher intervention [are] critical to the effectiveness of Logo learning”(Keller.  Papert described Logo as a way to “ learn without curriculum. 1990. IETIT P115).

(Peers. Using Logo in Teaching  Mediation should stress process rather than problem content  Teachers should emphasize the relationship between Logo & other skills. Progress Assessments) .

based on best- known methods  Presentations contains nothing that misleads or confuses students  Comments that are not abusive or insulting  Readability at an appropriate level for students  Graphics that are not distracting to learners.Required Instructional Design and Pedagogy  Appropriate teaching strategy. .

Required for Content  No grammar. up-to date content  No racial or gender stereotypes  Social characteristics exhibiting sensitivity to moral values . or punctuation errors on the screen  Accurate. spelling.

if desired .Required for User Flexibility  User has some control of movement within the program  User can Can turn off sound.

without error  Program does not break.Required Technical Soundness  Program loads consistently. no matter what the student enters  Program does what the screen says it should do .

Optional Student Use Criteria  Student ease of use  Required keys  Input devices  Directions  Supportive materials  Optional assistance  Optional directions  Creativity  Summary feedback .

Optional Teacher Use Criteria  Teacher’s ease of use  Management  Teacher manuals  Ease of integration  Teacher assistance  Adaptability .

Optional Presentation Criteria  Graphics features  Screen layout  Speech capabilities  Required peripherals .

Optional Technical Criteria  Response Judging  Timing  Portability  Compatibility  Technical Manuals .

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