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EXPLORATION PHASE

Sedimentary Basin in Indonesia


PSC Blocks in Indonesia
Common Practices
• In Exploration New Ventures; company is looking
for new oil & gas fields
• Subsurface team commonly need to design
seismic acquisition – e.g. 2D regional
– Seismic data to validate structure from potential
methods
– Seismic in denser grid than initial 2D set
• Geophysicist should have familiarity with seismic
operations
– Acquisition
– Processing
Acquisition - Considerations
• Depth of target horizon
– 2,000 m? 3,000 m?
• Objectives of the data
– Structure
– Stratigraphy
• Resolution? Fold?
• Think of structure size we want to image
– 10x10 km? 20x20km? Other?
• Cost will be trade-off
Seismic Acquisition – Case Kalimantan

Denser grid
around the
exploration well 20km
Goal of Seismic Processing
• In Exploration New Ventures phase,
processing usually focus on getting good
seismic image for structural interpretation
• Due to very far distance between seismic line,
the objective of using amplitude is rare
• Hints to stratigraphy / deposition of
environment generated using geological
concepts (tectonics, sequence stratigraphy,
and depositional model)
Pre Seismic Interpretation
• Data Loading; QC of seismic
navigation

• Seismic Balancing

• Amplitude balance?
– Only if there is working AVO case
Davin et al, IPA 2003
Seismic Section of Data Used for Structural Interpretation

Seabed
Before After Increase impedance

Shift for
better match
Regional Seismic Interpretation - Example
• Regional Structural Cross-section

Barber et al, IPA 2005

Focus on package of sedimentation (formation/group)

Thinking on sedimentation and deformation timing


relationship
FIELD APPRAISAL
GEOPHYSICAL VIEWS
Appraisal
• So we have a discovery. What’s next?
Map View Consideration

Area 1 – small size Exploration


Discovery
Area 2 – medium size

Area 3 – large size

• The one million dollar question: how much is the


true recoverable hydrocarbon?
Appraisal Objective
• We need to know the real ‘prize’
– Better understand key elements
• Structure
• Reservoir distribution
• Fluids
– HC phase
– SW
• Well performance
Appraisal Example – ABC Field
ABC field: Uncertainties :
• Mapping
 Discovered in 1998.
• Interpretation
 Large closure but low pressure gas • Gridding
• Depth modeling
 Wide range of potential EUR
• Reservoir Properties
 Dedicated field to a gas contract
• Reservoir distribution
unknown
 Limited study to date • Water Saturation issue
 Preliminary map cases: • High SW despite evidence
 Sand A gas content
 Sand B
 Sand C • No flow test
ABC Field Appraisal Objective
• Appraisal well would be required to
determine :
1. Water Saturation
2. Flow-rate
3. Permeability
4. Gas Composition
5. Optimum viable development with right
amount of wells – tied to cost
3D Seismic in Field Appraisal
• It is common practice to acquire 3D seismic
after well discovery
– Whenever condition allows
• Oil price
• Access to the area (onshore)

– When VOI (Value of Information) is positive


• e.g if 2D seismic alone is not sufficient
• e.g if reservoir is complex laterally
3D Seismic Simple Workflow
Seismic for Better Image
• 3D seismic acquisition justification
– To reveal faults/compartments
– To reveal reservoir facies
– AVO for fluid effects
• AVO Amplitude Variation with Offset
3D Seismic Acquisition – General Workflow
3D Seismic Advantage
• Improved Structural Correlation between wells
Well 1 Well 2 Well 3
3D Seismic Reveals Reservoir Geometry
Seismic Horizon Slice

IPA, 2008 Seismic Section


3D Seismic in Very Thick Carbonate
Reservoir

Detailed intra-carbonate reflections stand out on the final PreSTM volume


Seismic Identified HC Pay
Arang Z-2 Amplitude map M well
Structure Overlain by MFS 900
Top Arang Z-0

Far Stack Seismic Amplitude


Top Arang Z-1

1
Top Arang Z-2

Top Arang Z-3

Top Arang Z-4

Base Arang Z-4

Bright spot
conforms to structure

Another bright spot


conform to structure
PetroZuata Case – Why Seismic is Needed
Geologic Background

Reservoirs Characterized by:

• Mixture of fluvial, distributary,


and tidal estuarine deposits
• Mean sand thickness is 22ft
• Seismic resolution ~20-30 ft
• Can’t resolve top/base for
most sands.
PetroZuata Background - Seismic

East Area
Main Area
3D Seismic Acquired 1996

South Area

10 km
How do seismic data impact well planning?

HI22-1S IJ21-1S

?
4400 ft.

How far does the thick sand in IJ21extend?


How do seismic data impact well planning?

HI22-1S IJ21-1S

4400 ft.

3D seismic are critical data needed to


interpret between the wells.

Identifying Targets, Placing Laterals


How do seismic data impact well planning?

HI22-1S IJ21-1S

4400 ft.

Seismic stratigraphy fundamentals correctly


predicted the edge of the channel system.
How do seismic data impact well planning?

HI22-1S IJ21-1S

HI22-1C

HI22-1C

Identifying Targets, Placing Laterals


How do seismic data impact well planning?

Mapping depositional trends with seismic attributes.

Shale

Sand
Better Prediction of ‘Economic Value’
• Since we know better the key elements
– Structure
• Know better shape of the trap
– Reservoir distribution
• Know better shape of the reservoir (e.g sand distribution)

• Improvement of HCIP and EUR


– RF is based on analogue

• Better predict the ‘economic value’


Quiz
Define the terminology in the picture
Quiz
• What is migration apron?
• Mention at least three critical parameters we
want to know/improve during field appraisal.
FIELD DEVELOPMENT
GEOPHYSICAL VIEWS
Development – The Workflow
 Seismic interpretation Critical Risks and Uncertainties:
 Horizon picks • Hydrocarbon Saturation
 consistency with reg. framework • Seal Capacity
 Depth conversion • Reservoir Quality
 Amplitude extraction
 Aim for stratigraphic features
 Fluid detections

 Geology
 Sequence stratigraphic frameworks
 Reservoir characterization
 Volumetric - GeoX
 Geomodel

 Reservoir Engineering
 Reservoir model

 Well Planning
3D Seismic Interpretation in Ideal Development Case
(Fluids & Stratigraphy)

Seismic data drives interpretation of


stratigraphy and depositional
environment

geoseismic-asia.blogspot.com

Seismic data indicates presence of fluid


contact

Published in IPA: Maynard, 2003


Case – HC Well Defined
Arang Z-2 Amplitude map
Structure Overlain by
Far Stack Seismic Amplitude

Within this example;


2 There is little HC
uncertainty due to
seismic data is very good
and correlated very well
with Pay
Rock Physics Importance for
Reservoir Characterization
Forward Modeling

• Modeling approach – sensitivity of reservoir to different seismic


frequency
• The reservoir is ideally to resolved by 55 Hz
• Low frequency case still work for 30 Hz
Forward Modeling

• Modeling approach – does impedance alone differentiate reservoir


vs non-reservoir?
• The reservoir could not be differentiated using seismic impedance
• Another seismic attributes is required
Seismic Reflection: Well-Planning

• 3D View of
Integrated
Subsurface
System

• Define detailed
subsurface
targets
Seismic Time Lapse
• Rock physics models
are required to
interpret time lapse
changes in elastic
properties
• Whether it is due to
reservoir pressure or
fluid saturations
Time Lapse Responses
Time Lapse Case
Quiz
• What is seismic forward modeling in reservoir
characterization?
• Why is it important?