LSS Green built course

© All Rights Reserved

6 views

LSS Green built course

© All Rights Reserved

- (13) Normal Distribution
- Ch13 Direct Time Study q
- Harvey J.W. Veterinary Hematology 2012
- Definition of Basis Values and an in-Depth Look at CMH-17 Statistical Analysis
- A Comparison of Eight Methods for Estimating the Biomass and Growth of Planktonic Algae
- Scales of Measurement
- Scaling Techniques
- Performance Engineering Quick Review[2]
- MARK202 Spring 2012 Lectures Lecture 4
- jtdisttut
- Study Guide Ch5F
- Scaling & Measurement
- Chapter 08 PowerPoint
- BEPP 305 805 Lecture 1
- R Help
- variation
- Ch2 Reading Notes
- Review Test3 Stat Sum09
- 5 Normal Distribution
- Central Limit Theorem Examples and Exercises(2)

You are on page 1of 28

Six Sigma Statistics

Welcome to Measure

Process Discovery

Basic Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Normal Distribution

Assessing Normality

Graphing Techniques

Process Capability

Purpose of Basic Statistics

• Provide a numerical summary of the data being analyzed.

– Data (n)

• Factual information organized for analysis.

• Numerical or other information represented in a form suitable for processing by

computer

• Values from scientific experiments.

• Provide the basis for making inferences about the future.

• Provide the foundation for assessing process capability.

• Provide a common language to be used throughout an organization to

describe processes.

Relax….it won’t

be that bad!

OSSS LSS Green Belt v9.1 - Measure Phase 3 © OpenSourceSixSigma, LLC

Statistical Notation – Cheat Sheet

The Standard Deviation of population data For each, all, individual values

The variance of population data

The grand mean, grand average

The range of data

The mean of population data

The average range of data

of classes

A proportion of population data

The absolute value of some term

Sample size

Greater than, less than

Parameters vs. Statistics

Population: All the items that have the “property of interest” under study.

Population

Sample

Sample

Sample

– Arithmetic descriptions of a population – Arithmetic descriptions of a

– µ, , P, 2, N sample

– X-bar , s, p, s2, n

Types of Data

– Is always binary, there are only two possible values (0, 1)

• Yes, No

• Go, No go

• Pass/Fail

Variable Data (Quantitative)

– Discrete (Count) Data

• Can be categorized in a classification and is based on counts.

– Number of defects

– Number of defective units

– Number of customer returns

– Continuous Data

• Can be measured on a continuum, it has decimal subdivisions that are

meaningful

– Time, Pressure, Conveyor Speed, Material feed rate

– Money

– Pressure

– Conveyor Speed

– Material feed rate

Discrete Variables

diabetic syringes

Type A personality

mailed in a customer satisfaction study.

high school or obtained a GED

before a head appears for the first time

(note, there is no upper limit because you might

need to flip forever before the first head appears.

Continuous Variables

The length of prison time served for individuals All the real numbers between a and b, where a is

convicted of first degree murder the smallest amount of time served and b is the

largest.

The household income for households with All the real numbers between a and $30,000,

incomes less than or equal to $30,000 where a is the smallest household income in the

population

The blood glucose reading for those individuals All real numbers between 200 and b, where b is

having glucose readings equal to or greater than the largest glucose reading in all such individuals

200

Definitions of Scaled Data

• Understanding the nature of data and how to represent it can affect the

types of statistical tests possible.

be arranged in an ordering scheme. No arithmetic operations are

performed for nominal data.

data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless.

• Interval Scale – data can be arranged in some order and for which

differences in data values are meaningful. The data can be arranged in

an ordering scheme and differences can be interpreted.

• Ratio Scale – data that can be ranked and for which all arithmetic

operations including division can be performed. (division by zero is of

course excluded) Ratio level data has an absolute zero and a value of

zero indicates a complete absence of the characteristic of interest.

Nominal Scale

the variable

OSSS LSS Green Belt v9.1 - Measure Phase 10 © OpenSourceSixSigma, LLC

Ordinal Scale

values

intermediate, full size, luxury

Major League

Interval Scale

BlackBelt Training (the difference between scores

is measurable and has

meaning but a difference of 20

points between 100 and 120

does not indicate that one

student is 1.2 times more

intelligent )

Ratio Scale

United States (If person A consumes 25 grams of fat and

person B consumes 50 grams, we can say

that person B consumes twice as much fat

as person A. If a person C consumes zero

grams of fat per day, we can say there is a

complete absence of fat consumed on that

day. Note that a ratio is interpretable and

an absolute zero exists.)

Converting Attribute Data to Continuous Data

Continuous

– 15 scratches or Total scratch length of 9.25”

– 22 foreign materials or 2.5 fm/square inch

– 200 defects or 25 defects/hour

Descriptive Statistics

– Mean

– Median

– Mode

– Range

– Interquartile Range

– Standard deviation

– Variance

Descriptive Statistics

select the worksheet “basicstatistics.mtw”

Measures of Location

Mean is:

• Commonly referred to as the average.

• The arithmetic balance point of a distribution of data.

>Histogram of data, with normal curve

Mean 5.000

80

StDev 0.01007

N 200

70

60

50

Frequency

40

Descriptive Statistics: Data

30

Variable N N* Mean SE Mean StDev Minimum Q1

20 Median Q3

Data 200 0 4.9999 0.000712 0.0101 4.9700 4.9900

10 5.0000 5.0100

0 Variable Maximum

4.97 4.98 4.99 5.00 5.01 5.02 Data 5.0200

Data

Measures of Location

Median is:

• The mid-point, or 50th percentile, of a distribution of data.

• Arrange the data from low to high, or high to low.

– It is the single middle value in the ordered list if there is an odd

number of observations

– It is the average of the two middle values in the ordered list if there

are an even number of observations

Mean 5.000

80

StDev 0.01007

N 200

70

60

50

Frequency

40

Variable N N* Mean SE Mean StDev Minimum Q1 Median Q3

30

Data 200 0 4.9999 0.000712 0.0101 4.9700 4.9900 5.0000 5.0100

20

Variable Maximum

10 Data 5.0200

0

4.97 4.98 4.99 5.00 5.01 5.02

Data

Measures of Location

Trimmed Mean is a:

Compromise between the Mean and Median.

• The Trimmed Mean is calculated by eliminating a specified percentage

of the smallest and largest observations from the data set and then

calculating the average of the remaining observations

• Useful for data with potential extreme values.

Data 200 0 4.9999 0.000712 4.9999 0.0101 4.9700 4.9900 5.0000

Variable Q3 Maximum

Data 5.0100 5.0200

Measures of Location

Mode is:

The most frequently occurring value in a distribution of data.

Mode = 5

Mean 5.000

80

StDev 0.01007

N 200

70

60

50

Frequency

40

30

20

10

0

4.97 4.98 4.99 5.00 5.01 5.02

Data

Measures of Variation

Range is the:

Difference between the largest observation and the smallest

observation in the data set.

• A small range would indicate a small amount of variability and a large

range a large amount of variability.

Data 200 0 4.9999 0.000712 0.0101 4.9700 4.9900 5.0000 5.0100

Variable Maximum

Data 5.0200

Difference between the 75th percentile and the 25th percentile.

OSSS LSS Green Belt v9.1 - Measure Phase 21 © OpenSourceSixSigma, LLC

Measures of Variation

Equivalent of the average deviation of values from the Mean for a

distribution of data.

A “unit of measure” for distances from the Mean.

Use when data are symmetrical.

Sample Population

Data 200 0 4.9999 0.000712 0.0101 4.9700 4.9900 5.0000 5.0100

Variable Maximum

Data 5.0200

Measures of Variation

Variance is the:

Average squared deviation of each individual data point from the

Mean.

Sample Population

Normal Distribution

statistics.

– Only random error is present

– Process free of assignable cause

– Process free of drifts and shifts

The Normal Curve

curve, generated by the density function.

many naturally occurring measurements such as

heights, weights, etc. are approximately Normally

Distributed.

Normal Distribution

unique normal curve:

– Has a μ = 0, and σ = 1

fit the standard Normal by converting raw scores

to standard scores.

mean a particular data-value lies.

Normal Distribution

The area under the curve between any 2 points represents the

proportion of the distribution between those points.

Mean and any other

point depends upon the

Standard Deviation.

m x

Convert any raw score to a Z-score using the formula:

proportion between μ and x.

The Empirical Rule

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6

95.45 % of the data will fall within +/- 2 standard deviations

99.73 % of the data will fall within +/- 3 standard deviations

99.9937 % of the data will fall within +/- 4 standard deviations

99.999943 % of the data will fall within +/- 5 standard deviations

99.9999998 % of the data will fall within +/- 6 standard deviations

- (13) Normal DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- Ch13 Direct Time Study qUploaded bymuath wardat
- Harvey J.W. Veterinary Hematology 2012Uploaded byLeonardo A. Muñoz Dominguez
- Definition of Basis Values and an in-Depth Look at CMH-17 Statistical AnalysisUploaded byjuanpalomo74
- A Comparison of Eight Methods for Estimating the Biomass and Growth of Planktonic AlgaeUploaded bysgokpinar56
- Scales of MeasurementUploaded byMadhukar Saxena
- Scaling TechniquesUploaded by1986anu
- Performance Engineering Quick Review[2]Uploaded byKersti Uts
- MARK202 Spring 2012 Lectures Lecture 4Uploaded bySheikh Hasan
- jtdisttutUploaded byDede Irwan Rezpector
- Study Guide Ch5FUploaded byAlrick Barwa
- Scaling & MeasurementUploaded byMoumita Maity
- Chapter 08 PowerPointUploaded byBondzan
- BEPP 305 805 Lecture 1Uploaded byBrandon Walker
- R HelpUploaded byAbhishek Chitre
- variationUploaded byapi-268563289
- Ch2 Reading NotesUploaded by1012219
- Review Test3 Stat Sum09Uploaded bysubash1111@gmail.com
- 5 Normal DistributionUploaded byNoor Hafizah
- Central Limit Theorem Examples and Exercises(2)Uploaded byWess Sklas
- MetE13 Sampling 1Uploaded byChristian Arranz
- initial report 1Uploaded byapi-298156960
- chapter6-exerciesextraUploaded bynikowawa
- Example 3Uploaded bysum
- 5. Michael S. Lewis-Beck-Data Analysis_ an Introduction, Issue 103-SAGE (1995)Uploaded bymichelglais
- afaf8Uploaded byjacch123
- HW.I.ReviewUploaded byNuraeni Shq
- 274463856 ASTM E 1155 Procedure Floor FlatnessUploaded byWagesusilo23121986_
- civa_fair_play_system_fps_explained_v2a.pdfUploaded byRoland Schäuble
- Risk-1PLNUploaded byTeslim Salaudeen

- 64 Interview QuestionsUploaded byshivakumar N
- gas liquid scrubber desingUploaded byAhmed Ragab
- Cooling Tower Efficiency CalculationsUploaded byGenta Arias
- HandBook of Numerical Heat TransferUploaded byAhmed Ragab
- Solution Manual Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering 4th EditionUploaded byMike
- 02-Stoichiometric Calculations.pptUploaded byHandayani Kesumadewi
- chemicals compatibilityUploaded byAhmed Ragab
- Heat exchanger effectiveness.pdfUploaded byfrilofh
- Creative Thinking, CV Writing and Interview SkillsUploaded byAhmed Ragab
- Python BasicsUploaded byAle Zan
- HEAT_TRANSFER_ANALYSIS_ON_SHELL_AND_TUBE.pdfUploaded byBipin Giri
- Sample - Lss Green Belt CourseUploaded byAhmed Ragab
- 5 L1 Aspen TutorialUploaded byarief
- Process OperationUploaded byAhmed Ragab
- 4.4.Heat ExchangerUploaded bySATISH PAWAR

- All Methods of Data Collection Can Supply Quantitative DataUploaded bypeters_477
- Case Analysis GuideUploaded bykmoorthy2588
- Chap 003Uploaded byAlondra
- Concept Misformation in Comparative PoliticsUploaded byXimena Molina Figueroa
- bus-332-scientific-research-techniques-ch9-10-11-12-13[1].pptUploaded byAdnan Rais Khan
- mcclave10e_ch02Uploaded byngoccanhhuyen3
- Mohamad.pdfUploaded byJuhaidah Jamal
- 18132027 Attitude MeasurementUploaded byDhwani_panicker
- IBM SPSS Statistics BaseUploaded byEdmundo Caetano
- formelsamlingUploaded byhomauoon
- Test Bank Business Statistics 9th Edition.docUploaded bysanamcandy
- An Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Success of Environmental Policy Implementation: A Study of the Tambon Administration Organization (TAO)Uploaded byrobert0rojer
- Chapter 01 What is Statistics?Uploaded bywindyuri
- Statistics IntroUploaded byAhmad Haredy
- a143 Sqqs1013 Ga Group 10Uploaded byNurul Farhan Ibrahim
- Measures of Central Tendency_Final_IBSUploaded byRavindra Babu
- NURSING DATA MANAGEMENT.pdfUploaded byMarvin Calma
- Statistics Reading Comprehension 1Uploaded byJose Antonio Velázquez Juárez
- Using Multicriteria Method Env PlanningUploaded byNurul Ichsan
- PERNYATAAN SKALA LIKERTUploaded byPriska Paramita
- FInal.soci 1005 Sem 1 Tutorial QuestionsUploaded byKini Bubblezz Haynes
- MB0050- Research MethodologyUploaded byAnish Nair
- An Industry Standard Risk Analysis TechniqueUploaded byjlap29
- mid termUploaded bysamuelteal
- kel. 7Uploaded byHendra Aha
- LS2 Frequency DistributionsUploaded bylen
- Math RelatedUploaded byMarvel Tating
- Six-Sigma-Glossary.pdfUploaded bymancheung6429
- quiz 1 history research methodsUploaded byapi-331165829
- Development of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in College StatisticsUploaded byAmadeus Fernando M. Pagente

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.