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INTRODUCTION TO LCD T.V. CIRCUITS 1. Construction of LCD Display 1-1 Principle of LCD Display 1-2 Construction of LCD Display 1-3 Main Component of LCD Display 2. Principle of Liquid Crystal 2-1 Liquid Crystal 2-2 Rubbing-process 2-3 Operation of Liquid Crystal 3. Principle of LCD 3-1 Operation of Polarized Board for LCD Panel (Shutter 3-2 Operation of Alignment Film 3-3 Operation of LCD Panel 3-4 Transparent Electrode 4. Type of LCD Display Construction 4-1 Twisted Nematic (TN) Type 4-2 Super TN (STN) Type 4-3 Triple STN (TSTN) Type / Film STN (FSTN) Type 5. System of LCD Display 5-1 Dot-Matrix System 5-2 Colorization 5-3 Drive System 5-4 Passive Matrix System 5-5 Active Matrix System 5-6 Drive of Active Matrix System 6. Improvement Technology of LCD Display 6-1 Subject of LCD Display 6-1-1 Angle of View 6-1-2 Response Characteristic 6-2 Angle of View 6-3 Multi-Domain System 6-4 MVA (Multi-domain Vertical Alignment) System 6-5 IPS (In-Plain Switching) System 6-6 Optically Compensated Film 6-7 OCB (Optically Compensated Birefringence) System 6-8 Improvement of Response Speed 6-8-1 Inpulse System 6-8-2 FFD (Feed Forward Driving) System 7. HANDLING PRECAUTIONS FOR TFT-LCD MODULE
1-1 Principle of LCD Display 1-2 Construction of LCD Display 1-3 Main Component of LCD Display .
converted from picture data similar to a CRT display. The LCD display makes the picture by grouping these elements of each RGB color . The LCD (Liquid Crystal Device) Display is used to display the electric signal. The transistor (TFT) switched by the electric signal changes the transmission to light in small picture elements (pixels) of the LCD.
Board Module (Common Electrode) The Common Electrode consists of a polarized board. Board Module (TFT Electrode) The TFT Electrode consists of a polarized board and a transparent electrode (pixel electrode and drive transistor) on a glass plate. A back light is attached to the LCD panel for LCD Display. LCD Display Liquid Crystal is packed between the board modules (TFT and Common) and the LCD panel (or LCD shutter) is constructed. Backlight A fluorescent light is used for the Backlight. TFT: Thin Film Transistor LCD Panel and LCD Shutter: They are the same things. a color filter. . and a transparent electrode on a glass plate. An alignment film is formed on the transparent electrode. but in the explanation LCD panel is used for structure and LCD shutter is used for function. An alignment film is formed on the transparent electrode.
Liquid Crystal Liquid Crystal is a material whose state is between a solid and a liquid. the transfer of light from the backlight can be controlled by the transparent ratio of the LCD Shutter. Backlight Liquid crystal does not emit light. Transparent Electrode (Film) An LCD shutter is operated by supplying voltage derived from the video signal.µ . and generally it is a white turbid liquid. Transparent film is used for its electrode. It has both characteristics of solids and liquids. Alignment Film This is a film for arranging liquid crystal molecules and is made of Polymid resin. Colour Filter It is a filter with three colours (R. G. A light source is needed for display. Polarized Board The light with a specified direction passes through a polarized board. Drive Transistor The thin film transistor (TFT) is used to drive the LCD shutter of each pixel. The light source placed on the reverse side of the LCD panel is called ´Backlight. Its molecules are normally arranged comparatively opaque and change to transparent with the application of voltage or heat. By assembling two polarized boards. LCD Shutter Supplying voltage to the transparent electrodes between the pixel and common sides changes the arrangement of liquid crystal. B) arranged for each pixel.
2-1 Liquid Crystal 2-2 Rubbing-process 2-3 Operation of Liquid Crystal .
it is necessary to regularly arrange the molecules of Nematic (Rubbing-process). (c) Cholesteric Molecules are in layers and arranged parallel. The arranging direction of the major axis for the neighboring layers is shifted gradually. In order to use liquid crystal for display. What is Liquid Crystal? Liquid Crystal is a material whose state is between a solid and liquid. 4. They are arranged parallel. . The center of gravity is able to move freely to the major axis. Almost all the materials consist of an organic compound taking the form of a slender stick or a flat plate. Generally Nematic liquid crystal is used for the display apparatus. (b) Nematic Molecules are not in layers. and they depend on the construction and arrangement of molecules. There are three types of liquid crystal as shown in Fig. The center of gravity is arranged at random in the layer. and generally is a white turbid liquid. (a) Smectic Molecules are in layers and arranged parallel to each other. It has characteristics of both solids and liquids. Its molecules are normally arranged comparatively opaque and change to transparent with the application of voltage or heat.
µ . they are hardened. After chemicals for arranging are put on the glass plate. This thin film on the glass plate is called ´Alignment film. and then the surface on the plate is rubbed with a cloth to fix the direction of the gaps that are made. This process is used to change the characteristics so the molecules that touch the rubbed surface are arranged to the major axis of the rubbed direction. The arranging direction of molecules is settled in the gaps.
If an electric field from an external source is applied to liquid crystal. In the LCD display. Through the operation of these electric dipoles and the electric field. liquid crystal molecules move and change direction from horizontal to vertical. . The Backlight applied to the liquid crystal is either passed or blocked according to the arrangement of the molecules. Therefore. a liquid crystal is placed between two electrodes. the power changing direction of liquid crystal molecules is generated. according to an external electric field. and liquid crystal molecules are moved and arranged. The chemistry substance required for liquid crystal material is one that reacts so that the arrangement direction is changed according to an applied electric field. When the voltage is supplied between them. electric dipoles will be generated that will react to the intensity and direction of the electric field. an electric field is generated in the liquid crystal.
3-1 Operation of Polarized Board for LCD Panel (Shutter) 3-2 Operation of Alignment Film 3-3 Operation of LCD Panel 3-4 Transparent Electrode .
the oscillating directions of all light is mixed. if shifted at right-angles. however. Light is an electromagnetic wave that is oscillating at right angles to the direction of advance. only the light of the same direction as the polarization direction of a polarized board can be taken out by letting the light pass through this polarized board. the light is blocked and looks dark. the light is blocked completely. the light cannot pass through a polarized board. if the oscillating direction of light and the direction of a polarized board are in agreement. A polarized board can let only the light in the specific direction pass from the light with which these various oscillating directions were mixed. The light passes and looks bright if the two boards are in the same direction when looking at two polarized boards in piles. That is. if the direction of a polarized board differs from the oscillating direction of light. Moreover. In fact. the light will pass through a polarized board. Therefore. . When the oscillating direction of a polarized board and light are shifted 90º(right-angled).
The liquid crystal molecules of upper alignment plate are arranged along with the upper alignment film. The liquid crystal layer between these alignment films is twisted little by little and is arranged so that a spiral is formed. Light entering through the first alignment plate will have its oscillating direction twisted 90º by the liquid crystal layer between the alignment films. Now the direction of oscillation is aligned with the second alignment plate and the light will pass through . The liquid crystal molecules of lower alignment plate are arranged along with the lower alignment film. Liquid crystal is inserted into alignment films of an upper and lower plate that have the direction of grooves shifted by 90º on the LCD display.
Since vertical liquid crystal molecules do not affect the oscillating direction of light.. This is the liquid crystal shutter-off condition and the LCD panel (LCD shutter) blocks the light. Therefore. The light can be passed or blocked by supplying voltage or not to this LCD panel. the direction of a polarized board and the oscillating direction of the light which is shifted 90º and arranged become the same. In the LCD panel. the liquid crystal molecules are twisted 90º sideways and arranged spirally. The oscillating direction of the light that passed the upper polarized board is changed by the twisted liquid crystal molecule arrangement. On the contrary. with this type (when the upper-and-lower polarized boards are arranged in the same direction). in the condition (Switch-On) that voltage is supplied. is playing perfect black becomes difficult due to the leakage of light caused by variations in the arrangement of the liquid crystal molecules. This mode is called ´Normally White Mode. .µ In practice. the light collides with this polarized board and cannot pass. with an enclosed liquid crystal material between them. In the condition (Switch-Off) that the voltage is not supplied. and it usually works well.µ An LCD panel that passes light when voltage is not supplied is referred to as ´Normally Black Mode. and the alignment film are formed on these glass plates. the light that passed the upper polarized board passes as it is without changing the oscillating direction. transparent electrode. This type of panel has the advantage that black contrast is improved. a liquid crystal is inserted and enclosed between two glass plates. This is the basic structure (On³Off of the light by the LCD shutter) of an LCD panel. Since the oscillating direction of this light differs from direction of the lower polarized board which is shifted 90º and arranged. It is a sandwich structure of the upper and lower sides of transparent electrodes. the liquid crystal molecules are arranged in a line at right angles to a glass plate. voltage is not supplied between the upper-and-lower polarized boards that are arranged at 90º. and polarized boards. alignment films. This is the liquid crystal shutter-on condition and an LCD panel (LCD shutter) passes the light. The polarized board. and this light can now pass through a polarized board.
4-1 Twisted Nematic (TN) Type 4-2 Super TN (STN) Type 4-3 Triple STN (TSTN) Type / Film STN (FSTN) Type .
Most LCD displays are of this type and feature high contrast (ratio) under low voltage and power. A Nematic type of LCD Display where the liquid crystal molecules are twisted 90º between upper and lower boards is called a Twisted Nematic type (TN type) liquid crystal. .
A liquid crystal material developed to improve visual characteristics. By supplying voltage to this liquid crystal. and a clearer picture on larger screens becomes possible. personal computer monitors. . etc. Therefore. the transparent ratio of light changes more steeply. Super TN type (STN type) LCD Displays are used for LCD televisions. contrast and rise characteristic of the voltage (response of switch On and Off) are improved. In this STN type liquid crystal molecules are twisted 180º to 270º and arranged between upper and lower electrodes. with the STN type as compared to the TN type. cellular phones. such as contrast ratio is used.
and the display colors of yellowish green and navy blue are changed to the correct white and black. (In TN type. A fault of the STN type is that the display colors during On and Off of the LCD shutter become yellowish green and navy blue. They compensate for the twist of the light crystal cell. The ´FSTNµ type uses a single optically compensated film . Therefore. and a natural color picture cannot be displayed. The triple STN type (TSTN type) and the film STN type (FSTN type) have been developed as an advanced type of STN. they are white and black. gray to white. optically compensated films (high polymer films) which sandwich the upper and lower LCD panels are used. In the TSTN type.) This is because light of a specific wavelength is reflected and scattered by the thickness of the LCD panel. bluish green is mixed with the colors from black. even if a color filter of RGB is attached to an STN type liquid crystal.
5-1 Dot-Matrix System 5-2 Colorization 5-3 Drive System 5-4 Passive Matrix System 5-5 Active Matrix System 5-6 Drive of Active Matrix System .
and various characteristics and figures can be displayed.024 = 1.720 pixels). the number of pixels of an LCD display panel corresponding to bigger screen sizes can be specified and manufactured. With the present liquid crystal manufacture technology.310. The Dot-Matrix system is used for LCD television displays. and very high definition screen display is possible.000 (1. LCD displays have two drive systems.280 x 1. Fig. Segment and Dot-Matrix. The picture elements (pixels) of the display unit are arranged horizontally (X line) and vertically (Y row) by this Dot-Matrix system. ppi: pixel per inch SXGA: Super eXtended Graphics Array . 12 shows a matrix of ´X x Y = 10 (pixels)µ with the character ´Yµ displayed. the big screen with fine character or picture becomes possible.300. by making the size of a pixel smaller and increasing the whole number of pixels. the number of pixels per inch has reached 200ppi*. Moreover. For example. In this Dot-Matrix system. the number of pixels of the SXGA* panel is about 1.
by controlling the voltages and the waveforms that are supplied at each RGB pixel. 13. The color LCD panel has a color filter of RGB attached to the monochrome panel. in itself it cannot display a color picture.000 pixels. See Fig. In this color LCD panel. the transparent ratio is controlled and hue and brightness are adjusted. For example. Since an LCD shutter only passes or blocks light. in colorization. The color picture is made by mixing the three colors of RGB (three primary colors of light) respectively. . like the CRT color television. although the SXGA panel described before has about 1. smaller pixels and more numbers of pixels are required for the color LCD Display.300. there are about 4 million dots(sub-pixels). Therefore.
The Passive Matrix System. such as calculators and notebook PCs. The Active Matrix System. which is seldom used. . which is suitable for high definition and the high-speed response needed for big screen LCD television. which is used for still pictures. The drive systems for LCD display are divided into the following classifications: The Static Drive System.
Y electrode intersection) change arrangement and an LCD shutter is turned On or Off. . and X electrodes of the horizontal direction (X direction) are formed in lower glass plate as a matrix. In the structure of a passive matrix system. an electric field is generated in the liquid crystal where the selected Y electrode and X electrode cross. Therefore. The liquid crystal molecules are sandwiched between these electrodes. By supplying voltage between the Y electrode and the X electrode in sequence. Y electrodes of the vertical direction (Y-direction) are formed in upper glass plate. at a certain time. the liquid crystal molecules of this pixel address (X.
The upper electrode for the whole pattern is formed on the upper glass plate and is called the ´Common Electrodeµ. The LCD display using this TFT is called ´TFT LCD displayµ. Thin Film Transistor (TFT) is used for the switch element and is attached on the glass board. A pixel electrode (pixel pattern). In the active matrix system. . the response speed is increased. and X electrode for gate input and Y electrode for source input of TFT are formed on the lower glass plat e. 17 (Address X1 and Y0). and the liquid crystal molecules are operated as a light switch. TFT (switch element) which drives a pixel electrode. the electric field is generated in the area between the pixel electrode and the common electrode. and the LCD shutter for 1 pixel is operated. TFT is turned On. Refer to Fig. In this structure. a switch element is attached for every pixel at the intersection of the X and Yelectrodes of a passive matrix system. When an electric signal (voltage) is supplied to the Y and X electrode of TFT. Since the switch for each pixel is turned On and Off independently. Each pixel is now controlled by the switch element (active element).
6-1 Subject of LCD Display 6-1-1 Angle of View 6-1-2 Response Characteristic 6-2 Angle of View 6-3 Multi-Domain System 6-4 MVA (Multi-domain Vertical Alignment) System 6-5 IPS (In-Plain Switching) System 6-6 Optically Compensated Film 6-7 OCB (Optically Compensated Birefringence) System 6-8 Improvement of Response Speed 6-8-1 Inpulse System 6-8-2 FFD (Feed Forward Driving) System .
If this response characteristic is slow. (The angle of view for a CRT or PDP is 180º. Therefore. In an LCD display. an afterimage will appear on the screen. This improved system will be described later.) 6-1-2 Response Characteristic The response characteristic of the LCD display is the speed at which the display is refreshed by the input signal (video data signal). in large screen LCD television. The viewing angle of the typical TN type LCD display is about 100º. 6-1-1 Angle of View Angle of view means the normal visible range (angle) of a screen. improving this response characteristic becomes very important. the angle of view is narrow compared with a CRT or PDP (Plasma Display Panel). However with the new improved technology that has been developed the angle of view for LCD display has increased to 160º or 170º. .
µ The fault of the TN LCD display is that this angle of view is narrow. The principle of optical penetration and the interception of the LCD shutter by the arranged direction of cylindrical liquid crystal molecules controls the direction of light. and contrast depend on the direction of view of the LCD display. brightness. The range (angle) where these look normal is called the ´angle of view. hue. Therefore. shows that brightness changes depending on the angle the screen with a gray picture is viewed. .
one pixel is divided into two or more different arranged domains. In this Multi-Domain System. The arrangement of the TN LCD display is one directional. shows the example of Multi-Domain System with two domains. the angle of view becomes even wider by increasing the number of divisions. Moreover. However. manufacturing is difficult in the rubbing process*. The quantity of the light per pixel from various angles is equalized by this system. .
A type of material is used that causes the liquid crystal molecules to become vertical to the glass plate without supplying voltage. By vertically aligning the liquid crystal molecules. . the (alignment) film is arranged so that the liquid crystal molecules are stood vertically. Generally. a Posi-Nematic system is used that aligns the liquid crystal molecules by supplying voltage. In the MVA system. The MVA system combines vertical alignment with the Multi-domain system. attaching the boss by resin and making the liquid crystal molecules stand diagonally on the transparent electrode make multiple alignment domains. and the angle of view and contrast are improved. manufacturing becomes easier compared with the multidomain system. Therefore. (Nega-Nematic liquid crystal*) In the MVA system. since the rubbing process can be skipped at the alignment film production. the influence of optical interception is lost.
The S-IPS (SuperIPS) type was developed to improve upon these problems. liquid crystal molecules rotate all at once in the horizontal direction. there are a few problems. increases the viewing angle to about 160º and has high definition equivalent to a CRT. Since these liquid crystal molecules do not lean like the TN type. However. . slower response speed. there is little change in the picture characteristics (contrast. brightness. The quantity of transparent light is reduced. the alignment direction of liquid crystal molecules is rotated 90º in parallel to the glass plate. and a white picture becomes a little bluish or yellowish depending on the viewing direction. etc. which reduces the change of color. With this electric field. In the IPS system. the structure of the electrode for driving the liquid crystal molecules becomes a zigzag form. The pixel and common electrodes are mounted to the transparent film (drive transistor) side and the electric field is generated horizontally to the glass plate.) and the angle of view becomes wider. In the S-IPS type. hue.
andthe angle of view and contrast are improved. By using the optically compensated film.) .(Refer to 4-3 Triple STN Type. the phase shift of the STN type of LCD display is corrected.
bend-alignment is difficult to make uniform and stable. However. . The OCB system combines the bend-alignment system where the liquid crystal molecules are bent and aligned between the upper and lower boards and optically compensation film. This system has the features of increased angle of view and quicker response speeds.
µ the black data is written in every 1/60 second.the actual overdrive circuit used in a digital drive system. there is the system that has the backlight blinked for every writing of one picture or an all black picture in inserted in the fixed cycle. . It is called the ´Inpulse System. and the afterimage and the ghosts are reduced. with the system called ´Super Inpulse System. 6-8-1 Inpulse System In order to reduce afterimage and dim outline. 6-8-2 FFD (Feed Forward Driving) System The response speed of LCD brightness can be improved by adding over-shoot characteristic to the data line voltage.µ For example.
OPERATING PRECAUTIONS 3. STORAGE PRECAUTIONS . 1. PRECAUTFONSWITHELECTROSTATICS 4. ASSEMBLY PRECAUTION 2.
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