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Earthquake Engineering

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Yee,

CE, ME-1

18/04/2018 PREPARED BY: KSDY 1

Occupancy Importance Soil Profile Seismic Zone Near Source

Seismic Zone 4

Category Factors Types Factors Factor, Na

(Table 103-1) (Table 208-1) (Table 208-2) (Table 208-3) (Table 208-4)

Earthquake Load

Near Source

Factor, Nv

(Table 208-5)

Compute Base

Coefficient, R Coefficient, Cv Coefficient, Ca

Shear

(Table 208-11A,B,C) (Table 208-8) (Table 208-7)

OCCUPANCY CATEGORIES (TABLE 103-1)

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY OCCUPANCY OR FUNCTION OF STRUCTURE

Occupancies having surgery and emergency treatment areas.

Fire and Police Stations

Garages, Shelters for emergency Vehicles, and emergency aircraft

Structures and Shelters in Emergency Preparedness Centers

Aviation Control Towers

Structures and Equipment in Communication Centers and other

facilities required for emergency response

I – Essential Facilities Facilities for standby power-generating equipment for Category I

structures

Tanks or other structures containing housing or supporting water or

other fire suppression material or equipment required for the

protection of Category I, II, and III structures

Public School Buildings

Hospitals, and

Designated Evacuation Centers

OCCUPANCY CATEGORIES (TABLE 103-1)

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY OCCUPANCY OR FUNCTION OF STRUCTURE

Occupancies and structures housing or supporting toxic or

II – Hazardous explosive chemicals or substances

Facilities Non-building structures storing, supporting or containing quantities

of toxic or explosive substances

OCCUPANCY CATEGORIES (TABLE 103-1)

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY OCCUPANCY OR FUNCTION OF STRUCTURE

Single Story School Buildings

Buildings with an assembly room with an occupant capacity of

1,000 or more

Educational buildings such as museums, libraries, auditorium with a

capacity of 300 or more students,

Buildings used for college or adult education with a capacity of

III-Special Occupancy 500 or more students

Structures Institutional Buildings with 50 or more students

Mental hospitals, sanitariums, jails, prison and other buildings

where personal liberties of inmates are similarly restrained

All structures with an occupancy of 5,000 or more persons

Structures and equipment in power-generating stations, and other

public utility facilities not included in Category I or II and required

for continued operation

OCCUPANCY CATEGORIES (TABLE 103-1)

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY OCCUPANCY OR FUNCTION OF STRUCTURE

All Structures housing occupancies or having functions not listed in

IV- Standard

Category I, II, or III and Category V.

Occupancy Structures

V – Miscellaneous

Structures

207.4.2 OCCUPANCY CATEGORIES

Table 208-1 – Seismic Importance Factors

SEISMIC IMPORTANCE FACTOR,

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY1 SEISMIC IMPORTANCE FACTOR, I

Ip

I. Essential Facilities3 1.50 1.50

II. Hazardous Facilities 1.25 1.50

III. Special Occupancy 1.00 1.00

Structures4

IV. Standard Occupancy 1.00 1.00

Structures4

V. Miscellaneous Structures 1.00 1.00

1 See Table 103-1 for occupancy category listing

2 The limitation of Ip for panel connections in section 208.8.2.3 shall be 1.0 for the entire connector

3 Structural observation requirements are given in section 107.9

4 For anchorage of machinery and equipment required for life-safety systems, the value of Ip shall be

taken as 1.5.

208.4.3 SITE GEOLOGY AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS

Soil profile type will be based on geotechnical data

Exceptions: When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine

the soil profile type, Type SD shall be used.

208.4.3.1 SOIL PROFILE TYPE

Soil profile types SA, SB, SC, SD, and SE are defined in table 208-2.

Type SF is defined as soils requiring site specific evaluation as follows:

Soil vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under seismic loading, such as liquefiable soils, quick and

highly sensitive clays, and collapsible weakly cemented soils

Peats and/or highly organic clays, where the thickness of peat or highly organic clay exceeds 3.0m

Very high plasticity clays with plasticity index, PI>75, where the depth of clay exceeds 7.5m

Very thick soft/medium stiff clay, where the depth of clay exceeds 35m.

TABLE 208-2 – SOIL PROFILE TYPES

SOIL PROFILE SHEAR WAVE

SOIL PROFILE SPT, N (blows/300 Undrained Shear

NAME/GENERIC VELOCITY, Vs

TYPE mm) Strength Sv (kPa)

DESCRIPTION (m/s)

Very Dense Soil

SC 360 to 760 > 50 > 100

and Soft Rock

SD Stiff Soil Profile 180 to 360 15 to 50 50 to 100

1 Soil Profile Type SE also includes any soil profile with more than 3.0 m of soft clay defined as a

soil with plasticity index, PI>20, WMC ≥ 40% and Su < 24 kPa. The plasticity index, PI, and

moisture content, WMC, shall be determined in accordance with approved national standards.

18/04/2018 PREPARED BY: KSDY 10

208.4.3.1.1.2.1 VS, AVERAGE SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY

208.4.3.1.1.2.2 N, AVERAGE FIELD STANDARD PENETRATION RESISTANCE AND NCH,

AVERAGE STANDARD PENETRATION RESISTANCE FOR COHESIONLESS SOIL LAYERS

208.4.3.1.1.2.3 SU, AVERAGE UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH

TABLE 208-3 – SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR Z

Zone 2 4

Z 0.20 0.40

18/04/2018 PREPARED BY: KSDY 15

18/04/2018 PREPARED BY: KSDY 16

TABLE 208-4 SEISMIC SOURCE TYPES1

Seismic Source Definition

Seismic Source Type Seismic Source Description

Max. Magnitude Moment, M

Faults that are capable of producing

A large magnitude events and that have 7.0 ≤ M ≤ 8.4

a high rate of seismic activity

B All faults other than types A and C 6.5 ≤ M < 7.0

Faults that are not capable of

producing large magnitude

C M < 6.5

earthquakes and that have a

relatively low rate of seismic activity

1 Subduction sources shall be evaluated on a site-specific basis.

SEC 208.4.4.3 SEISMIC ZONE 4 NEAR-SOURCE FACTOR

In seismic Zone 4, each site shall be assigned near-source factors in accordance with

tables 208-5 and 208-6 based on the seismic source type.

The value of Na used to determine Ca need not to exceed 1.1 for structures complying

with all the following conditions:

The Soil profile is Sa, Sb, Sc, or Sd.

Ρ=1.0

Except in single story structures, residential building accommodating 10 or fewer

persons, private garages, carports, sheds and agricultural buildings, moment frame

systems designated as part of the lateral-force-resisting system shall be special

moment-resisting frame

TABLE 208-5 NEAR SOURCE FACTOR NA Notes for Tables 208-4 and

208-5:

1 The Near-Source Factor

Seismic Closest Distance to Known Seismic Source1 may be based on the linear

Source interpolation of values for

Type ≤ 2 km ≤ 5 km ≥ 10 km

distances other than those

shown in the table

A 1.5 1.2 1.0

2 The closest distance to

B 1.3 1.0 1.0 seismic source shall be

taken as the minimum

C 1.0 1.0 1.0

distance between the site

and the area described by

TABLE 208-6 NEAR SOURCE FACTOR NV the vertical projection of

the source on the surface

Seismic Closest Distance to Known Seismic Source2 (i.e. surface projection of

the fault plane). The surface

Source

≤ 2 km ≤ 5 km 10 km ≥ 15 km projection need not include

Type portions of the source at

A 2.0 1.6 1.2 1.0 depths of 10km or greater.

The largest value of the

B 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.0 near-source factor

C 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 considering all sources

18/04/2018

shall be used PREPARED

for design.

BY: KSDY 19

TABLE 208-7 SEISMIC COEFFICIENT, CA

Seismic Zone, Z

Soil Profile Type

Z = 0.2 Z = 0.4

Sa 0.16 0.32Na

Sb 0.20 0.40Na

Sc 0.24 0.40Na

Sd 0.28 0.44Na

Se 0.34 0.44Na

Sf See Footnote 1 of table 208-8

TABLE 208-8 SEISMIC COEFFICIENT, CV

Seismic Zone, Z

Soil Profile Type

Z = 0.2 Z = 0.4

Sa 0.16 0.32Na

Sb 0.20 0.40Na

Sc 0.32 0.56Na

Sd 0.40 0.64Na

Se 0.64 0.96Na

Sf See Footnote 1 of table 208-8

1 Site specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis shall be

performed to determined seismic coefficients

208.4.5 CONFIGURATION REQUIREMENTS

208.4.5.1 Regular Structures

Regular Structures have no significant physical discontinuities in plan or vertical configuration or

in their lateral-force-resisting systems such as the irregular features described in section 208.4.5.2.

Irregular Structures have significant physical discontinuities in configuration or in their lateral-force-

resisting systems. Irregular features include, but are not limited to, those described in tables 208-9

and 208-10. All structures in occupancy categories 4 and 5 in seismic zone 2 need to be

evaluated only for vertical irregularities of type 5 (table 208-9) and horizontal irregularities of

type 1 (table 208-10)

Structures having any of the features listed in table 208-9 shall be designated as if having a

vertical irregularity.

Structures having any of the features listed in table 208-10 shall be designated as having a plan

irregularity.

TABLE 208-9 VERTICAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES

Reference

Irregularity Type and Definitions

Section

1. Stiffness Irregularity – Soft Storey

A soft storey is one in which the lateral

stiffness is less than 70% of that in the 208.4.8.3

storey above or less than 80 percent of Item 2

the average stiffness of the three stories

above.

TABLE 208-9 VERTICAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES

Reference

Irregularity Type and Definitions

Section

2. Weight (Mass) Irregularity

Mass Irregularity shall be considered to

exist where the effective mass of any

208.4.8.3

storey is more than 150% of the

Item 2

effective mass of an adjacent storey. A

roof that is lighter than the floor below

need not be considered

TABLE 208-9 VERTICAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES

Reference

Irregularity Type and Definitions

Section

3. Vertical Geometric Irregularity

Vertical Geometric Irregularity shall be

considered to exist where the horizontal

208.4.8.3

dimension of the lateral-force-resisting

Item 2

system in any storey is more than 130%

of that in an adjacent storey. One-storey

penthouses need not to be considered

TABLE 208-9 VERTICAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES

Reference

Irregularity Type and Definitions

Section

4. In-Plane Discontinuity In Vertical Lateral-

Force-Resisting Element Irregularity

An in-plane offset of the lateral-load- 208.5.8.1.5.1

resisting elements greater than the length

of those elements

TABLE 208-9 VERTICAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES

Reference

Irregularity Type and Definitions

Section

5. Discontinuity In Capacity-Weak Storey

Irregularity

A weak storey is one in which the storey

strength is less than 80% of that in the

208.4.9.1

storey above. The storey strength is the

total strength of all seismic-resisting

elements sharing the storey for the

direction under consideration.

TABLE 208-10 HORIZONTAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES

Reference

Irregularity Type and Definitions

Section

1. Torsional Irregularity – To Be

Considered When Diaphragms Are

Not Flexible

Torsional irregularity shall be

considered to exist when the

208.7.2.7

maximum storey drift, computed

Item 6

including accidental torsion, at one

end of the structure transverse to an

axis is more than 1.2 times the

average of the storey drifts of the

two ends of the structure

TABLE 208-10 HORIZONTAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES

Reference

Irregularity Type and Definitions

Section

2. Re-Entrant Corner Irregularity

Plan configurations of a structure and

its lateral-force-resisting system

contain re-entrant corners, where both 208.7.2.7

projections of the structure beyond a Item 6 and 7

re-entrant corner are greater than

15% of the plan dimension of the

structure in the given direction

TABLE 208-10 HORIZONTAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES

Reference

Irregularity Type and Definitions

Section

3. Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity

Diaphragms with abrupt

discontinuities or variations in stiffness,

including those having cutout or open

208.7.2.7

areas greater than 50% of the gross

Item 6

enclosed area of the diaphragm, or

changes in effective diaphragm

stiffness of more than 50% from one

storey to the next.

TABLE 208-10 HORIZONTAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES

Reference

Irregularity Type and Definitions

Section

4. Out-Of-Plane Offsets Irregularity

208.5.8.5.1,

Discontinuities in lateral force path,

208.7.2.7

such as out-of-plane offsets of the

Item 6

vertical elements

TABLE 208-10 HORIZONTAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES

Reference

Irregularity Type and Definitions

Section

3. Non-Parallel Systems Irregularity

The vertical lateral-load-resisting

elements are not parallel to or

208.7.1

symmetric about the major orthogonal

axes of the lateral force-resisting

systems

TABLE 208-11A EARTHQUAKE-FORCE RESISTING STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS OF CONCRETE

TABLE 208-11B EARTHQUAKE-FORCE RESISTING STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS OF STEEL

TABLE 208-11B EARTHQUAKE-FORCE RESISTING STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS OF STEEL

TABLE 208-11C EARTHQUAKE-FORCE RESISTING STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS OF MASONRY

TABLE 208-11D EARTHQUAKE-FORCE RESISTING STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS OF WOOD

208.4.8.1 SIMPLIFIED STATIC

The simplified static lateral-force procedure set forth in Section 208.5.1 may be

used for the following structures of Occupancy Category IV or V:

Buildings of any occupancy (including single-family dwellings) not more than three

stories in height excluding basements that use light-frame constructions.

Other buildings not more than two stories in height excluding basements.

208.5.1 SIMPLIFIED STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE

208.5.1.1 SIMPLIFIED DESIGN BASE SHEAR

The total design base shear in a given direction shall be determined from the

following equation:

Where the value of Ca is based on table 208-7 for the soil profile type.

When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the soil

profile type, type Sd shall be used in Seismic Zone 4, and type Se shall be used in

Seismic Zone 2. In Seismic Zone 4, the Near-Source Factor, Na, need not to be

greater than 1.2 if none of the following structural irregularities are present:

1. Type 1, 4, or 5 of table 208-9

2. Type 1 or 4 of table 208-10

208.5.1 SIMPLIFIED STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE

208.5.1.2 VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION

The forces at each level shall be calculated using the following equation:

208.5.1 SIMPLIFIED STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE

208.5.1.3 HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION

The design storey Vx, in any storey is the sum of the forces Ft and Fx above

that storey. Vx shall be distributed to the various elements of vertical lateral force-

resisting system in proportion to their rigidities.

If structure is regular, the mass at each level shall be assumed to be

displaced from the calculated center of mass in each direction a distance equal to

5 percent of the building dimension at that level perpendicular to the direction of

force under consideration.

208.5.1 SIMPLIFIED STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE

208.5.1.4 HORIZONTAL TORSIONAL MOMENTS

The torsional design moment at a given storey shall be the moment resulting from

eccentricities between applied design lateral forces at levels above that storey and the

vertical-resisting elements in that storey plus an accidental torsion.

When torsional irregularity exists, as defined in table 208-10, the effects shall be

accounted for by increasing the accidental torsion each level by an amplification factor,

Ax, determined from the following equation:

where;

208.4.8.2 STATIC

The static lateral force procedure of Section 208.5 may be used for the following

structures:

1. All structures regular or irregular in Occupancy Categories IV and V in seismic Zone 2.

2. Regular Structures under 75m in height with lateral force resistance provided by systems

listed in table 208-11, except where section 208.4.8.3, Item 4, applies.

3. Irregular structures not more than five stories or 20m in height.

4. Structures having a flexible upper portion supported on a rigid lower portion where

both portions of the structures considered separately can be classified as being regular,

the average storey stiffness of the lower portion is at least 10 times the average storey

stiffness of the upper portion and the period of the entire structure is not greater than 1.1

times the period of the upper portion considered as a separate structure fixed at the

base.

208.5.2 STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE

208.5.2.1 DESIGN BASE SHEAR

The total design base shear in given direction shall be determined from the

following equations:

The total design base shear need not exceed the following:

The total design base shear shall not be less than the following:

In addition, for Seismic Zone 4, the total base shear shall also not be less than the

following:

208.5.2 STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE

208.5.2.2 STRUCTURE PERIOD

The value of T shall be determined from one of the following methods:

I. Method A:

For all buildings, the value of T maybe approximated from the following equation:

208.5.2 STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE

208.5.2.2 STRUCTURE PERIOD

Method B:

The fundamental period T may be computed using the following equation:

The values of represent any lateral force distributed approximately in accordance with

the principles of equations. 208-15, 208-16, and 208-17 or any other rational

distribution. The elastic deflections, , shall be calculated using the applied lateral forces,

.

The value of T form Method B shall not exceed a value 30 percent greater than the value

of T obtained from Method A in Seismic Zone 4, and 40 percent in Seismic Zone 2.

208.5.2 STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE

208.5.2.3 VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FORCE

The total force shall be distributed over the height of the structure in conformance with

equations 208-15, 208-16, and 208-17 in the absence of a more rigorous procedure:

The concentrated force Ft at the top, which is in addition to Fn, shall be determined from

the equation:

Ft need not exceed 0.25V and maybe considered as zero where T Is 0.7seconds or less.

208.5.2 STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE

208.5.2.3 VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FORCE

The remaining portion of the base shear shall be distributed over the height of the

structure, including level n, according to the following equations:

At each level designated as x, the force Fx shall be applied over the area of the

building in accordance with the mass distribution at that level. Structural displacements and

design seismic forces shall be calculated as the effect of forces Fx and Ft applied at the

appropriate levels above the base.

208.4.8.3 DYNAMIC

The dynamic lateral-force procedure of section 208.5.3 shall be used for all other

structures, including the following:

1. Structures 75m or more in height, except as permitted by section 208.4.8.2, item I.

2. Structure having a stiffness, weight or geometric vertical irregularity of Type 1, 2, or 3,

as defined in table 208-9

3. Structures over five stories or 20m in height in seismic zone 4 not having the same

structural system throughout their height except as permitted by section 208.3.2.

4. Structures, regular or irregular, located on soil profile type Sf, that have a period

greater than 0.7s. The analysis shall include the effects of soils at the site and shall

conform to Section 208.5.3.2, Item 4.

208.5.3 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

208.5.3.4 DESCRIPTION OF ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

Time History Analysis – an analysis of the dynamic response of a structure at each

increment of time when the base is subjected to a specific ground motion time history.

dynamic response of all modes having a significant contribution to total structural

response.

208.6.1 EARTHQUAKE LOADS

Structures shall be designed for ground motion producing structural response and seismic

forces in any horizontal direction. The following earthquake loads shall be sued in the load

combinations set forth in section 203:

Where:

E = earthquake load on an element of the structure resulting from the combination

of the horizontal component, Eh, and the vertical component, Ev.

Eh = the earthquake load due to the base shear, V, as set forth in section 208.5.2

or the design lateral force, Fp, as set forth in section 208.9

Em = estimated maximum earthquake force that can be developed in the structure

as set forth in section 208.6.1, and used in the design of specific elements of the structure,

as specifically identified in this section.

18/04/2018 PREPARED BY: KSDY 51

208.6.1 EARTHQUAKE LOADS

Ev = the load effect resulting from the vertical component of the earthquake

ground motion and is equal to an addition of 0.5CaID to the dead load effect D, for

strength design, and may be taken as zero in Allowable stress design.

Ωo = the seismic force amplification factor that is required to account for structural

overstrength, as set forth in section 208.4.10.1

ρ = Reliability and redundancy factor as given by the following equation:

where:

rmax = the max. element-storey shear ratio. For a given direction of

loading, the element-storey shear ratio of the design storey shear in the most heavilty

loaded single element divided by the total design storey shear.

208.6.3 PΔ EFFECTS

The resulting member forces and moments and the storey drifts induced by PΔ

effects shall be considered in the evaluation of overall structural frame stability and shall

be evaluated using the forces producing the displacements of Δs. PΔ need not to be

considered when the ratio of secondary moment to primary moment does not exceed

0.10; the ratio may be evaluated for any storey as the product of the total dead and

floor live loads, as required in Section 203, above the storey times the seismic shear in that

storey times the height of that storey.

In seismic zone 4, PΔ need not to be considered when the storey drift ratio does not

exceed 0.02/R.

208.6.4 DRIFT

ΔS = Design Level Response Displacement, which is the total drift or total storey drift that

occurs when the structure is subjected to the design seismic forces, mm

ΔM = Max. Inelastic Response Displacement, which is the total dirft or total storey drift

that occurs when the structure is subjected to the Design Basis Ground Motion, including elastic

and inelastic contributions to the total deformation defined in Section 208.6.4.2, mm

208.6.5 STOREY DRIFT LIMITATION

Storey Drift Limitation - displacement of one level relative to the level above or below.

208.6.5.1 Calculated

Calculated storey drift using ΔM shall not exceed 0.025 times the storey height for

structures having a fundamental period of less than 0.70 sec. For structures having a fundamental

period of 0.70 sec or greater, the calculated storey drift shall not exceed 0.20 times the storey

height.

203.3 LOAD COMBINATIONS USING STRENGTH DESIGN

203.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS USING ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

203.4.1 Basic Load Combination 203.4.1 Alternative Basic Load Combination

203.5 SPECIAL SEISMIC LOAD COMBINATIONS

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