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Presentation Lecture 3

CAD CAM

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Representation of

Curves

Oneil Josephs

Lecturer

School of Engineering

Curve Classification

Analytical Curves

Defined by an algebraic equation and its

coefficients.

Free-form Curves

No algebraic equation – A curve is drawn to fit the

shape of interest.

Forms of Analytical Equations

Parametric Equation

x R cos , y R sin , z 0 (0 2 )

x2 y 2 R2 0, z0

y R x , z0

2 2

Conic Sections

The curves, or portion of the curves, obtained

by cutting a cone with a plane are referred to

as conic sections.

cutting plane with respect to the cone.

The Circle

x R cos X c

y R sin Yc

The Ellipse

x a cos x2 y 2

y b sin 2

2 1 0

a b

z0

The Parabola

y 4ax 0

2

The Hyperbola

2 2

x y

2

2 1 0

a b

The Hyperbola

Normal and Tangent Lines

Worked Example 1

Worked Example 2

Free Form Curves

Always represented by parametric polynomial

equations.

x f t , y g t , z h t .

same degree.

Free Form Curves Contd.

To design a free-form curve, it is necessary to find

the coefficients of the general polynomial equations.

satisfy most of the applications.

cubic curve.

Free Form Curves Contd.

A general cubic parametric curve has the

following form:

3 2

y a y t by t c y t d y

3 2

z az t bz t cz t d z

3 2

Free Form Curves Contd.

Vector form

x

r y

z

t 3 t 3

ax bx cx dx 2 2

r a y d y a b c d AT

t t

by cy

t t

az bz cz d z

1 1

T is called the power basis vector and A is the

coefficient matrix.

Free Form Curves Contd.

Tangent Property

Import in designing the curve.

Derived by taking the first derivative of the polynomial

equation

dr t

r t 3at 2bt c

2

dt

Vector Form 3t 2

dr dT 2t

r A A

dt dt 1

0

Free Form Curves Contd.

Curve Design

To design a curve is to determine its

coefficients.

Ferguson’s Curve

Bezier’s Curve

B-Spline Curve

NURBS

Free Form Curves Contd.

Ferguson’s Curve

tangents at those two points.

continuity.

connected. There is no guarantee, however, that the

curve is smooth.

Two Curves – Connected but

not Smooth

A Ferguson Curve Segment

A Ferguson (Hermite) curve is constructed by

defining:

Two endpoints: P0, P1

End tangent vectors: t0, t1

P0 r 0 ; P1 r 1

t 0 r 0 ; t1 r 1

A Ferguson Curve Segment

Coordinates of the Points

2 3 0 1 t 3

2 3

0 0 t 2

r t AT P0 P1 t 0 t1 , 0 t 1

1 2 1 0 t

1 1 0 0 1

Tangents

2 3 0 1 3t 2

2 3

dT 0 0 2t

r t A P0 P1 t 0 t1

dt 1 2 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 0

Worked Example

2 3 0 1 t 3

0 t 2

0 4 1 1

2 3 0

r t 0 0 4 4

1 2 1 0 t

0 0 0 0

1 1 0 0 1

t 3

6 9 1 0 2

0 4 4 0

t

t

0 0 0 0

1

6t 3 9t 2 t

4t 2 4t

0

Worked Example

2 3 0 1 3t 2

0 4 1 1

2 3 0 0 2t

r t 0 0 4 4

1 2 1 0 1

0 0 0 0

1 1 0 0 0

3 0.12

6 9 1 0

2 0.1

0 4 4 0

1

0 0 0 0

0

2.62

3.2

0

Free Form Curves Contd.

Bezier’s Curve

difficult to determine the tangents that will yield a

desired shape.

graphics packages and CAD systems.

resulting curve.

Bezier Curves of Different

Degrees

A Bezier Curve Segment

The cubic Bezier

curve is a cubic

curve defined by

four control points

A Bezier Curve Segment

Coordinates of the Points

1 3 3 1 t 3

3 6 3

0 t 2

r t P0 P1 P2 P3 , 0 t 1

3 3 0 0 t

1 0 0 0 1

Tangents

1 3 3 1 3t 2

3 6 3

0 2t

r t P0 P1 P2 P3

3 3 0 0 1

1 0 0 0 0

Worked Example

1 3 3 1 t 3

3 4 8 10

3 6 3 0 t 2

r t 0 0 0 0

3 3 0 0 t

1 4 4 1

1 0 0 0 1

t 3

5 9 3 3 2

0 0 0 0

t

t

0 9 9 1

1

5t 3 9t 2 3t 3

0

9t 2 9t 1

Free Form Curves Contd.

B-Spline Curve

Very popular because they offer more flexibility than

Bezier curves.

inevitably many control points are used

Free Form Curves Contd.

B-Spline Curve

Cox and de Boor suggested the blending functions Ni, k(u)

defined by the recursive formulas

u ti Ni ,k u ti k u Ni 1,k 1 u

Ni ,k u

ti k 1 ti ti k 1 ti

1 t i u ti 1

Ni ,1 u

0 otherwise

Free Form Curves Contd.

B-Spline Curve

The curve based on these blending functions is called the

B-Spline curve and is expressed as:

n

P u Pi N i ,k u tk 1 u tn1

i 0

Free Form Curves Contd.

NURBS

A nonuniform rational B-spline curve

the same blending functions derived from the

nonuniform knots as those of nonuniform B-spline

curves.

spacing, and weights.

best fit a complex shape.

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