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Perubahan Pada Lansia

Biologis Psikologis Sosial Spiritual

Masalah pada Depresi, bunuh diri, Kehilangan Kebenaran

sistem integumen, Gangguan persepsi, kekuasaan, sejati,
neurologi, proses pikir, peran, Menjauhkan
cardiovasculer, Penurunan Penurunan hawa nafsu,
musculoskeletal, sensorium dan prestise, Melaksanakan
respiratori, kognisi, Berkurangnya amanah
gastrointestinal, Gangguan orientasi, komitmen, agama yang
genitourinary, Daya ingat Hambatan dianut
endocrine kontak sosial
1. Orthopnea, dyspnea, shortness of breath (respiratory
infection or disease)
2. Ruddy, pink coloring of face, trunk, limbs (COPD)
3. Bluish gray hue to face and neck (chronic, bronchitis)
4. Asymmetric lung expansion (acute pleurisy, pleural fibrosis,
pleural effusion, pain, fracture ribs)
5. Significant increase anteroposterior diameter that is greater
than lateral diameter (COPD)
6. Crepitus (crunchy feeling to skin resulting from air getting
trapped under epidermis)
7. Crackles, rales (extrainterstitial fluid due to CHF, pulmanary
edema, bronchitis, pneumonia)
8. Rhonchi, ratting (increased mucus production and partial
airway obstruction due to bronchitis, bronchiectasis)
9. Wheezes (presence of large amounts of thick mucus or
narrowing of airway due to asthma, pulmonary stenosis)
10. Pallor, confusion, fatigue, dyspnea (cardiac
11. Confusion, blackouts, fatigue, dizziness
(decreased carotic blood flow, aortic stenosis,
reduced cardiac output, digitalis toxicity)
12. Coughs, wheezes (left-sided heart failure)
13. Hemoptysis (pulmonary embolus, heart
14. Repeated BP > 160/95 (hypertension)
15. Arrhythmias (digitalis toxicity, hypokalemia,
infection, hemorrhage, cardiac disease)
1. Bleeding, irritation of esophagus (esophageal varicosities)
2. Exessive salivation, hiccups, dysphagia, anemia, thirst
3. Heartburn, dysphagia, belching, vomiting, regurgation, pain
4. Weight loss > 5% in last 30 days; > 10% in last 6 months
5. Pink or blue striae (recent stretching due to tumors, ascites,
6. Jaundice (cirrhosis, gallstones, pancreatitis)
7. Rashes (irritation, drug reaction)
8. Small painless nodules (skin cancer)
9. Absent or reduce bowel sounds (late bowel obstruction,
peritonitis, electrolyte imbalances, handling of bowel during
10. Increased bowel sounds (early bowel obstruction,
gastroenteritis, diarrhea)
11. Murmur over abdominal aorta (aneurysm)
12. Infrequent passage of stool, abdominal fullness and
discomfort, lethargy, poor appetite (constipation)
13. Diarrhea or seepage of stool, palpable mass in rectum (fecal
14. Dark, tarry stools, (hemorrhoids, lower GI cancer,
15. Gray, tan, unpigmented stool (obstructive jaundice)
16. Pale, fatty stool (inflammation)
17. Small worms in stool or rectal area (pinworms)
1. Vaginal discharge, odor, irritation, soreness, itching (vaginitis,
moniliasis, trichomoniasis)
2. Protusion of vaginal wall outside vulva, pelvic pressure or
heaviness, urinary tract symptoms (prolapsed uterus, cystocele,
3. Palpable mass (cancer)
4. Dimpling and retraction of nipple; nontender, nonmovable hard
mass in breast (carcinoma)
5. Impotency (stress, depression, drug side-effects, fatigue,
overeating, neuropathy, long period of sexual inactivity)
6. Penile discharge (uretheritis, prostatitis, veneral disease)
7. Crooked, painful erection (peyronies disease)
8. Mass (carcinoma)
9. Scrotal pain, swelling (epididymitis, orchitis, carcinoma)
10. Prostatic enlargement (BPH)
11. Painful, edematous, reddened breast (irritation from suspenders,
12. Incontinence (UTI, BPH, neurogenic bladder, tumor, cerebral cortex
lesion, calculi, medictions, altered cognition)
13. Increase urinary frequency (UTI, diuretic theraphy, increase fluid
intake, diabetes, hypocalcemia, anxiety)
14. Cloudy, alkaline, odorous urine; temperature elevation; frequency
15. Hematuria, pain, sign of UTI (renal calculi)
16. Painless hematuria, sign of UTI (bledder cancer)
17. Yellow-brown or green-brown urine (jaundice, obstructive bile duct)
18. Pink, red, or rust coloured urine (presence of bile, ingestion of
1. Back pain (degenerative arthritis, muscle strain,
2. Joint pain, stiffnes,crepitus, bony
nodules/heberden node (osteoarthritis)
3. Joint pain, stiffnes, redness, warmth,
subcutaneous nodules over bony prominances,
atrophy of surrounding muscle, flexion
constractures (RA)
4. Calf cramps during exercise, relieved by rest
(intermitent claudication)
5. Red, dry, thickened piece of skin over bony
prominance ( corn)
6. Medical allocation of first metatarsophalangeal
joint (digiti flexus / hammer toel)
1. Dimentia : decrease in mental or
cognitive fuctional, following symtomp:
1. Aphasia (language disturbance)
2. Apraxia (impaired ability to perform
3. Agnosia (impaired ability to recognize
object or persons)
2. Dellirium is usually the result of stress,
drug intoxication, sensory overload or
deprivation, or medical condition
Alzheimer’s Disease
1. Cognitive deficits, including memory impairment
2. One or more of the following symptoms:
1. Language disturbance
2. Impairment in ability to perform motor activities
3. Inability to name objects
4. Problem with planning, organizing, or thinking abstrac
3. Significant decline in former level of functioning,
including social or occupational
4. Gradual onset and progressive cognitive decline
5. Cognitive deficits are unrelated to other physical or
mental condition
 Sundown syndrome: increase in
behavior problems such: wondering,
agitation, and disorientation after the sun
goes down.