H ELMI N THS

PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES

General Characteristics
‡ Flatworms ‡ Triploblastic, acoelomate bilateral symmetrical ‡ Exhibit some degree of cephalization (dorsoventrally flattened)

Locomotion

Outer Body Covering
‡ Covered by a ciliated epidermis ‡ Epidermal cells contain rod-shaped structures (rhabdites) ‡ Others is non-ciliated tegument ‡ Tegument is referred to as syncytial epithelium

Digestive System
‡ Free-living (carnivores or scavengers) that have digestive cavity, mouth and pharynx ‡ The branching intestines, with only one opening, is a blind system ‡ Parasitic that do not have a complete digestive system

Excretory System
‡ Thin bodies allow for materials to diffuse (respiration, excretion etc.) ‡ Protonephridia (flame cells) that specialized to remove excess water

Nervous System
‡ Nervous system includes anterior cerebral ganglia, longitudinal nerve cords and some lateral nerves ‡ Possess a variety of sensory organs (eyespots, statocysts, rheoreceptors)

Reproductive System
‡ Most are capable of some form of asexual reproduction (fission) ‡ Most are hermaphroditic

Platyhelminth Taxonomy
‡ Mostly free-living flatworms ± Class Turbellaria ‡ Solely parasitic species ± Class Monogenea (Flukes) ± Class Trematoda (Flukes) ± Class Cestoidea (Tapeworms)

Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Turbellaria
‡ Mostly free living and aquatic ‡ Most move by means of cilia and mucous ‡ Carnivores ‡ Hermaphrodites but exhibit crossfertilization through hypodermic impregnation

Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Monogenea
‡ Monogenetic flukes ‡ Mostly ectoparasites on vertebrates ‡ One life cycle form in only one host ‡ Bear opisthaptor

Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Trematoda
‡ Digenetic flukes that live as parasites ‡ Outer body lacks cilia, tegument has a layer of glycoprotiens ‡ Possess 2 suckers:
± Oral sucker ± Ventral sucker/acetabulum

Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Cestoda
‡ Parasitic tapeworms ‡ Anterior region with scolex often armed with suckers and hooks ‡ Extending from neck is proglottids with no digestive system

Platyhelminths
‡ Turbellarian
± Dugesia sp. (Planarian)

‡ Trematodes
± Clonorchis sinensis (Chinese liver fluke) ± Schistosoma japonicum (Blood flukes) ± Fasciola hepatica (Sheep liver flukes)

‡ Cestodes
± Taenia solium (Pork tapeworms)

PHYLUM NEMATODA

General Characteristics
‡ Roundworms ‡ Unsegmented worm ‡ Acoelome or Pseudocoelom ‡ Radial symmetry ‡ Marine, freshwater, soil and internal parasite

Locomotion

Excretory System
‡ Consist of one or two single glands called renette cells ‡ Functions:
± Excretion of metabolic waste ± Osmoregulation ± Secretion and export of hormones to target tissues

Digestive and Reproductive System
‡ Complete digestive system
± Stomodeum ± Intestine ± proctodeum

‡ Reproduction usually sexual involves internal fertilization ‡ Females are larger than males

Nervous System
‡ Have simple nervous system, with main ventral and smaller dorsal nerve cords ‡ Nematodes have amphids and phasmids ‡ Amphids are on the anterior ‡ Phasmids are on the posterior end

Nematodes
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ascaris lumbricoides (eelworm) Trichinella spiralis (whipworm) Necator americanus (New World hookworm) Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) Wuchereria bancrofti

PHYLUM ANNELIDA

General Characteristics
‡ Protostomia, eucoelomates ‡ Metamerism
± Have prostomium and pygidium ± Separated from next bt a septum ± Bears one or more chitinous bristles (setae)

Locomotion
‡ On each side of the animal is a parapod (parapodia) consisting of fleshy lobes which are supported by chitinous rods ‡ Each parapod have setae which can be sharp (protection) and aid in locomotion

Digestive Systems
‡ Have a true coelom ‡ Complete, complex with typhlosole and chloragogen cells ‡ Typhlosole acts for absorption ‡ Chloragogen cells acting as digestive gland and excretory cells

Repiratory, Urogenital Systems
‡ Respiration through skin or parapodia, tubeworms have gills ‡ Excretion thru a pair of nephridia per segment (metanephridia) ‡ Dioecious (Polychaeta) and monoecious (Oligochaeta, Hirudinea)

Nervous, Circulatory Systems
‡ Consists of a brain, which is connected to a pair of ventral longitudinal nerve cords, with a ganglion in each segment ‡ Closed circulatory system with several hearts (5 in earthworms)

Annelids Taxonomy

Phylum Annelida Class Polychaeta
‡ Marine worms ‡ Each segment is equipped with a pair of fleshy paddle like structures (parapodia) ‡ Parapodia contain a large number of setae ‡ Prostomium is well equipped with sensory and feeding structures

Phylum Annelida Class Oligochaeta
‡ Prostomium lacks sensory structures ‡ Parapodia are absent, each segment contains one or more pairs of setae ‡ Digestive tract shows specialization along its length

Mouth Pharynx Crop (food storage) Gizzard (grinding) Calciferous glands (excrete calcium from the food)

Phylum Annelida Class Hirudinea
‡ Body is dorsoventrally flattened ‡ Anterior segments are modified as small sucker ‡ Setae are completely absent ‡ Evidence of segmentation externally but no internal septa

Phylum Annelida Class Hirudinea
‡ Most leeches are active predators, however some are parasitic, bloodsucking forms ‡ Blood suckers have blade like jaws that they use to penetrate the skin of the host

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