Before an

organization can fill a job vacancy, it must find people who:  Are qualified for the position  Want the job refers to:  Organizational activities that influence the number and types of applicants who apply for a job, and  Whether the applicants accept jobs that are offered 




is often the first contact between the organization and a prospective employee  Create a positive first impression the coming years, the importance of recruitment will increase  A tight labor market will plague organizations of all sizes  Many companies have developed retention strategies 




hether people respond to the recruiting effort depends on the attitudes they have toward:

tasks The organization 

difficult the recruiting job is depends on such things as:  Government and union restrictions  The labor market  The employer¶s requirements  Candidates¶ preferences


Government and Union Restrictions 

determine if an organization has violated the law, government agencies review:  Recruitment sources  Recruiting advertising  Estimates of the firm¶s employment needs for the coming year  The number of applicants processed by demographic and job category  The evidence was used to verify the legal right to work


Government and Union Restrictions 

recruiting practices:  Establish general guidelines for recruiters  Make sure applicants complete, sign, and date an employment application  Use outcome-oriented job descriptions  Use an offer letter than outlines the commitments the organization is prepared to keep  State that employment is ³at-will´  List salary, frequency of pay increases, and benefits  State conditions to which employment may be subject


Government and Union Restrictions 

Immigration Reform and Control Acting (IRCA) of 1986 requires employers to:  Screen applicants¶ eligibility for employment  Maintain records demonstrating employment authorization  The government plans to step up enforcement of the IRCA


Government and Union Restrictions 

features of the IRCA fall into four categories:  Employer¶s duties:  Avoid recruiting, hiring, or continuing to employ unauthorized aliens  Verify the identity/work authorization of new employees  Avoid discrimination on the basis of citizenship or national origin  Amnesty rights: Certain illegal aliens are eligible for temporary or permanent resident status


Labor Market Conditions 

there is a surplus of labor at recruiting time, even informal attempts will attract sufficient applicants  When full employment is nearly reached, skillful and prolonged recruiting may be necessary  The state of the economy also affects how many applicants are available current employment picture can be researched through:  The federal Department of Labor  State divisions of employment security and labor  Boards and journals 



Composition of Labor Force & Location 

legal requirements increase, it becomes more important to analyze workforce composition  Determine whether the firm¶s employment practices are discriminatory  The number of minorities in the workforce also depends on the number of minorities in the labor market aggressive diversity management program is essential  Diversity leads to enhanced competitiveness, higher productivity, and increased customer satisfaction 



Interaction of Recruits & the Organization 

There is

a complex interaction between job applicants and the organization trying to hire them  The techniques used and sources of recruits vary with the job  An applicant¶s abilities and past work experience affect how they go about seeking a job


The Organization¶s View of Recruiting 

that affect recruiting from the viewpoint of the organization:  The recruiting requirements set  Organizational policies and procedures  The organization¶s image


Recruiting Requirements 

process begins with a detailed job description and job specification  Without these, it is impossible for recruiters to determine how well any applicant fits the job  The recruiter must know which requirements are essential and which are merely desirable  This helps avoid unrealistic expectations


Organizational Policies and Practices 

policies and practices can affect recruiting  One of the most significant is hiring from within  Many organizations recruit from outside only at the initial hiring level  Most employees favor this approach  Some employers feel it helps protect trade secrets  However, an organization may become so stable that it is set in its ways  Other factors include favoring the disabled, veterans, or ex-convicts, and nepotism


Organizational Image 


else being equal, it is easier for an organization with a positive image to attract and retain employees  Recruitment is also easier for organizations with a strong community presence or positive name recognition


Organizational Image 

job specifications preferred by an organization may have to be adjusted to meet the realities of:  The labor market  Government or union restrictions  Its policies and procedures  Its image too few high-quality people apply for a job:  The job may have to be adjusted to fit the best applicant, or  Recruiting efforts will have to be increased 



Potential Employee¶s View of Recruiting 

applicant¶s abilities, attitudes, and preferences are based on:  Past work experiences  The influence of parents, teachers, and others recruits in two ways:  How they set their job preferences  How they go about seeking a job 

These factors affect


Preferences of Recruits 
Recruits often

have a set of job preferences:  Education and skill levels  Geographic location  Salary levels  Advancement opportunities  Such a recruit may not find the ³ideal´ job  The number of college-level job openings between now and 2008 will nearly equal the number of college-educated entrants to the labor force  However, approximately 6 million college graduates will still be unemployed or under-employed


Preferences of Recruits 
Other barriers to

finding the ideal job:  Economic conditions  Government and union restrictions  Organizational policies and practices 

From the

individual¶s point of view, choosing an organization involves:  Choosing an occupation  Choosing an organization to work for within the broader occupation


Preferences of Recruits 
Occupational choice is

most heavily influenced by

parents, followed by:  Teachers  Career counselors  Friends  Relatives 
Organizational choice is  Corporate image  Corporate size
Satisfaction with the communication during recruitment is critical

influenced by:


Job Search: The Recruit 
People who

successfully find the ³right job´ tend to follow similar job search processes:  Self-assessment  Information gathering  Networking  Targeting specific jobs  Successful self-presentation


Job Search: The Recruit 

purpose of self-assessments is to recognize your:  Career goals  Strengths and weaknesses  Interests and values  Preferred lifestyles 

Information gathering and

networking are ways to generate lists of potential employers and jobs  Information sources include newspapers, trade publications, college recruitment offices, organizational ³insiders,´ and the Internet


Job Search: The Recruit
the job seeker has decided where to send a resume, self-presentation becomes critical  Recruiters want resumes and cover letters that are tailored to the position and are truthful  The cover letter and resume should include:  The position you seek  Your specific job objectives  Your career objectives  The reason you seek employment  Indication that you know something about the organization 


Job Search: The Recruit 

all job seekers provide a truthful resume:  Up to 95 percent of college students are willing to be less than truthful when searching for a job  In the long run, little can be gained; falsification of an application is typically grounds for dismissal seekers prepare carefully for 

Successful job

interviews  Learn as much about the company as possible  Use ³impression management´ tactics


Methods of Recruiting 

organizations must use both internal and external sources to generate sufficient applicants  When there is an inadequate supply within the organization, it must seek external candidates  The choice of a recruiting method can make all the difference in the success of the recruiting effort


Internal Recruiting 

Posting  Skills inventories can be used to identify internal applicants for job vacancies  It is hard to identify everyone who might be interested in the opening, so firms use job posting and bidding  Today, postings are computerized and easily accessible to employees via the company¶s intranet  Software allows employees to match an available job with their skills and experience  It may also highlight where gaps exist


Internal Recruiting 

Moonlighting and Employees¶ Friends  Inside moonlighting may be used when there is:  A short-term shortage  No great amount of additional work  Workers can be enticed to take a ³second´ job with bonuses  Moonlighting is so common at some organizations that HR departments issue moonlighting policies


Internal Recruiting 

Moonlighting and Employees¶ Friends  Before going outside to recruit, many organizations ask employees to encourage friends and relatives to apply  Some offer ³finders fees´ for successful referrals  Employee referrals should be used cautiously, especially if the workforce is already racially or culturally imbalanced


External Recruiting 

are an important source of applicants  As labor shortages increase, however, organizations must become more proactive in their recruiting efforts be done through: 
Media advertising  E-recruiting  Employment agencies  Executive search firms  Special-events recruiting  Internships
Some job seekers reverse the process: they advertise for a situation wanted 

External recruiting can


Media Advertising 

include:  Newspapers  Trade/professional publications  Billboards  Subway and bus cards  Radio  Telephone  Television


Media Advertising 

developing a recruitment advertisement, begin with the corporate image  Effective recruiting is consistent with overall corporate image  Recorded want ads are an innovative way to attract applicants must be carefully prepared  Media must be chosen, coded for study, and analyzed for impact afterward  Including diversity in ads helps attract applicants from diverse populations 

Help-wanted ads



Internet has revolutionized organizational recruitment practices  30,000 websites are devoted to job posting activities  However, 71 percent of all job listings are on a handful of the ³big boards´ 

CareerBuilder.com, HotJobs.com,

These websites saw

huge increases in resumes posted and visitors in the first month of 2005  Over 96 percent of all U.S. companies now use the Internet for recruitment activities



Internet is a popular recruitment tool because:  It is relatively inexpensive  It provides immediate access to thousands of prospective applicants  It allows searches over broad geographic and company postings  Some online services, like CareerPath.com, catalog traditional newspaper recruiting ads  Specialized sites focus on particular fields or areas  Having a human resources Web page is an effective addition to an overall recruitment strategy


Employment Agencies/Executive Search 
Executive search firms:  Focus on

higher-level managerial positions with salaries of $50,000+  Are on retainer  Charge higher fees 

Organizations pay the higher fees because executive search firms guarantee confidentiality

agencies:  Deal primarily with middle-level management and below  Are paid only when they have provided a new hire


Special Events Recruiting 
Organizations attract


with special events:  Open houses  Scheduled visits to headquarters  Informative literature  Hospitality suites  Speeches  Job fairs


Special Events Recruiting 
Job fairs:  Can reduce recruiting costs

by up to 80 percent  May be scheduled on holidays or weekends to reach college students and the currently employed  Are especially useful for smaller, less well known employers  Appeal to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time


Summer Internships 

Organizations hire

students as interns during the summer or part time during the school year  The use of interns is dramatically increasing  Nearly 1 in 3 students at four-year universities will intern before graduating


Summer Internships 
Internship programs

have a number of purposes:  Allows organizations to get specific projects done  Exposes organizations to talented, potential employees who may become ³recruiters´ at school  Provides trial-run employment  Can attract the best people where there are labor shortages  Can improve diversity


Summer Internships 
From the

student¶s point of view:  An internship means a job with pay  It provides real work experience  There is the potential of a future job  It offers a chance to use one¶s talents in a realistic environment  It may offer course credit hours


Summer Internships 
There are

costs to internships:  Interns take up a lot of supervisory time  Their work is not always the best 


students expect everything to be perfect  When it is not, they become disillusioned  Disillusioned students become reverse recruiters


College Recruiting 
College recruiting can

be difficult, time consuming,

and expensive  The typical recruiting sequence:  Students register at the college placement office  During the recruiting season, candidates are told of scheduled visits  At the placement service, they reserve interviews and pick up brochures/literature about the firms  The preliminary interviews are held  Before leaving campus, the recruiter invites chosen candidates to make a site visit


College Recruiting 

who are invited to the site:  Are given more job information  Meet potential supervisors and other executives  Are entertained  May be tested 


the visit goes well:  The student is given an offer  Bargaining may take place on salary and benefits  The candidate accepts or rejects the offer


The Effective College Recruiter 
People who  Peers  Family  Spouse  Friends  Professors  Recruiters  The

influence the applicant¶s job choices:

recruiter is the filter and the matcher, and is an extension of the organization


The Effective College Recruiter 

good recruiter:  Is outgoing, self-motivated, and a good salesperson  Has well-developed interpersonal skills  Is familiar with the company they represent  Characteristics students prefer in a recruiter:  Work experience in their specialties  Personal knowledge of the university  Friendliness and knowledge  Personal interest in the applicant  Truthfulness  Enthusiastic communicator


The Effective College Recruiter 
Major flaws

that students find in recruiters:  Lack of interest in the applicant  Lack of enthusiasm  Interviews that are stressful or too personal  Insufficient time allocation and do make a difference  However, applicant¶s decisions are affected more by the characteristics of the job and the organization 

Recruiters can


Realistic Job Previews 

recruiters provide realistic expectations about the job, turnover of new employees is lower  Most recruiters, however, give glowing descriptions of the company is more effective when realistic job previews (RJPs) are used  Pertinent information about the job is given, without distortion or exaggeration  Most jobs have unattractive features; the RJP presents the full picture 



Realistic Job Previews

Set s in it ia l jo b e x p ect a t io n s t o o h ig h . Jo b is t y p ic a lly v iew ed a s a t t r a ct iv e, st im u la t in g , a n d ch a lle n g in g . H ig h r a t e o f a ccep t a n ce o f jo b o ffer s. W o r k ex p er ien ce d is co n fir m s ex p e ct a t io n s D iss a t isfa ct io n a n d r ea liza t io n t h a t jo b is n o t m a t ch ed t o n e ed s. L o w jo b su r v iv a l, d is sa t is fa c t io n , fr eq u en t t h o u g h t s o f q u it t in g.

Set s jo b ex p ect a t io n s r ea list ica lly. Jo b m a y o r m a y n o t b e a t t r a ct iv e , d ep en d in g o n in d iv id u a l¶ n e ed s . s So m e a cce p t , s o m e r e ject jo b o ffer. W o r k ex p er ien ce co n fir m s ex p e ct a t io n s Sa t is fa c t io n ; n eed s m a t ch ed t o jo b .

H ig h jo b su r v iv a l, sa t is fa c t io n , in fr eq u e n t t h o u g h t s o f q u it t in g.

F ig 7 -3


Realistic Job Previews 

indicate that:  Newly hired employees who received RJPs have a higher rate of job survival  Employees hired after RJPs have higher satisfaction  RJPs can set the job expectations at realistic levels  RJPs do not reduce the flow of capable applicants have beneficial effects  However, there is uncertainty as to why they have the effects they do and in what contexts they are most effective 



Alternatives to Recruitment 
Overtime  Organizations avoid the

cost of recruiting and having

additional employees  Employees earn additional income  Potential problems include fatigue, higher accident rates, and increased absenteeism  Continuous overtime often results in higher labor costs and reduced productivity


Alternatives to Recruitment 
Outsourcing  Sometimes called ³staff

sourcing´  Involves paying a fee to a leasing company or professional employer organization (PEO) that handles payroll, benefits, and routine HRM functions  Especially attractive to small and midsize firms that can¶t afford a full-service HR department  Can save 15 to 30 percent of benefit costs  Exercise care when choosing a leasing company; many are financially unstable


Alternatives to Recruitment 
Temporary Employment

of the most noticeable effects of the downsizing epidemic and labor shortages of the past two decades  ³Just-in-time´ employees staff all types of jobs (professional, technical, and executive positions)  Nearly 7,000 temporary employment agencies in the U.S. have been in business for more than one year 


Alternatives to Recruitment 
Major advantages of

using temporary workers:  Relatively low labor costs  Easily accessible source of experience labor  Flexibility 


cost advantage stems from the fact that temporary workers do not receive:  Fringe benefits  Training  A compensation and career plan
Temp workers do not know the culture or work flow of the firm


Cost-Benefit Analysis of Recruiting 

aspects of recruitment can be evaluated  Recruiters can be assigned goals by type of employee  Sources of recruits can be evaluated by dividing the number of job acceptances by the number of campus interviews  Methods of recruiting can be evaluated along various dimensions, such as the cost of the method divided by the number of job offer acceptances


Cost-Benefit Analysis of Recruiting 

quality of a new hire can be evaluated using the formula QH = (PR + HP + HR)/N QH = quality of recruits hired PR = average job performance ratings HP = percent of new hires promoted within one year HR = percent of hires retained after one year N = number of indicators used 


caution when using the quality-of-hire measure to evaluate the recruitment strategy  Good employees can be lost for reasons that have nothing to do with recruiter effectiveness

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