This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
CONTROLLING ROBOTS WITH MIND
* The very minute signals from the brain are processed and which is taken as data for controlling the robots. * It is divided into 3 modules. 1.Brain & brain signals. 2.Measuring brain signals using invasive and non-invasive methods. 3.Brain computer interface.
BRAIN AND BRAIN SIGNALS
* Brain is included in the Central Nervous System. * Neurons are responsible for the transmission and analysis of all the information in the brain.
* EEG (Electroencephalogram) measures and records the electrical activity of our brain. * Action potential in pre-synaptic axon releases neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft and binds to next dendrite, results in compensatory currents. These currents generate EEG voltages.
INVASIVE AND NON-INVASIVE METHODS FOR MEASURING BRAIN SIGNALS * In invasive method, BCI (Brain Computer Interface) is implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain. It is prone to scar-tissue build up, causing the signal to become weaker. * In non-invasive method, BCI is implanted on top of the motor cortex of the brain. This method is adopted widely.
ADVANTAGES OF EEG
* EEG has a high temporal resolution compared to other techniques and is capable of detecting changes in electrical activity in the brain on a millisecond time scale.
BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE (BCI) * BCI System has four modules:1. Source Module. 2. Signal Processing Module. 3. User Application Module. 4. Operator Module.
BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE (BCI)
* BCI is possible with the ³BRAIN GATE´
* It consists of a sensor with 100 electrodes, each thinner than a human hair. * It has a surface area of 16 mm2.
THE BRAIN GATE ELECTRODE
BRAIN GATE ELECTRODE
HOW BRAIN GATE WORKS? * The brain gate is implanted at the top of the motor cortex.
* Electrodes pick up neural spiking from nearby neurons and transmit them through gold wires to a titanium pedestal.
* An external cable connects the pedestal to EEG, where the neural spiking are measured.
* It is then connected to computers, signal processors and monitors.
* A robotic arm connected to the computer moves in response to the brain signal.
BRAIN GATE INTERFACE
* Paralysed persons can make a robot move with their thoughts alone. * They can control the computer cursor with their thoughts alone.
* BrainGate provides an interface with a computer that works immediately, without weeks or months of training. * A user can operate the device without requiring great concentration. * BrainGate connects directly to the part of the brain that ordinarily controls hand movement and gestures, so that we can control the machinery with our thoughts alone.
* The process of inserting needle electrodes into the brain often leads to trauma, so that it may be necessary to remove some of the patient's hair. * In addition, the process of attaching conventional electrodes may lead to skin abrasion and irritation.
* To develop a system that allows humans with paralysis to move their limbs in a way that they can carry out useful movements and lead independent lives. * Moving a wheelchair with BrainGate is beyond the scope of study.
* Being able to move robotic machines could free a paralyzed person from depending on other people, at least partially. * People with prosthetic limbs might be able to control them using brain impulse in a manner very similar to the way they used to move their natural limbs.
*www.mindcontrolforums.com/news/rem otecontrol-brain-sensor.html *www.usatoday.com/tech/science/discov eries/2006-07-12-brain-implant_x.html *www.insideria.com/2008/05/touchlessbrainsensor-interfac.html
*news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5167938.stm *www.popularmechanics.com/science/re search/4272246.html *www.ieeexplore.ieee.org/ie15/20/20571/0 095133.pdf *www.livescience/technology/061215humanoid-robot.html *Scientific American