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RESTORASI

HUTAN

.RESTORASI HUTAN

Pemahaman “struktur hutan dan fungsi hutan” sangat penting
karena kerusakan hutan biasanya berkaitan dengan struktur
dan fungsi hutan.
Hutan yang rusak mempunyai struktur tegakan yang berbeda
dengan kondisi awalnya, sehingga fungsi hutan tersebut akan
terganggu.
Struktur hutan berkaitan erat dengan fungsi hutan, suatu
struktur hutan akan membentuk hutan yang memiliki fungsi
yang berbeda-beda, yaitu konsevasi, produksi atau lindung.

Kegiatan restorasi hutan ditujukan untuk memulihkan kembali
struktur tegakan seperti kondisi awalnya sehingga kawasan
hutan tersebut dapat menjalankan fungsinya seperti fungsi
awalnya. Parameter struktur tegakan a.l. : kekayaan jenis,
kerapatan, distribusi, dominasi, asosiasi, crown density.

Restorasi hutan biasanya berupa kegiatan reklamasi
(melibatkan kegiatan civil engineering, berhubungan dengan
pemulihan kondisi tanah) dan revegetasi (mengembalikan
pohon, shrub, dll).

“Restorasi” dapat didefinisikan sebagai upaya memperbaiki
atau memulihkan kondisi lahan yang rusak dengan membentuk
struktur dan fungsinya sesuai (mendekati) dengan kondisi
awal.
Diunduh dari: http://wahyukdephut.wordpress.com/2010/02/23/konsep-restorasi/………..
28/12/2012

.PENANAMAN-HUTAN KEMBALI
. Empat strategi penanaman hutan kembali tersebut adalah:
Membiarkan wilayah hutan tidak terganggu agar proses
regenerasi alami dapat berlangsung (untuk wilayah hutan yang
memiliki keragaman hayati dan tutupan vegetasi baik).
Membantu regenerasi alami (memotong jenis tumbuhan
pengganggu tertentu agar jenis-jenis pohon penting dapat
tumbuh).
Penanaman dengan pengayaan (ketika kelompok jenis tertentu
telah hilang, jenis pohon tertentu akan ditanam agar tercipta
habitat yang lebih beragam).
Penanaman jenis kunci (metode ini dikembangkan oleh FORRU
untuk wilayah yang rusak parah dimana beberapa jenis kunci
tertentu dipilih dan ditanam karena pohon-pohon ini dapat
menarik berbagai jenis satwa penyebar biji-bijian.

Diunduh dari: http://harapanrainforest.org/id/restorasi-hutan……….. 28/12/2012

Diunduh dari: http://harapanrainforest. Melaksanakan inventarisasi jenis pohon dan mencatat kelimpahannya di dalam kawasan Harapan Rainforest. Pada saat ini. .. Pemantauan fenologi (waktu berbunga dan berbuah) berbagai jenis pohon di wilayah hutan berbeda. tim restorasi hutan telah terlibat dalam berbagai tugas meliputi: Pengembangan keterampilan dan kapasitas yang diperlukan di masa mendatang. .org/id/restorasi-hutan………. Penggumpulan biji-bijian untuk diitanam di fasilitas pembibitan. Perawatan dan pemantauan biji dan benih yang ditumbuhkan di fasilitas pembibitan. 28/12/2012 . Penanaman bibit dari fasilitas pembibitan pada plot tertentu dalam kawasan.

tanaman asli pada kawasan yang direstorasi ditanam kembali dan itu akan lebih mudah sebab kondisi lahan sudah tidak kritis lagi maka tingkat keberhasilan tumbuhnya tanaman asli cenderung berhasil. Ada empat strategi besar dalam konsep restorasi ekosistem hutan tersebut: 1. Strategi ke empat.html………. Strategi ke dua. Strategi ke tiga.. 2.RESTORASI EKOSISTEM HUTAN Pemerintah Indonesia mencanangkan pengelolaan kawasan hutan melalui skema restorasi ekosistem hutan seluas 3. setelah terealisasi melakukan penanaman tanaman asli pada kawasan yang direstorasi. 3. memiliki struktur tajuk yang baik sebagai penahan air hujan dan mengembalikan unsur hara tanah yang sudah ktitis.3 juta hektar. Memilih tanaman yang mudah dan cepat tumbuh pada lahan kritis. membantu regenerasi alami tanaman asli dengan cara memotong jenis tumbuhan pengganggu tertentu agar jenis-jenis pohon penting dapat tumbuh dengan baik. Artinya.com/2011/08/restorasi-hutan. Diunduh dari: http://hutan-tersisa. Melakukan penanaman dengan pengayaan jenis tanaman tertentu yang telah hilang.blogspot. setelah tanaman asli tumbuh maka harus membiarkan wilayah restorasi ekosistem hutan tidak diganggu apa lagi ditebang agar proses regenerasi alami dapat berlangsung normal sehingga nantinya memiliki keragaman hayati dan tutupan vegetasi baik. . 28/12/2012 . jenis tanaman atau pohon tertentu yang telah hilang harus ditanam termasuk mendatangkan satwa (hewan) yang selama ini ada di kawasan yang direstorasi sehingga tercipta habitat yang lebih beragam. 4.

Juta. dan ekowisata. Kemenhut telah menerbitkan 3 unit HPH ekosistem restorasi seluas 185. madu.942. HPH restorasi harus menjadi program unggulan Kemenhut.512 hektar.5.638.385 hektar). seperti air. sekaligus menciptakan lapangan kerja dan usaha. Program ini menunjukkan kondisi hutan alam Indonesia yang harus dipulihkan kembali. untuk pangan atau energi.kompas.untuk. 28/12/2012 .HPH RESTORASI EKOSISTEM Menhut telah menerbitkan surat keputusan pencadangan hak pengusahaan hutan (HPH) restorasi ekosistem seluas 2.Produks i. dan Kalimantan Timur (86.005 hektar yang berlokasi di Jambi (46. HPH restorasi ekosistem merupakan bentuk bisnis kehutanan yang unik karena investor tidak boleh mengambil hasil hutan kayu.450 hektar). inovasi ini bukan hal mudah. Jadi.170 hektar). Kemenhut telah menerima permohonan 40 unit HPH restorasi ekosistem seluas 3.com/read/2011/09/28/22461455/2.Hektar. Kemhut tengah memproses penerbitan surat keputusan untuk 4 unit lainnya seluas 251. HPH restorasi ekosistem DIHARAPKAN menjadi solusi penurunan emisi gas rumah kaca dari sektor kehutanan. business for environment dapat direalisasikan. Sejauh ini.5 juta hektar sebagai bagian sistem inovasi kehutanan tahun 2010-2014. Diunduh dari: http://bisniskeuangan.960 hektar dan telah menilai kesiapan 2 unit seluas 246.Restorasi……….535 hektar karena tidak memenuhi kriteria. banyak investor ingin memperoleh HPH restorasi ekosistem. Sumatera Selatan (52. Sebenarnya. Akan tetapi. .. tetapi pemerintah ha rus menolak permohonan 22 unit seluas 2. Pemerintah memberi konsesi satu kawasan hutan terdegradasi kepada investor yang akan membenahi kerusakan dengan menanami tanaman asli lokal lalu mengambil keuntungan dari hasil hutan bukan kayu. Kemenhut harus memberi insentif khusus untuk mendukung kesinambungan investasi HPH restorasi. Perlu juga inovasi membangun HPH restorasi berbasis masyarakat.Hutan.755 hektar.

IUPHHK-RE merupakan izin usaha yang diberikan untuk membangun kawasan dalam hutan alam pada hutan produksi yang memiliki ekosistem penting sehingga dapat dipertahankan fungsi dan keterwakilannya. KONSEP RESTORASI HUTAN TERPADU Kawasan hutan yang dapat dimohon untuk areal restorasi ekosistem diutamakan pada hutan produksi yang tidak produktif dan dicadangkan atau ditunjuk oleh menteri kehutanan. Kawasan hutan yang dapat dimohon untuk areal restorasi ekosistem diutamakan pada hutan produksi yang tidak produktif dan dicadangkan atau ditunjuk oleh menteri kehutanan.com/lingkungan/konservasi/7343-iuphhk-re-konsep- restorasi-hutan-terpadu. Read more: IUPHHK-RE: Konsep Restorasi Hutan Terpadu Diunduh dari: http://wartapedia. dilakukan untuk mempertahankan fungsi hutan sehingga terpelihara keberadaannya disamping mengoptimalkan jasa lingkungan dan jasa kawasan pada areal restorasi. 28/12/2012 . Izin usaha restorasi ini. Salah satu bentuk pemulihan ekosistem hutan hingga berfungsi sebagaimana mestinya di hutan alam produksi adalah melalui Izin Usaha Pemanfaatan Hasil Hutan Kayu Restorasi Ekosistem (IUPHHK-RE).html………..

php?option=com………. sehingga tercapai keseimbangan hayati dan ekosistemnya. pelepasliaran flora dan fauna untuk mengembalikan unsur hayati (flora dan fauna) serta unsur non hayati (tanah. penangkaran satwa.. . menanam.kalbarprov. menyemai. pengayaan. . penjarangan. perlindungan dan pemulihan ekosistem hutan termasuk penanaman. Restorasi ekosistem adalah upaya untuk mengembalikan unsur hayati (flora dan fauna) serta unsur non hayati (tanah dan air) pada suatu kawasan dengan jenis asli. IUPHHK restorasi ekosistem dalam hutan alam adalah izin usaha yang diberikan untuk membangun kawasan dalam hutan alam pada hutan produksi yang memiliki ekosistem penting sehingga dapat dipertahankan fungsi dan keterwakilannya melalui kegiatan pemeliharaan. memelihara tanaman dan memanen.id/joomla15/index.go. sehingga tercapai keseimbangan hayati dan ekosistemnya. 28/12/2012 . Sistem silvikultur adalah sistem budidaya hutan atau sistem teknik bercocok tanaman hutan mulai dari memilih benih atau bibit. iklim dan topografi) pada suatu kawasan kepada jenis yang asli. Diunduh dari: http://kehutanan.

struktur. vegetasi. Restorasi hutan merupakan proses pengkondisian ekosistem (tanah. dan fungsinya.. yaitu semai dapat beradaptasi dengan mudah di tempat terbuka. serta spesies yang dapat berkompetisi dengan rumput liar dan jenis-jenis gulma lainnya. merupakan spesies yang dapat tumbuh dengan cepat. . Restorasi dilakukan sebagai upaya untuk memaksimalkan konservasi karagaman hayati dan fungsi ekosistem. dan kehidupan liar) untuk mencapai pola dan profil yang serupa dengan kondisi pada saat sebelum terganggu komposisi. Diunduh dari: ………. 28/12/2012 . Pohon yang sesuai harus memiliki beberapa kriteria yang sesuai.

000 ha untuk izin restorasi hutan produksi dan tak produktif tahun 2010 ini. Setelah melalui survey dan proses yang panjang selama 10 tahun. Hutan Harapan. menjadi bagian dari Rencana Strategis Kementerian Kehutanan 2010-2014 yang ditargetkan 2. Diunduh dari: http://vetonews. akhirnya PT Restorasi Ekosistem Indonesia (PT REKI) mendapatkan hak konsesi penuh untuk mengelola Hutan Harapan seluas sekitar 100. Pionir Restorasi Hutan Di Dunia Hutan Harapan merupakan hutan restorasi pertama di Indonesia dan juga pionir restorasi hutan di dunia. kondisi hutan dan lahan kritis yang rusak parah.000 hektar (ha). sampai saat ini usaha restorasi belum bisa menghasilkan keuntungan.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6907:hutan-h………. Zulkifli Hasan. menyatakan bahwa pihaknya telah menargetkan 300. Restorasi merupakan upaya untuk mengembalikan kondisi hutan yang sudah rusak menjadi hutan lebat seperti sedia kala. Menteri kehutanan. kata dia.5 juta ha. illegal logging. “Untuk melakukan restorasi ekosistem hutan memang tidak gampang... seperti para perambah hutan. Hal ini membutuhkan waktu sedikitnya 30 sampai 60 tahun. Selama periode tersebut tidak dilakukan penebangan pohon. .com/index. dan diperlukan biaya operasional yang sangat besar serta komitmen yang tinggi.” papar Doktor Biologi lulusan Jerman ini. di sisi lain banyak kendala besar yang menghadang di depan mata. . Target itu.

Since climate is a major factor that determines climax forest composition. Forest restoration .e. global climate change may result in changing restoration aims.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_restoration ………. Climax forests are relatively stable ecosystems that have developed the maximum biomass.. ecological functioning and biodiversity levels towards those typical of climax forest”[1] i. which defines the ultimate aim of forest restoration.[2] Forest restoration is a specialized form of reforestation. which accelerate recovery of forest structure. the end-stage of natural forest succession. Climax forest is therefore the target ecosystem. but it differs from conventional tree plantations in that its primary goals are biodiversity recovery and environmental protection Diunduh dari: http://en. 28/12/2012 . Forest restoration is defined as “actions to re-instate ecological processes. structural complexity and species diversity that are possible within the limits imposed by climate and soil and without continued disturbance from humans (more explanation here).

). cattle exclusion etc. or provide a critical ecological function in.. primary productivity. watershed protection. Payments for such ecological services (PES) and forest products can provide strong incentives for local people to implement restoration projects. However. Economic indices of success include the value of forest products and ecological services generated (e. non-government organizations.[5] as well as tree planting and/or sowing seeds (direct seeding) of species characteristic of the target ecosystem. government officials. Diunduh dari: ………. the target ecosystem. Its ecological success is measured in terms of increased biological diversity. wherever people live in or near restoration sites. soil organic matter and water- holding capacity. .) or more active interventions to accelerate natural regeneration. as well as the return of rare and keystone species. which ultimately contribute towards poverty reduction. to yield subsistence or cash-generating products. biomass. Tree species planted (or encouraged to establish) are those that are typical of. characteristic of the target ecosystem.g. restoration projects often include economic species amongst the planted trees. scientists and funding agencies. carbon storage etc. 28/12/2012 . . Forest restoration is an inclusive process. Scope Forest restoration may include simply protecting remnant vegetation (fire prevention. which depends on collaboration among a wide range of stakeholders including local communities.

there are often large deforested sites: logged over areas or sites formerly cleared for agriculture. 28/12/2012 . Diunduh dari: ………. S. Reitbergen-McCraken.) (in co-operation with WWF International).. Dudley (eds. Sarre. FLR recognizes that forest restoration has social and economic functions. London. and N. environmental protection. 2007. Springer. Mansourian..[6][7] Many restoration projects are now being implemented under the umbrella of “forest landscape restoration” (FLR). restoration of such areas will be needed. to meet the economic needs of local people. S. Where is forest restoration appropriate? Forest restoration is appropriate wherever biodiversity recovery is one of the main goals of reforestation. forest restoration will most commonly be practiced within a mosaic of other forms of forest management. D.. J. such as for wildlife conservation. . 2005. It aims to achieve the best possible compromise between meeting both conservation goals and the needs of rural communities. New York 9. Earthscan.[9] As human pressure on landscapes increases. Vallauri. The Forest Landscape Restoration Handbook. Forests can be restored in a wide range of circumstances. eco-tourism or to supply a wide variety of forest products to local communities. 8. but degraded sites within protected areas are a high priority. Even in protected areas. If protected areas are to act as Earth’s last wildlife refuges. Forest Restoration in Landscapes: Beyond Planting Trees. especially where some climax forest remains as a seed source within the landscape. Maginnis A.[8] defined as a “planned process to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded landscapes”. 175 pp.

[10] It is simple and cost-effective. Navakitbumrung P. 10. For Ecol Manage 184:177-191 12. Pp 72. J. Restoration Ecology. Shono. Such tree species are not usually those that comprise climax forests. Australia.. poorly dispersed species. Because this is a slow process. Wet Tropics Management Authority. if the framework species method[11][12] can be used. A lot can be achieved by studying how forests regenerate naturally. I. Blakesley D. Selecting framework tree species for restoring seasonally dry tropical forests in northern Thailand based on field performance. Kuarak C. K. especially large-seeded. via natural seed dispersal from remnant forest. S. . but it can only operate on trees that are already present. This is "accelerated" or "assisted" natural regeneration. but they can foster recolonization of the site by shade-tolerant climax forest tree species. preventing fire. removing cattle and so on. Durst. These can include weeding and adding fertilizer around natural tree seedlings. Anusarnsunthorn V. Cairns. Goosem. 1995. 28/12/2012 . 2003. Repairing the Rainforest. A. Is tree planting essential to restore forest ecosystems? Not always.. identifying the factors that limit regeneration and devising methods to overcome them. Application of Assisted Natural Regeneration to Restore Degraded Tropical Forestlands. Cadaweng and P. and N. 2007. Elliott S. mostly light-loving pioneer species. Tucker. biodiversity recovery can usually be accelerated by planting some climax forest tree species. Diunduh dari: ………. Zankum S. 11. B. E. It is not feasible to plant all the tree species that may have formerly grown in the original primary forest and it is usually unnecessary to do so. 15(4): 620–626.

g. Sometimes the term re- afforestation is used to distinguish between the original forest cover and the later re-growth of forest to an area. Special tools. the process of restoring and recreating areas of woodlands or forests that may have existed long ago but were deforested or otherwise removed at some point in the past. particularly timber.[1] Reforestation can be used to improve the quality of human life by soaking up pollution and dust from the air. Diunduh dari: http://en. usually through deforestation. Reforestation Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted. and harvest for resources. e. are used to make planting of trees easier and faster. mitigate global warming since forests facilitate biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. tree planting bar. 28/12/2012 .org/wiki/Reforestation ………..wikipedia. The term reforestation is similar to afforestation. rebuild natural habitats and ecosystems.

Tree planting is grounded in forest science.. and strategies may differ widely across nations and regions and among individual reforestation companies. Diunduh dari: http://en. . tree planting can be used as a geoengineering technique to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Tree planting is the process of transplanting tree seedlings. land reclamation.wikipedia. Reforestation is the commercial logging industry's answer to the large-scale destruction of old growth forests. but a planted forest rarely replicates the biodiversity and complexity of a natural forest. and if performed properly can result in the successful regeneration of a deforested area.[citation needed] Because trees remove carbon dioxide from the air as they grow.org/wiki/Treeplanting ………. It involves planting seedlings over an area of land where the forest has been harvested or damaged by fire or disease or insects. 28/12/2012 . In silviculture the activity is known as reforestation. depending on whether the area being planted has or has not recently been forested. or landscaping purposes. generally for forestry. and from the lower cost but slower and less reliable distribution of tree seeds. or afforestation. Tree planting is carried out in many different parts of the world. It differs from the transplantation of larger trees in arboriculture.

. using the oxidation or reduction of chemical compounds as a source of energy. . It may occur through the process of photosynthesis. In terrestrial ecoregions. 28/12/2012 . Primary production is distinguished as either net or gross. the former accounting for losses to processes such as cellular respiration.org/wiki/Primary_productivity ………. the latter not. while in aquatic ecoregions algae are primarily responsible. The organisms responsible for primary production are known as primary producers or autotrophs. Primary production is the production of organic compounds from atmospheric or aquatic carbon dioxide. and form the base of the food chain. or chemosynthesis. Diunduh dari: http://en. Almost all life on earth is directly or indirectly reliant on primary production. using light as a source of energy.wikipedia. these are mainly plants.

The main source of this energy is sunlight but a minute fraction of primary production is driven by lithotrophic organisms using the chemical energy of inorganic molecules. The following two equations are simplified representations of photosynthesis (top) and (one form of) chemosynthesis (bottom): CO2 + H2O + light CH2O + O2 CO2 + O2 + 4 H2S CH2O + 4 S + 3 H2O In both cases. typically molecules such as glucose or other sugars. Consumption of primary producers by heterotrophic organisms. . and nucleic acids. the end point is reduced carbohydrate (CH2O). this energy is used to synthesize complex organic molecules from simpler inorganic compounds such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). complex carbohydrates. such as animals. These relatively simple molecules may be then used to further synthesise more complicated molecules. fueling all of the Earth's living systems. including proteins. then transfers these organic molecules (and the energy stored within them) up the food web. Diunduh dari: ………. 28/12/2012 . .. lipids. Regardless of its source. or be respired to perform work. Primary production is the production of chemical energy in organic compounds by living organisms.

it is equal to the difference between the rate at which the plants in an ecosystem produce useful chemical energy (GPP) and the rate at which they use some of that energy during respiration.e..e. mass of photosynthate) is referred to as net primary production (NPP). ... 28/12/2012 .[1] The remaining fixed energy (i. NPP = GPP . Some fraction of this fixed energy is used by primary producers for cellular respiration and maintenance of existing tissues (i. Diunduh dari: ………. Both gross and net primary production are in units of mass / area / time. while some is consumed by herbivores. . In terrestrial ecosystems. "growth respiration" and "maintenance respiration"). GPP and NPP Gross primary production (GPP) is the rate at which an ecosystem's producers capture and store a given amount of chemical energy as biomass in a given length of time.respiration [by plants] Net primary production is the rate at which all the plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy. Some net primary production goes toward growth and reproduction of primary producers. mass of carbon per unit area per year (g C/m2/yr) is most often used as the unit of measurement.

Transpiration allows plants to transport water and mineral nutrients from the soil to growth regions. but principally local hydrology and temperature (the latter covaries to an extent with light.. they are strongly curtailed wherever temperatures are too extreme or where necessary plant resources (principally water and light) are limiting. such that decreasing water loss (by partially closing stomata) also decreases carbon dioxide gain.org/wiki/Primary_productivity ………. is regulated by structures known as stomata. with a small fraction coming from algae and non-vascular plants such as mosses and liverworts. The latter process (which is responsible for about 90% of water use) is driven by the evaporation of water from the leaves of plants. almost all primary production is now performed by vascular plants. such as deserts or polar regions. 28/12/2012 (the majority of plant species). Diffusion of water out of a leaf. called Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C4. On the land.terrestrial production . and also cools the plant. Certain plants use alternative forms of photosynthesis. These also regulate the diffusion of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into the leaf. Water is "consumed" in plants by the processes of photosynthesis (see above) and transpiration. While plants cover much of the Earth's surface. the force that drives transpiration. These employ physiological and anatomical adaptations to increase water-use efficiency and allow increased primary production to take place under conditions that would normally limit carbon fixation by C3 plants Diunduh dari: http://en. Before the evolution of vascular plants. . . non-vascular plants likely played a more significant role. Primary production on land is a function of many factors. the source of energy for photosynthesis).wikipedia.

the keystone predator numbers can be even lower and still be effective. wipe out the dominant plants.. affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem and helping to determine the types and numbers of various other species in the community. keystone species . a non-abundant species has an out-sized impact on ecosystem functions. and dramatically alter the character of the ecosystem. It has become a very popular concept in conservation biology.org/wiki/Keystone_species ………. The role that a keystone species plays in its ecosystem is analogous to the role of a keystone in an arch. the herbivorous prey would explode in numbers. even though that species was a small part of the ecosystem by measures of biomass or productivity. an ecosystem may experience a dramatic shift if a keystone species is removed. A classic keystone species is a small predator that prevents a particular herbivorous species from eliminating dominant plant species. 28/12/2012 . Since the prey numbers are low. Similarly. but the central idea remains that through a chain of interactions. A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance. the arch still collapses without it.wikipedia. Diunduh dari: http://en. While the keystone is under the least pressure of any of the stones in an arch.[1] Such species play a critical role in maintaining the structure of an ecological community. The exact scenario changes in each example. Yet without the predators.

climate regulation."[3] Twenty-four specific ecosystem services were identified and assessed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. also known as payments for environmental services (or benefits). “the good things nature does. aquaculture. air quality regulation. pollination. more simply. and cultural services (including spiritual. and silk).[4] Notably. Payments for ecosystem services (PES). pest regulation. hemp. capture fisheries. and wild foods). 28/12/2012 the most money and interest worldwide. erosion regulation. The report defined the broad categories of ecosystem services as food production (in the form of crops. there is a “big three” among these 24 services which are currently receiving Diunduh dari: ………. Ecosystem services have no standardized definition but might broadly be called “the benefits of nature to households. natural hazard regulation. and economies”[2] or. water purification and waste treatment. and aesthetic values. fiber (in the form of timber. fresh water. water regulation... . genetic resources (biochemicals."[1] These programmes promote the conservation of natural resources in the marketplace. These are climate . . is the practice of offering incentives to farmers or landowners in exchange for managing their land to provide some sort of ecological service. and pharmaceuticals). Payments for ecosystem services (PES). religious. recreation and ecotourism). however. cotton. livestock. disease regulation. They have been defined as "a transparent system for the additional provision of environmental services through conditional payments to voluntary providers. communities. natural medicines. a 2005 UN-sponsored report designed to assess the state of the world's ecosystems.

J. Earthscan. The Forest Landscape Restoration Handbook. by restoring a range of forest functions at the landscape level. Reitbergen-McCraken.Forest landscape restoration Forest landscape restoration or FLR is defined as “a planned process to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well- being in deforested or degraded landscapes”.[1] It comprises tools and procedures to integrate site-level forest restoration actions with desirable landscape-level objectives. S. which are decided upon via various participatory mechanisms among stakeholders. Sarre. FLR activities are inclusive and participatory. The participation of local communities is central to the concept. The concept has grown out of collaboration among some of the world's major international conservation organizations including the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN). London. Maginnis A.. 2007. The concept of FLR was conceived to bring about compromises between meeting the needs of both humans and wildlife. It includes actions to strengthen the resilience and ecological integrity of landscapes and thereby keep future management options open.. 175 pp Diunduh dari: http://en. because they play a critical role in shaping the landscape and gain significant benefits from restored forest resources. Therefore.org/wiki/Forest_landscape_restoration ……….wikipedia. 28/12/2012 . 1. the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO).

monetary income from various sources e. compromises over land-use trade-offs that are acceptable to the majority of stakeholders. Dudley (eds. New York. . flood/drought mitigation etc. lower landslide risk.. medicines. positive engagement of people in the planning of forest restoration. Diunduh dari: http://en. . firewood etc. carbon trading via the REDD+ mechanism and from payments for other environmental services (PES)[1] 1. a sustainable supply of a diverse range of forest products including foods. 28/12/2012 . Desirable outcomes of FLR The desirable outcomes of an FLR program usually comprise a combination of the following.. resolution of land-use conflicts and agreement on benefit-sharing systems.wikipedia. D. a repository of biological diversity of both local and global value. .org/wiki/Forest_landscape_restoration……….g. Vallauri. and N.g. Springer. delivery of a range of utilitarian benefits to local communities including: a reliable supply of clean water. environmental protection particularly watershed services (e. Forest Restoration in Landscapes: Beyond Planting Trees.). Mansourian. reduced soil erosion.) (in co-operation with WWF International). ecotourism.. depending on local needs and aspirations: identification of the root causes of forest degradation and prevention of further deforestation. S.

These may include protection and management of secondary and degraded primary forests. depending on local environmental and socioeconomic factors. Restoring Tropical Forests: a Practical Guide. Hardwick. within a clear and consistent evaluation and learning framework. such as landscape character assessment. in press.org/wiki/Forest_landscape_restoration………. Kew Publications. FLR actions FLR combines several existing principles and techniques of development. Elliott. participatory rural appraisal. An FLR program may comprise various forestry practices on different sites within the landscape. London Diunduh dari: http://en. as well as conventional tree plantations and agroforestry systems to meet more immediate monetary needs [1] 1. standard forest restoration techniques such as "assisted" or "accelerated" natural regeneration (ANR) and the planting of framework tree species to restore degraded areas. S.. D.wikipedia. Blakesley and K.. conservation and natural resource management. adaptive management etc. 28/12/2012 .

..fortlewis... Diunduh dari: faculty./ecological%20restoration%202011...PP. 28/12/2012 . ……….edu/korb_j/.

WHAT IS
ECOLOGICAL
RESTORATION?
??

Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration%202011.PP... ………..
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What is Ecological
Restoration?
The Society of Ecological
Restoration (SER) defines
ecological restoration in its
mission statement as “the
process of assisting the
recovery and management of
ecological integrity. Ecological
integrity includes a critical
range of variability in
biodiversity, ecological
processes and structures,
regional and historical context,
and sustainable cultural
practices” (Society for
Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration%202011.PP... ………..
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Ecological Restoration

Need to identify ecological
restoration goal, identify the
restoration potential of a
site, how to conduct the
restoration, and how to
evaluate the success of
restoration.

* REFERENCE
CONDITIONS
Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration%202011.PP... ………..
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PP. and abiotic and biotic conditions (Covington et al.. ………./ecological%20restoration%202011... 1997). Diunduh dari: faculty. 28/12/2012 .. disturbance regimes.fortlewis..edu/korb_j/. Reference Conditi The range of historical or natural variability in ecological structures and processes that reflect evolutionary history.

. HOW DO YOU DETERMINE REFERENCE CONDITIONS?? ? Diunduh dari: faculty. ………...edu/korb_j/.PP.. 28/12/2012 ../ecological%20restoration%202011.fortlewis.

PONDEROSA PINE •Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees grow in every state found west of the Great Plains •In Colorado.edu/korb_j/.PP... in “Graced ...000-9000 ft •In the San Juan Mountains./ecological%20restoration%202011.fortlewis. pure stands of ponderosa pine can be found on sandstone substrates from 28/12/2012 Drawing by Robert Petty………. ponderosa pine trees are commonly found on mesas to the montane from 5.. Diunduh dari: faculty.

and wide savannas.PP..” C. ……….. was traversed by our party for many days.edu/korb_j/.fortlewis. DuBois. intersected frequently with open glades. 1903 (San Juan Mountains) “Throughout the [“bull” or ponderosa pine] type there is good cattle range. WRITTEN RECORDS Lt. and wild rose. Edward Beale. 28/12/2012 ./ecological%20restoration%202011.. meadows. chiefly oak brush. Reproduction of Diunduh dari: faculty. sprinkled all over with mountains. choke-cherry.. 1857 (northern Arizona) “A vast forest of gigantic pines. scarlett thorn. consisting of blue-stem grass beneath the trees and bunch grass in the parks. and covered with the richest grasses. The underbrush is very heavy..

fortlewis../ecological%20restoration%202011..edu/korb_j/.. OTHER CONTEMPORARY *SPECIES COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE *SOIL SEED BANK *BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC SOIL CHARACTERISTICS *DEAD/DOWN WOODY MATERIALS *TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE Diunduh dari: faculty. ………..PP.. 28/12/2012 .

Key disturbance that regulates ponderosa pine forests *Low intensity fires (2-20 year interval) *Large diameter trees interspersed with grassy meadows *Diverse... 28/12/2012 .edu/korb_j/./ecological%20restoration%202011.PP.. ………. REFERENCE CONDITI SOUTHWESTERN PONDER Fire.fortlewis.. productive herbaceous understory Diunduh dari: faculty..

.Diunduh dari: faculty..fortlewis. 28/12/2012 ..PP. ………..edu/korb_j/./ecological%20restoration%202011..

edu/korb_j/.Diunduh dari: faculty. 28/12/2012 .. ………./ecological%20restoration%202011....fortlewis..PP.

.. ……….fortlewis.PP..edu/korb_j/.Diunduh dari: faculty. 28/12/2012 ../ecological%20restoration%202011..

etc.g. Grand Canyon Forest Trust General Public-e. where to build a house (fire-prone environment. where to recreate. Montezuma County (Ponderosa Pines Project)... Boulder Mountain Parks Conservation Organizations-The Nature Conservancy. WHO USES THIS INFORM Governmental Agencies-National Park Service..g. forming opinions on public land management actions Diunduh dari: faculty.. Forest Service.edu/korb_j/.PP.e..fortlewis. ………./ecological%20restoration%202011.. 28/12/2012 . floodplain.). BLM State and Local Government..

GOALS FOR
LECTURE

1. You will be able to define
ecological restoration.
2. You will be able to define
reference conditions and how
reference conditions are
determined.
3. You will be able to discuss
reference conditions in the
context of southwestern
ponderosa pine forests.

Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration%202011.PP... ………..
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Tree Canopy
Data for the
Gus Pearson
Natural Area,
Arizona for
1876 and 1990

Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration%202011.PP... ………..
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Components of Ecological R

Four Main Components:
1) Cultural
* Native Americans played an
important role in the
evolutionary history of many
ecosystems through their
interactions with the natural
world.

* Native Americans used fire as
a tool for hunting,
promoting/discouraging
specific plant species which
differs from lightning fires in
Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration%202011.PP... ………..
seasonality, frequency, and 28/12/2012

. implement./ecological%20restoration%202011.. and monitor? * What are the economical benefits from restoration (immediate and long-term)? Diunduh dari: faculty.PP. 28/12/2012 .. ………..Components of Ecological R Four Main Components: 2) Economical * How much will the restoration project cost to plan.fortlewis..edu/korb_j/.

………... 28/12/2012 ..edu/korb_j/. * Need to develop common ground among all participants when identifying and planning restoration projects.fortlewis./ecological%20restoration%202011..PP. Diunduh dari: faculty.. Components of Ecological R Four Main Components: 3) Social * Need to look at restoration as an outcome of complex interactions between nature and society and divergent social and political views within society.

and how to evaluate the success of restoration./ecological%20restoration%202011.. identify the restoration potential of a site. 28/12/2012 .edu/korb_j/.fortlewis... Components of Ecological R Four Main Components: 4) Ecological * Need to identify ecological restoration goal. * REFERENCE CONDITIONS Diunduh dari: faculty. ………. how to conduct the restoration.. * Need to identify a spatial and temporal context for ecological restoration..PP.

utb.. Diunduh dari: blue. 28/12/2012 . .ppt……….edu/elinder/CB_chap15.

28/12/2012 .utb..ppt……….edu/elinder/CB_chap15. we rarely restore something to its former glory and functionality Diunduh dari: blue. restoring a landscape may be more feasible than other options • This is a relatively new field and many advances have been made • However. Restoration Ecology • Due to the severe impact humans have already inflicted on the landscape and the expensive cost of real estate.

hydrology. soil science. Restoration Ecology • May be able to trace restoration back to Aldo Leopold in the 1930’s at the UW arboretum (120 ha forest) • RE draws upon many disciplines and subdisciplines of the natural sciences including landscape ecology. animal behavior. geochemistry. geomorphology. theoretical biology.utb. invasion ecology and evolutionary ecol Diunduh dari: blue..edu/elinder/CB_chap15. 28/12/2012 . pop biology.ppt……….

utb. RE is “the process of intentionally altering a site to establish a defined. function.ppt………. indigenous. diversity and dynamics of the specific ecosystem • Or…moving a degraded system back towards one of greater structural and functional diversity Diunduh dari: blue. 28/12/2012 .edu/elinder/CB_chap15.. Restoration Ecology • Specifically. historic ecosystem” • The goal is to emulate the structure.

hydrology. historic.g.edu/elinder/CB_chap15. and current reference conditions prior to designing the plan – 2) developing a restoration plan – 3) obtain permits.ppt……….utb. plant & animal responses) – 5) monitoring the site Diunduh dari: blue. although complex (e.. Restoration Ecology • It is an iterative process: – 1) examines preexisting. 28/12/2012 . soil. do the work – 4) implementing plan.

Restoration Ecology Diunduh dari: blue. 28/12/2012 .ppt………..edu/elinder/CB_chap15.utb.

edu/elinder/CB_chap15. 28/12/2012 . augmentation. maybe not restoring it • Reclamation may be stabilization of the land and/or minimizing further degradation Diunduh dari: blue.ppt……….utb. rehabilitation. re-creation. reclamation. and translocation • Rehabilitation is simply improving degraded habitat. Restoration Ecology • RE may take many forms: restoration.. enhancement.

28/12/2012 .ppt………. accuracy… • Replacement may recreate a site.edu/elinder/CB_chap15. which may not be historically accurate • Enhancement or augmentation are attempting to add to the degraded condition.utb.. but not fully functional Diunduh dari: blue. Restoration Ecology • Re-creation is an attempt to return to historic condition.

edu/elinder/CB_chap15. although it is the goal Diunduh dari: blue. 28/12/2012 .utb.ppt………. Restoration Ecology • The majority of restoration activities target the plant community…why? • When might animals be involved? • Full restoration at all levels has never been attempted..

Restoration Ecology & Conservation • RE is a relatively young science and as such. has both advocates and critics • Some argue it is important and a good compromise while others suggest it is wasteful and expensive • There are some legal underpinning such as the Clean Water Act which requires restoration Diunduh dari: blue.ppt………. 28/12/2012 ..utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.

succession biology • A potential negative is that many systems are now viewed as ‘expendable’ or ‘replaceable’ on another site Diunduh dari: blue. 28/12/2012 . Restoration Ecology & Conservation • A potential benefit of RE is the opportunity to conduct ecological studies. invasive biology.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15. especially in community ecology.ppt………..

utb.ppt………. community concerns addressed.. and as the constructed restoration evolves Diunduh dari: blue.edu/elinder/CB_chap15. Restoration Ecology & Conservation • Steps in designing and implementing ecological restorations • Goals and design should be reviewed and revised as data on site conditions are collected. 28/12/2012 .

28/12/2012 ..ppt……….utb.Restoration Ecology & Conservation Diunduh dari: blue.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.

usually in the form of surveys and then exploring the literature (published papers. Restoration Ecology • Site assessment is the first step.utb.ppt………. contemporary comparisons maybe appropriate Diunduh dari: blue. maps.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.. reports) • Legalities must be determined • Assess environmental history of site • If not available. 28/12/2012 .

Restoration Ecology • RE is an inherently subjective process and determining ‘success’ may require the establishment of goals • Goals will depend upon local constraints. objectives. and context of participants – Restored wetland…farmer vs.edu/elinder/CB_chap15..ppt………. 28/12/2012 . duck hunter Diunduh dari: blue.utb.

edu/elinder/CB_chap15.. Restoration Ecology • Restoration design requires multidisciplinary approach (genes to ecosystem. as well as natural sciences) • Plans should dictate the physical transformation proposed for the site and the desired outcome (target species) Diunduh dari: blue.utb.ppt………. 28/12/2012 .

labor. money. practicality • Getting as many people involved in the implementation will get locals to buy into the restoration effort • Proper documentation and design can subsequently serve as an experiment Diunduh dari: blue.. depending on time. Restoration Ecology • There are many ways to implement a design. 28/12/2012 .edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt……….utb.

scientific Diunduh dari: blue. Restoration Ecology • ER are long-term propositions and proper monitoring becomes less-likely • For adaptive management. 28/12/2012 .utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt……….. it is necessary • Frequently disturbing site will release or open community to ‘weedy’ species • Compliance vs.

size. complex. plus more…) Diunduh dari: blue. heterogeneity. 28/12/2012 ..utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15. the site may have many limitations (landscape context. Restoration Ecology • Restoration challenges are numerous as we are generally dealing with dynamic.ppt………. and unique systems • Furthermore.

.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.utb.g. but most other groups lack good information • Even when we know the organisms (e. Diunduh dari: blue. Restoration Ecology • It may be difficult to properly address restoration because we lack knowledge • B&M have relatively good databases.ppt………. clapper rail) we can screw up (CS 15.1). 28/12/2012 .

we may be able to then fill them Diunduh dari: blue.ppt……….utb.. 28/12/2012 .edu/elinder/CB_chap15. Restoration Ecology • When we identif y knowle dge gaps.

what if herbivory was limiting reestablishment of native sp in a grassland? What measures could we take? • What about if N is limiting? Diunduh dari: blue.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt………. Restoration Ecology • For example. 28/12/2012 ..utb.

restoring habitat may be the best action (but see CS 15..edu/elinder/CB_chap15. even if animals are the focus of the conservation effort. 28/12/2012 .4 & 15. a ‘functioning’ ecosystem should ‘trickle-up’ and eventually affect the entire community Diunduh dari: blue.utb.ppt………. Restoration Ecology • Restoration is frequently restricted to the plant community • However.5) • Furthermore.

Restoration Ecology • Population genetics can play an important role in RE.utb. How? • Does this change with a relatively large disturbance and large distribution project? Diunduh dari: blue..edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt………. 28/12/2012 .

.utb. Restoration Ecology • Restoration effects that focus on a small scale may succeed in the short term. too degraded.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt………. 28/12/2012 .g. some things may not even be able to be addressed (e. hydrology) Diunduh dari: blue. operating at too small a scale • Some times. but fail in the longer because the larger ecological context required to allow these restoration efforts to be self-sustaining is either not present.

edu/elinder/CB_chap15. may not reflect historical conditions • It may be necessary to restore them to a stable. Restoration Ecology • Many local restoration projects cannot draw on larger or regional populations to recruit from and consequently.utb.ppt………. but less diverse current state Diunduh dari: blue.. 28/12/2012 .

ppt………. Restoration Ecology • While RE claims to be interdisciplinary. 28/12/2012 .edu/elinder/CB_chap15..utb. in reality it may focus on a single sp or single environmental factor Diunduh dari: blue.

wolf.g.utb.ppt………. buffalo. 28/12/2012 . Restoration Ecology • Most animal restoration attempt to bring individuals back to a site rather than foster or enhance a preexisting pop(n) • Most animal reintroductions have been charismatic megafauna (e..edu/elinder/CB_chap15. beaver) • The Reintroduction Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union’s (IUCN) created guidelines for reintroductions Diunduh dari: blue. CA condor.

availability of stockers. 28/12/2012 ..utb. fulfilling same functional role) • Step 2: select sites w/in historic range.edu/elinder/CB_chap15. Restoration Ecology • Step 1: conduct a feasibility study (autecology. and economic conditions for long-term survival Diunduh dari: blue. political.ppt………. but habitat not vulnerable to same threats. and is protected • Step 3: ID and evaluate stock (genetics) • Step 4: evaluate social.

utb.. design as experiment to judge success • Step 6: post-release monitoring should be done using an adaptive model Diunduh dari: blue. Restoration Ecology • Step 5: involve all stakeholders and get proper financing.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt………. 28/12/2012 .

Restoration Ecology • Some of the common problems associated with reintroductions include: high juvenile mortality. reproductive dysfunction. 28/12/2012 .utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15. loss of rare alleles and genetic diversity. and other problems associated with inbreeding of small populations Diunduh dari: blue.ppt………..

28/12/2012 .edu/elinder/CB_chap15. the Natural Resources Conservation Service develops and disseminates comprehensive info on management techniques for soil and water Diunduh dari: blue. $3ft2 or $130K/acre) and many potential pitfalls exist • Regulation in the US – Inspired by the ‘dust bowl’.g..ppt………. Environmental Regulations and Restoration • Restoration can be expensive (e.utb.

. 28/12/2012 .edu/elinder/CB_chap15. Environmental Regulations and Restoration • In 1969.utb. NEPA was passed and proactively established environmental standards • Nixon created the EPA to coordinate and oversee NEPA • Wetland restoration is in large part a result of the Clean Water Act (’72) which dictated “no net loss of areas and/or function” Diunduh dari: blue.ppt……….

.ppt………. but not animals (unless endangered animal present)…but there are some state laws protecting end plants Diunduh dari: blue. 28/12/2012 . the ESA allows the taking of plants.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15. Environmental Regulations and Restoration • Other significant laws: ESA (’73) – “to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered ad threatened species depend may be conserved and to provide a program for the conservation of such endangered and threatened species” • Unfortunately.

. mitigation of impacted habitat may be required Diunduh dari: blue. Environmental Regulations and Restoration • For those projects that are expected to impact endangered species.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15. 28/12/2012 .ppt……….

gold.utb.ppt………. Environmental Regulations and Restoration • Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (1977) attempt to protect the adverse impact of environmental surface mining (particularly coal) • In theory.g. mines must commit to returning the land to pre-mine conditions • Unfortunately. lead) Diunduh dari: blue. as well as many other types of minerals (e.edu/elinder/CB_chap15. silver. this does not apply to any pre-1977 site. 28/12/2012 ..

utb.. 28/12/2012 . Environmental Regulations and Restoration • There is a great deal of variation from one country to another regarding the regulations of mining • The United Nations Conference on Human Environment (1972) attempted to stop the impact of mining • In the Rio de Janeiro (’92) summit they specifically addressed reclamation of degraded habitats Diunduh dari: blue.ppt……….edu/elinder/CB_chap15.

astate.. . 28/12/2012 .ppt ………. Diunduh dari: www.clt.edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration.

28/12/2012 .. Conceptual issues After manipulation of a natural system.astate. have three choices: Diunduh dari: www.ppt ……….clt.edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration.

edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration.Diunduh dari: www.astate. 28/12/2012 ..ppt ……….clt.

ppt ………. 28/12/2012 . Ecosystem Restoration Restoration – bring back to pre-disturbance condition Rehabilitation – partial replacement of original ecosystem Enhancement – alternative ecosystem Note: to understand above scenarios of recovery have to consider two biological factors of colonization and succession Diunduh dari: www..edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration.clt.astate.

Colonization and Succession . 28/12/2012 .clt.Both are ecosystem changes with time 1.ppt ……….edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration.. strip mine are islands in a “sea” of mixed deciduous forest Diunduh dari: www.astate. Colonization – arrival of new species in an empty patch Colonization of “bare” areas based on MacArthur and Wilson theory of island biogeography  CONSIDER DENUDED PATCHES AS ISLANDS Ex. Clear-cuts.

Seq S = Seq (1-e -Gt) ∆S = colonization rate G = ____ ∆t Species (s) Time (t) 1. gets smaller and smaller 3.. Number of species depends on colonization rate (G) 2. G starts out high.edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration.astate. Colonization rate based on two relationships Diunduh dari: www.clt. 28/12/2012 .ppt ……….

toxic waste site.astate.ppt ………. strip mine) ▲ Longer distance from source (mainland) = lower # of species Diunduh dari: www.. 28/12/2012 .clt. deciduous forest) Species source “islands” (clear-cut.edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration. inhospitable terrain (mainland.

edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration.astate..clt. 28/12/2012 . inhospitable terrain Larger patches = higher probability of being “hit” by propagules ▲ Increased size/area = increased # of species on islands Diunduh dari: www.ppt ……….

astate.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012 .clt.Diunduh dari: www.edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration.

.ppt ……….astate.clt.edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration. Seq Diunduh dari: www. 28/12/2012 .

. water currents (rafting) Generalist/Specialist Note: once reach equilibrium  dynamics become interactive = succession Diunduh dari: www.edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration. toxics Kind of organism (vagility) Competition Reproductive rate (r.astate. Factors Affecting Colonization Rates Immigration Extinction Proximity to source Residual disturbance.ppt ………. Habitat diversity and vs K-selection) quality Air.clt. 28/12/2012 .

astate.clt.edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration. 28/12/2012 . Non-interactive Interactive = succession Seq Species (s) Time (t) Diunduh dari: www..ppt ……….

edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration. 28/12/2012 . Succession • Orderly change in community composition over time • Usually follows colonization  especially studied in plant communities • Two models – relay floristics – initial floristics Diunduh dari: www.clt.astate..ppt ……….

clt.edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration. 28/12/2012 .astate. Relay floristics Abandonment Crop Weeds | Grassland | Shrubland | Forest Species Years Diunduh dari: www.ppt ………..

clt. 28/12/2012 .astate. Initial floristics Abandonment Crop Weeds | Grassland | Shrubland | Forest Species Years Diunduh dari: www.edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration..ppt ……….

. 28/12/2012 .clt.ppt ……….edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration.astate. Implications for Reserve Design better worse A B C D E F Diunduh dari: www.

etc.soil stabilization with annual plants . Significance to restoration of altered ecosystems • Relay floristics – ongoing process based on external input • Initial floristics – happens all at once based on internal input ▲Might have to manage system to help recovery . 28/12/2012 .ppt ………..astate.stock fish .clt. Diunduh dari: www.edu/rgrippo/Ecosystem%20Restoration.

. 28/12/2012 .edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.zo. Diunduh dari: www.utexas. .ppt ……….

ppt ………. 28/12/2012 ..utexas.zo.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.Restoration Ecology. Fig 56.21 Diunduh dari: www.human involvement in recovering from a disturbance.

pp.utexas..Enhancement of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Ecological Restoration: A Meta-Analysis J M Rey Benayas. 5944. Diunduh dari: www.ppt ……….edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2. A Diaz.zo. 325. 28/12/2012 . no. A C Newton. J M Bullock Science 28 August 2009: Vol. 1121 – 1124 Looked at the results of 89 different ecological restorations.

Planting of trees. 1121 . Soil contamination Restoration action: Cessation of degrading action only (passive restoration).edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.. Over- grazing. Removal of carnivores or herbivores. or burial of Substrate. Planting of forbs or grasses.zo. no. Cultivation and cropping. Invasion by non- native species. 5944. Logging of trees. 28/12/2012 www. excavation. Eutrophication.utexas. A Diaz. Reinstatement of burning. J M Bullock Diunduh 28 Science dari: August 2009: Vol. pp. Hydrological disruption. Soil amendments Tbl 1: Enhancement of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Ecological Restoration: A Meta-Analysis J M Rey Benayas.ppt . Reintroduction of herbivores or carnivores. Disturbance. Extirpation of damaging species (including non-natives). Nutrient removal.1124 ………. 325. Remodeling of topography. A C Newton.Types of Disturbances: Cessation of prescribed burning.

ppt ………. pp.utexas. 28/12/2012 576 .. “Restoration Marketplace ” Restoration Restoration of Ecosystem Services for Environmental Markets M A Palmer and S Filoso Science 31 July 2009: Vol.Restoring ecosystems can also be seen as directly benefiting people.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2. 325. 5940. no. 575 - Diunduh dari: www.zo.

325.“Restoration Marketplace ” Might lead to sub- standard restoration Restoration Restoration of Ecosystem Services for Environmental Markets M A Palmer and S Filoso Science 31 July 2009: Vol.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.zo. no. 28/12/2012 576 .ppt ………. pp. 575 - Diunduh dari: www..utexas. 5940.

Invasive Species Diunduh dari: www..What limits the success of restoration? One problem. 28/12/2012 .zo.ppt ………...utexas.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.

pp.What limits the success of restoration? One problem.biotic thresholds resulting from species invasions are likely to be difficult to reverse and have long- term consequences for restoration projects.ppt ………. no.. 325. Invasive Species ..zo.. 28/12/2012 .. Norton Science 31 July 2009: Vol.571 Diunduh dari: www. Species Invasions and the Limits to Restoration: Learning from the New Zealand Experience David A.utexas. 569 .. 5940.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.

edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.utexas. 28/12/2012 ..zo.Invasive species can disrupt an ecosystem CB 55.6 Diunduh dari: www.ppt ……….

zo. 9 out of 13 forest birds. 3-5 out 12 reptile species on the Island of Guam.utexas. The brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) • Its native in Australia and was introduced to Guam accidentally in the 1950’s • Overall responsible for the extinction of 3 out of 4 seabirds. • This snake caused the extirpation or serious reduction of most of the island's 25 resident bird species on the main island of Guam.ppt ……….edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.. 28/12/2012 . Diunduh dari: www.

causing higher nutrient levels in the lake.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2. and competition • Fish caused indirect increased erosion on land. Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) • Introduced to Lake Victoria in 1954 to increase fish yield • Caused extinction of 200+ endemic fish species through predation. Diunduh dari: www..ppt ……….zo. 28/12/2012 .utexas.

edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2. leading to a marked decrease in invertebrate communities • Limits water transport. Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) • Introduced as ornamental plant around the world • Now in 50 countries on 5 continents including US • In California it replaced the native pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) which occupies a similar habitat.utexas. reduces oxygen and light levels in the water Diunduh dari: www.. 28/12/2012 .zo.ppt ……….

W. Napela T.. D. changes ecosystems.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.ppt ………..zo..F.Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) • Spread from its native range in the Baltic Sea via ballast water • Spreads in Europe and North America • Kills native molluscs. and damages infrastructure • Estimated annual damage in US Diunduh dari: www. 28/12/2012 Schloesser.utexas. 1992 .

Diunduh dari: www.zo.utexas. 28/12/2012 .ppt ………..edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.

utexas.zo..edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.ppt ……….How Many Invasive Species Are There in Texas?  67 terrestrial plants  12 aquatic/wetland plants  10 mammals  4 birds  7 fishes  11 insects  11 mollusks and crustaceans Diunduh dari: www. 28/12/2012 .

28/12/2012 . Diunduh dari: www. Spreads rapidly.zo.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.utexas..000 surface acres of water in Texas.Hydrilla verticillata Aquatic invader covering nearly 100. in one Texas lake it covered 23 acres in 1999 but over 200 in 2000. Depletes water of oxygen and blocks sunlight killing off many native plants and animal species.ppt ……….

1684 . Ecological Restoration benefits on a large scale Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita JW Day.zo. 315.Science 23 March 2007: Vol. 5819. Diunduh dari: www.ppt ………. pp.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2. Jr et al..utexas. no. 28/12/2012 1679 .

utexas. Jr et al. damage. J W Day.ppt Vol..1684 .edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.zo. no.28/12/2012 315. and deaths were less where coastal wetlands are intact Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita ………. 1679 .Science 23 March 2007: Diunduh dari: www. 5819. pp.Storm surge.

Science 23 March 2007: Vol. no. 5819. Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita J Wdari: Diunduh Day. 28/12/2012 .www.zo. 315. ……….ppt Jr et al.utexas.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.Future storm damage could be reduced by reestablishing coastal wetlands..

Future storm damage could be
reduced by reestablishing coastal
wetlands,
cost $5-$17 billion

Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
J Wdari:
Diunduh Day,www.zo.utexas.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.ppt
Jr et al.Science 23 March 2007: Vol. 315. no. 5819, ……….. 28/12/2012

Next:
How many animals do you
want/need to save?

Diunduh dari: www.zo.utexas.edu/courses/stuart/301Msp10RestoreEcol2.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

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Diunduh dari: www.sfdr-cisd.org/personal/.../Succession%20and%20Restoration.ppt ………..
28/12/2012

sfdr-cisd.. Botkin & Keller Chapter 9: Succession and Restoration Diunduh dari: www./Succession%20and%20Restoration. 28/12/2012 .ppt ………..org/personal/..

Homework Assignment • Create two flowcharts. One illustrating the steps of primary succession.sfdr-cisd. one illustrating the steps of secondary succession.. • You may use either pictures or words. 28/12/2012 . Diunduh dari: www../Succession%20and%20Restoration.org/personal/..ppt ……….

• Restore to what? . sustainable and “natural”. Restoration Ecology • New field of restoration ecology developed w/in the science of ecology. – Goal = return damaged ecosystems to some set of conditions considered functional.

Nature undisturbed achieves a permanency of form and structure that persists indefinitely – 2. – 3. • Major tenets of this belief – 1. there is a “great chain of being” with a place for each creature. In this permanent state of nature. . If it is disturbed and the disturbing force removed. Balance of Nature • Predominant belief that left undisturbed an ecosystem would achieve a single condition that would persist indefinitely. nature returns to exactly the same permanent state.

Balance of Nature • Twentieth century ecologist formalized the belief in the balance of nature – Climate state – steady-state stage that would persist indefinitely • Maximum biological diversity • Maximum storage of chemical element • Maximum biological diversity .

– All ecosystems undergo change – Species adapted to and need change • Dealing with change poses questions of human value – Controlling and managing fire . Balance of Nature • Since the second half of the 20th century ecologist have learned that nature is not constant.

Goals of Restoration • Frequently accepted that restoration means restoring an ecosystem to its historical range of variation and to an ability to sustain itself and its crucial functions – Cycling of chemical elements – The flow of energy – Maintenance of biological diversity .

– There is no single perfect condition. • Our values determine what we want nature to be. . Goals of Restoration • Science tells us what nature has been and what it could be.

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• Once again discussions about restoration involves values. . What Needs to be Restored? • Ecosystems of all types have undergone degradation and need restoration.

Wetland. Rivers. and Streams • Estimated that CA has lost 90% of its wetlands. – The US about 50% • Kissimmee River in Florida – Channelized to provide ship passage – Now under going restoration at cost of several hundred million dollars .

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– Only a few remnants remain – Land converted to agriculture • Two kinds of restoration – Intact prairie (never been plowed) – Previously plowed land more complicated to restore . Prairie Restoration • Prairie once occupied more land in US than any other kind of ecosystem.

Prairie Restoration • Area along road ways not plowed – Narrow strips of native prairie remain – In Iowa 242.000 hectares of prairie along roadways – Reservoir for native plants – Used as send sources for other restoration projects .

• Primary succession – The initial establishment and development of an ecosystem where one did not exist previously • Secondary succession – Reestablishment of an ecosystem following disturbance . through a process of ecological succession.The Process of Ecological Succession • Recovery of disturbed ecosystems can occur naturally.

Examples of primary succession after a lava flow and at the edge of a receding glacier. .

youtube.com/watch?v=vNHnwHaSolA . Primary Succession http://www.

Secondary succession- from abandoned field to mature forest .

youtube.com/watch?v=CQ2Xl6ZqzRI .Secondary Succession http://www.

bog and abandoned farm field . Patterns of Succession • When succession occurs it follows certain general patterns. – Three examples include dunes.

Dune Succession • Sand dunes continually formed along sandy shores. – Then breached and destroyed by storms • After dune forms – First to be established are grasses – Grass runners stabilize dunes – Other species seeds may germinate and become established .

eastern white pine – Beech and maple later . Dune Succession • Plants of early succession tend to be – Small. and withstand harshness of environment • Over time larger plants can become established – Eastern red cedar. grow well in bright light.

Bog Succession • A bog is an open body of water with surface inlets but no surface outlets. • Succession begins with – Sedge puts out floating runners – Wind blows particles into the mat of runners – Seeds that land on top don’t sink in the water and can germinate – Mat becomes thicker and shrubs and trees can grow .

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Bog Succession • The bog also fills in from the bottom – The shoreward end floating mat and sediment will meet. – Farther from shore all the vegetation is still floating . forming a solid surface.

– After they are established larger plants move in. Old-Field Succession • A great deal of land cleared for farming in the 18th and 19th centuries – That land now allowed to go back to forest • Succession – The first plants to enter the farm land are small plants adapted to harsh and variable conditions. .

Old-Field Succession http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a5xjVzPN3Og .

General Patterns of Succession .

A second stage with plants still of small statute. . An initial kind of vegetation specially adapted to the unstable conditions. • Typically small • Help stabilize physical environment – 2. General Patterns of Succession • Common element include the following – 1. rapidly growing. with seeds that spread rapidly.

General Patterns of Succession – 3. – 4. A forth stage in which mature forest develops. . A third stage in which larger plants. including trees. enter and begin to dominate the site.

middle. General Patterns of Succession • Successional stages – Early (1 and 2). – Species characteristic of early stage are called pioneers – Late-successional species tend to be slower.growing and longer-lived . and late • Similar patterns seen with animals and other life-forms at each stage.

General Patterns of Succession • In early stages of succession – Biomass and biological diversity increase • In middle stages – Gross production increase and net production decrease – Organic material in soil increases. as does chemical element storage .

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. – 1. Succession and Chemical Cycling • Storage of chemical elements generally increases during progression from early to middle for two reasons. Presence of live and dead matter helps stop erosion.Organic matter stores chemical elements • As one increases the other will increase • Nitrogen fixation – 2.

the more chemical elements will be retained. Succession and Chemical Cycling • As general rule. – Varies with average size of soil particles . the greater the volume of soil and the greater the % of organic matter in the soil .

Succession and Chemical
Cycling
• The chemical storage capacity of soils
varies w/ average size of the soil
particle.
– Large coarse particles, like sand, have a
smaller total surface area and can store a
smaller quantity of chemical elements.
– Smaller particles, like clay, store greater
quantity of chemical elements.
• Soils store large quantities of c.e. but
not as readily available as those in
living organisms.

Succession and Chemical
Cycling
• The increase in chemical element
does not continue indefinitely.
• With no disturbance ecosystem
will have a slow loss of stored
chemical elements
– Becoming depauperate

Species Change in Succession • Earlier and later species in succession may interact in three ways – Facilitation – Interference – Life history differences • If they don’t interact the result is chronic patchiness .

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Facilitation • In the dune and bog the facilitators are the dune grass and floating sedge. – They prepare the way for other species • Knowing the role of facilitation helps w/ restoration – These plants can be planted first . respectively.

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– Grasses may form dense mats blocking other seeds from germinating. Interference • Certain early species interfere w/ the entrance of other species. – Breaks in the mat allow other to be established .

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– Early-successsional species are readily transported by wind or animals. . Life History Differences • An example of life history differences is seed dispersal. • Reach clearing sooner – Late-successional species seeds take longer to travel and seedlings can tolerate shade.

Applying Ecological Knowledge • Undo mining damage in Great Britain – To remove toxic pollutants – Restore biological production – Restore attractiveness of landscape • Agricultural approach failed – Grasses soon died and land was barren again • Ecological approach has been successful – Planting early successional species .

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Diunduh dari: ………. . 28/12/2012 ..

28/12/2012 . ecological objectives must clearly drive and determine restoration strategies. or sustained production forestry which attempts to accommodate ecological concerns while maintaining economic benefits. and that often such opportunities will be an important factor in determining the feasibility of particular strategies for restoration. We believe restoration must clearly place ecological goals and objectives as the first priority of restoration efforts.. We recognize that economic opportunities may be created as by-products of these restoration activities.org/pine/principle. Diunduh dari: http://www. However.htm………. "Sustainable Forestry" for example can variously refer to either restoration oriented forest management that emphasizes ecological objectives.A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle I: Clearly defined ecological goals and objectives must be the first priority of restoration efforts. Part of the confusion and conflict surrounding many approaches to forestry revolves around the ambiguity of objectives and priorities.gffp.

Given these conditions. Restoration as a scientific discipline is relatively young. Restoration efforts must have a solid scientific foundation and include extensive and ongoing monitoring and evaluation which informs any subsequent activity. Consequently. Diunduh dari: http://www..org/pine/principle. 28/12/2012 . institutional culture and custom. treatment blocks preceding landscape scale implementation. Implementation should proceed in incremental steps e. restoration initiatives should start at scales compatible with the knowledge and experience available in each area. small test plots preceding larger treatment blocks. Restoration as a set of concepts and practices has a longer history but is often more of an aggregation of local knowledge.A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle II: Start small. increase scale in measured incremental steps.g.gffp. and practitioner perceptions.htm………. it would be unwise to assume we can accurately predict all consequences of restoration actions.

org/pine/principle.A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle III: Locate projects in areas with substantial agreement on restoration goals. critical spawning habitat being damaged by sedimentation. Wilderness Areas.. Conversely. Such areas make logical test sites since treatment would likely occur irrespective of restoration priorities. Examples might include urban-wildland interfaces with high wildfire risks. restoration experiments should begin in areas where there exists substantial agreement on the need for treatments.htm……….gffp. Consequently. Despite the substantial risks for large scale disturbances in many areas of our public lands. or roadless areas will only perpetuate conflict and substantially delay support for responsible restoration initiatives. 28/12/2012 adequate knowledge and experience of the potential negative . Much of the current resistance towards implementing restoration programs is based on the fear that such treatments will soon be widely applied across broad areas without Diunduh dari: http://www. certain restoration treatments in these areas may also create impacts which could jeopardize the very values we hope to protect. there are areas in which risks to human life and values have already targeted an area for treatment. Attempting to initiate relatively untested restoration strategies in controversial areas such as National Parks. or areas in which critical habitats are being lost due to exotic species invasions or increasing tree densities.

in many places we have been living off the principal of our lands. not simply its surplus or interest. it is essential that these economic and social benefits are the by-products of restoration. 28/12/2012 . However. Before the land is capable of providing a long-term flow of "interest" in the form of goods and services (whether it be forest products or recreation opportunities) we must rebuilt the ecological capital through substantial reinvestment in the land. These investments will create economic opportunities and goods and service byproducts. not the primary objectives. Diunduh dari: http://www.gffp. As a result.A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle IV: Effective restoration will require substantial reinvestment.org/pine/principle. the "interest" produced by this ecological capital. As a result. Restoration should not be expected to pay for itself. Decades of extractive activities and other management practices such as fire exclusion have substantially depleted the ecological "capital" of many ecosystems.. the ecological surplus. has been substantially depleted.htm……….

it is also fundamentally a social one. open and comprehensive process for identifying and designing restoration projects. For example. At the same time. who feel they have a stake in the outcome of a restoration program. There are three important elements in developing an effective restoration strategy.A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle V: Utilize an inclusive. we may also need to make special provisions to enable the involvement of such groups or individuals. Repeated experience throughout the country has demonstrated that land management and restoration is not simply a scientific or technical process. 28/12/2012 base of the public. All parties should be held to the same standards of honesty. participation and long-term commitment of a broad- Diunduh dari: http://www. restoration will inherently . In some cases. effective involvement requires a commitment by all parties to engage in constructive dialogue and participation. Our larger success in reorienting human values and behavior towards a culture and practice of restoration will require the support. First. all interested stakeholders should be given the chance for substantive involvement.org/pine/principle. This implies that we need to be aware of the range of groups. new approaches to disseminating information will be needed which recognize the different levels of understanding and experience present in each major stakeholder group. Second.. including communities of place and interest. and respect.gffp. and clearly understand their issues. consistency.htm……….

This set of questions then forms the basis of a research program which can begin to inform both the theory and ongoing practices of restoration.org/pine/principle. Thus. At the same time. it has a dramatic impact on public understanding and acceptance in a restoration program. We need to acknowledge at the outset of our restoration efforts that there are substantial areas of uncertainty which surround restoration theory and practice.A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle VI: Build a thorough and well-balanced research program to evaluate effectiveness. and indigenous sources.htm………. interest groups and other stakeholders. but also local communities. 28/12/2012 scientific. practitioner. an essential first step in a responsible restoration process. It also provides the framework for an ongoing dialogue and education of the broad set of constituencies who are concerned about the effectiveness of restoration practices. Research should include the range of knowledge available from Diunduh dari: http://www.gffp. is the development of a comprehensive research agenda associated with the project. particularly those with potential impacts on larger landscapes. it is essential that restoration practices have a rigorous scientific foundation which distinguishes between values. perceptions and replicable phenomena. This includes not only the academic community. This research agenda should carefully document the questions which give rise to uncertainty.. . This uncertainty not only affects the effectiveness of practices.

developing acceptable protocol for monitoring. This feedback must then be incorporated as modifications in subsequent restoration activities enabling an adaptive. In this way we may finally begin to provide society with timely feedback on the Diunduh dari: http://www. Monitoring is also an essential tool in building trust and support for responsible restoration practices. but also the .org/pine/principle. One of the core components of an effective research program is the formulation of a comprehensive monitoring program. the monitoring program must include a broad set of stakeholders in refining the questions to be answered. not only of restoration activities. 28/12/2012 consequences. and collectively interpreting results.htm……….. provisions must be built into restoration programs at the outset to insure adequate resources for comprehensive. We must have ways to evaluate the impacts and responses to restoration treatments. To do so. Recognizing that monitoring is frequently not adequately funded.A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle VII: Create an all-party monitoring process to assure credible implementation. The final step in the monitoring process is the development of an effective educational program that can bring the results of both research and monitoring to the broader public in forms that are both comprehensible and useful. collecting monitoring data. responsive management approach.gffp. inclusive monitoring. however.

Designing and implementing restoration programs will involve assigning priorities that affect how costs and benefits are distributed. We must recognize from the outset that restoration is not value neutral. both human and non- human. are adequately represented in this process. Designing restoration treatments for one species may lead to declines in another. 28/12/2012 .A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle VIII: Strive to distribute the costs and benefits of restoration equitably. In doing so.. This also implies that we attempt to insure that all parties affected by these choices. In this regard. we must explicitly discuss the range of trade-offs that are created as we favor certain values or features over others. A core principle of responsible restoration is the sincere effort to distribute these costs and benefits as equitably and justly as possible. both among humans and in the larger living systems.htm………. local communities have a special role and responsibility. restoration provides the opportunity to demonstrate the interconnectedness of human and non-human communities.org/pine/principle. Diunduh dari: http://www.gffp. Providing protection for one area or value may increase the risks to another. and as a substantial part of the workforce involved in restoration activities. In order to do so. both in limiting negative impacts of human presence.

gffp. Ecological restoration treatments are based on reference conditions (the evolutionary environment context). especially community-based partnerships linked to regional and national agencies and interest groups.W. a framework that considers evolutionary biology. with policy- makers. Therefore. my colleagues and I at the Ecological Restoration Institute at Northern Arizona University have developed a community-based general framework for the development of ecologically based restoration treatments.org/pine/restore. it is imperative to engage stakeholders. In an ecosystem ecology approach. Holling (ref to 1990 Ecology paper) memorably recommended "large-scale management experiments and learning by doing". conservation biology and ecosystem ecology principles. Covington. conservation practitioners and interested parties from government and a range of organizations. Financial and personnel constraints Diunduh dari: http://www.. . Northern Arizona University Ecological Restoration Institute Ten years ago. We have been pursuing this approach in what has been called "the Flagstaff Plan". Scientific framework. Operational framework. . Carl Walters and Crawford S. Ecological restoration is the restoration of natural ecosystem structures and processes. social and political concerns play a major part in defining treatments. Therefore. 28/12/2012 place geographical limits on treatments. natural resource specialists. In collaboration with partners in the environmental community. Social and political framework. emphasis is . and resource managers.htm………. Ecological Restoration Principles for Fuel Reduction W.

Periode I : Februari 2013 2. Format Artikel jurnal nasional (bahasa Indonesia) atau 1. SEMINAR HASIL PENELITIAN TESIS & DISERTASI PPSUB-2013 PERIODE PELAKSANAAN SEMINAR: 1. Periode II: September 2013 PERIODE PENYERAHAN MAKALAH SEMINAR: 1. Dalam setiap sesi penyajian makalah. Makalah akan dinilai oleh tim reviewer PPSUB dengan menggunakan Borang penilaian artikel jurnal dari PPIKID UB 4. .1. PMWasantannas. Format makalah: 1. Format artikel jurnal Internasional (bahasa Inggris) 2. Setiap mahasiswa dapat mengajukan lebih dari satu makalah hasil penelitian tesis / disertasi. maksimum 5 orang peserta seminar yang mengajukan pembahasannya. PSL dan PDKLP PPSUB. Makalah yang nilainya lebih dari 60 dapat diajukan dalam forum seminar. Periode I : Maret 2013 2. Semua peserta seminar dapat melakukan penilaian seminar dengan menggunakan format yang disediakan 2. 5. serta dosen-dosen pembimbing Penilaian seminar: 1. Periode II: Agustus 2013 Ketentuan Makalah Seminar: 1. Peserta Seminar: Semua Mahasiswa PMKW. Makalah seminar dikirim kepada Direktur PPSUB oleh Promotor / Dosen Pembimbing (Ketua) 3.2. sedangkan makalah yang nilainya kurang dari 60 harus diperbaiki lebih dahulu dan diajukan dalam periode seminar berikutnya.