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• His is also called motivation-

hygiene theory.

• Factors that satisfy employees

are motivators

• Factors dissatisfying are hygiene

• List of satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposite of each other

• So removing dissatisfaction factor will not result in satisfaction

• It will result in absence of dissatisfaction

• So the factors that bring us satisfaction we assume will motivate us

and are the ones we have control over

• So we should focus on our motivational factors more if we do

something we enjoy will provide us satisfaction
• Link between three factors
• It focuses not on a person need
but outcomes
• Expectancy means that you believe that the effort you put in can effect
the performance you deliver

• If you work harder your performance is better work less your

performance will suffer

• Instrumentality refers to the belief that your performance will effect

the outcome

• Excellent performance will result in more positive outcome than poor

• Valence is the importance a person places on the reward or expected

• For example : if I am motivated to spent more time with my family

overtime offer will not hold much value

• But if I give more importance to money than I will place more value
on overtime
• Three fundamental needs

The need for achievement

The need for affiliation

The need for power

• Need for achievement

Want advancement

Need a sense of accomplishment

Seek to attain goals

• Need for affiliation

Need for interaction with others

Need for friendship

Want and need to be liked

• Need for power

Authority motivated

Need to influence others

Need to lead

Need to increase personal prestige or status


• It consists of five levels

Self actualization
Ego status
Basic (physiological)
• Physiological needs

• It is the most important need the are basic things our body require to
keep functioning like food, water, shelter

• Safety needs

• After basic needs safety needs include things people want in order to
create level of predictability

• Not just physical safety but also general health safety from financial
ruin or injustice
• Like job security , financial savings, insurance policy

• Belonging needs

• It revolve around social interactions and need to belong

• Like family , friends, sports team ,office groups

• These relationship are emotionally based and fulfil the need to be

cared for and accepted by others
• Ego status

• Our need in this level involves around us reinforcing our self image and by
turn the image others have of us

• For eg: the accumulation of wealth , accumulation of status symbols like

cars homes ,personal achievements in areas such as education , skills, and
hobbies .

• Self actualization

• The need of self actualization is the need to become more and more oneself
,and to become more and more of what we are capable of becoming