MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY

Characteristics of Muscle
‡ Excitability - responds to Stimuli (eg. nervous)

‡ Contractibility - able to shorten in length ‡ Extensibility - stretches when pulled. ‡ Elasticity - able to return to original shape and length after contraction or extension

FUNCTION OF MUSCLE
‡

Motion

‡ Maintenance of posture ‡ Heat Production

TYPES OF MUSCLES
‡ Skeletal

Striated muscle Voluntary muscle Attached to bones and moves skeleton ‡ Smooth Non ±striated muscle Involuntary muscle Muscle of viscera (blood vessel wall, other hollow structures/organs).

‡ Cardiac Striated Involuntary

MUSCLE CELLS
‡

Consist of myofibrils

‡ Myofibrils - made up of myofilaments - 2 types of myofilaments Thick myofilaments Thin myofilaments ‡ Cell Membrane - called sarcolemma

SARCOLEMMA

‡ Has ³holes´ that lead into transverse tubules ‡ T - tubules - conduct impulses from cell surface (sarcolemma) down into the cell to the sarcoplasmic reticulum

SARCOMERE RELAXED H band I band CONTRACTED A band Z-line Actin M Line Myosin .

.very high Ca++ in SR low in sarcoplasm.SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM ‡ Primary function = Store Ca++ ions ‡ Closely associated with myofilaments ‡ Active pumps that transport Ca++ from sarcoplasm into sarcoplasmic reticulum. ‡ Relaxed muscle .

Junction between head and tail .energy b) Actin binding site ‡ Hinge .THICK MYOFILAMENT Thick myosin filament (myosin molecules) ‡ Tail ‡ Head .Allows head to ³swivel´ back to cause muscle contraction .2 binding sites a) ATP binding site .

THICK MYOFILAMENT Actin binding site Light Chain ATP binding site (have regulatory function) Hinge Tail .

Tubule Dihydropyridine receptor Ca++ Sarcoplasmic reticulum Terminal Cisterna Ryanodine receptor .SARCOTUBULAR HEAD T.

THIN MYOFILAMENT G-actin molecules Tropomycin Troponin .

ADP + P) ‡ Energy released . .ACTIN INTERACTION ‡ Actin combines with Myosin Head ‡ ATP in myosin head breaks down to ADP (ATP .Myosin head ³swivel´.

TROPOMYOSIN ‡ Relaxed muscle : Myosin heads in contact with tropomyosin. . muscle remains relaxed. ‡ As long as Myosin heads remain in contact with tropomyosin.

tightly bound to myosin and tropomyosin in relaxed muscle.Covers sites where myosin heads bind to actin. Troponin C . .Ca++ weakens binding of troponin I to actin and moves tropomyosin laterally.TROPONIN Troponin I .Binding site for Ca++ .Inhibits interaction between actin and Myosin . exposing binding sites for myosin heads .

ACh bind to nicotinic acetyl choline receptor 4. Nerve impulse transferred from neuron to sarcolemma. Increased Na+ and K+ conductance at motor end plate .End ± plate potential. 5.MUSCLE CONTRACTION I 1. Action Potential in muscle fibres . Acetyl Choline released at motor end-plate 3. 2.

Binding of Ca++ to Troponin C.MUSCLE CONTRACTION 2 6. exposing myosin binding sites on action. Release of Ca++ from terminal cisternae into sarcoplasm via Ryanodine receptor.activates sarcoplasmic reticulum via dihydropyridine receptor. 7. 10. 9. Inward spread of depolarisation down T-tubules . Sliding of thin and thick filaments p shortening . Formation of cross-linkages between actin and myosin. 8.

Sarcoplasmic Ca ++ pumped back into sarcoplasmic reticulum (active Ca Pump) 2.MUSCLE RELAXATION 1. Interaction between actin and myosin ceases . Release of Ca ++ from Troponin 3.

ATP ACTIN ± MYOSIN ADP-Pi + Potential energy Energised crossbridge Ca++ ACTIN Contraction ACTIN .MYOSIN ADP + Pi + heat .ACTIN ± MYOSIN CYCLE Actin Myosin Myosin ± ADP ± Pi + potential energy Ca++ Actin Myosin .

ADP + Pi released.MYOSIN ±ACTIN CONTRACTION ‡ Stage 1 : Myosin still attached to actin ATP binds to Myosin. ‡ Stage 4 : Contraction or ³Power stroke´. ‡ Stage 2 : ATP hydrolysed Myosin energised but ADP & Pi still bound to myosin. . Myosin released from Actin Ca++ released. ‡ Stage 3 : Myosin head reattached in presence of Ca++ and Actin.

EXCITATION .COUPLING Sarcoplasmic Ca++ concentration resting state = 10-7 ± 10-8 mol/L contraction = 10-5 During relaxation ± reuptake by sarcoplasm (energy required) troponin C release Ca++ Myosin detaches from Actin .

SINGLE MUSCLE CONTRACTION Muscle contraction = Combined response of many individual muscle fibres. = Tension developed varies with time. = Temporal summation of response fibres to multiple action potential . = Length may change depending on load .

Contraction with constant load but shortening length.Contraction in which the external load is greater than tension developed by muscle. Lengthening contraction . causing muscle to increase in length in spite of contraction .TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION Isometric .Contraction with no change in length Isotonic .

ISOMETRIC TWITCH /CONTRACTION tl = Content period tc = Contraction time Tension tl tc 0 50 100 150 msecs .

ISOTONIC TWITCH/CONTRACTION Distance contracted Light load Heavy load 0 50 100 150 .

Latent period Increased with increased load . Latent period short. Increase tension No change in length ISOTONIC Constant Tension Shortening of muscle 2.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ISOMETRIC AND ISOTONIC CONTRACTION ISOMETRIC 1. PE Resting tension CE SE Shorten lengthen PE shorten CE Shortens SE Lengthens Load lift 3.

No external work External work done (35%) Heat (75%) . Long twitch duration Short twitch duration 6. Contraction time varies ISOTONIC Latent period increased with Increased load 5.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ISOMETRIC AND ISOTONIC CONTRACTION (CONT¶D) ISOMETRIC 4.

MUSCLE SPINDLE EFFERENT K Dynamic K Static AFFERENT Ia II Nuclear Chain Nuclear bag .

MUSCLE SPINDLES (INTRAFUSAL) ‡ Proprioceptive sensory organs parallel to contractile muscle fibres (extrafusal) ‡ Attached to connective tissue surrounding extrafusal fibre ‡ Less striations .

MUSCLE SPINDLES (STRUCTURE) ‡ Spindle shaped ‡ 2 types : .Nuclear Bag (dilated Central area) . Ends not striated) .Nuclear Chain (thin.

3. Gamma efferent fibres innervate striated poles. Static K . K . .Efferent stimulation : stretch the nuclear bag and regulates sensitivity of muscle spindle. Dynamic K . 2.efferent to Nuclear chain fibres 4.efferents to Nuclear bag fibres.MOTOR SUPPLY TO MUSCLE SPINDLE 1.

Function : Dynamic response.More abundant on nuclear chain fibres .Function .Static response respond to change in muscle length.SENSORY (AFFERENT) SUPPLY TO MUSCLE SPINDLE 1. . Secondary or Flower-spray (II) nerve ending ~ Smaller fibres .Large fibre with rapid conduction . Ia ± Primary Afferent .Innervate centre of nuclear bag of chain (Annulospiral or Primary ending) . responds to velocity of muscle stretch 2.

Primary Annulo-spiral endings Stretch of annulospiral endings Potentials in Ia fibres Reflex to E motor neurons Antagonist muscles contract Overall Role : Serves to maintain muscle length .FUNCTIONS OF MUSCLE SPINDLE 1.

Respond to tonic and phasic responses ~ Phasic change responses dampen oscillations or jerkiness of movement mediated by delay in feedback loop Overall Role Smoother muscle movement / contraction . Primary Endings ~ Dynamic & Static Response .FUCTIONS OF MUSCLE SPINDLE 2.

Efferent discharge from cerebellar activity . Overall function of muscle spindle : Sensory or proprioceptive organ that modifies reflexes via servomechanisms.Increased K efferent activity enhances muscle spindle sensitivity. . Enable fine control of body movements .Important for maintenance of tone and posture.FUNCTION OF MUSCLE SPINDLE .K .

‡ Increase muscle tension .GOLGI TENDON ORGAN ‡ Sensory fibres in tendon ‡ Act as tension receptor within tendon located near or at its junction with the muscle.distort sensory fibres within tendon .straighten collagen fibres .

FUNCTION 1. Informs CNS of muscle tension 2. 3. Activates antagonist muscle. 4.GOLGI TENDION ORGAN . Inhibits motor neurons of contracting muscle (via interneurons). Main role: protect muscle damage during strong contraction .

MUSCLE METABOLISM ATP .Immediate energy source for muscle contraction 3 Sources : a) Phosphorylation of ADP by creatinine phosphate. b) Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation c) Glycolytic phosphorylation in cytoplasm .

Lasts only few seconds Limited content of creatinine phosphate .MUSCLE CREATINE PHOSPHATE Very rapid Occurs at onset of contraction.

MUSCLE OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION Occurs in mitochondria Requires Oxygen Supplies ATP during moderate exercise .

GLYCOLYTIC PHOSPHORYLATION IN MUSCLE Occurs in cytoplasm Does not require oxygen Produces small number of ATP per mole of glucose Produce lactic acid incurs ³oxygen debt´ .

During moderate exercise. Blood glucose and fatty acids .METABOLIC SUBSTRATES DURING CONTRACTION ‡ Glycogen mobilisation via Ca++ and adrenaline Muscle glycogen last 10 mins.predominant fuel. ‡ ‡ ‡ . After that fatty acid .next 30 min.

‡ Metabolic performance . .MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES ‡ Based on mechanical performance and metabolic performance.oxidative or glycolytic source of ATP. ‡ Mechanical performance depending on myosin ± ATPase activity ± Maximal shortening velocity.

Fast oxidative fibres .Red in colour.Slow oxidative fibres .Associated with continuous slow sustained contractions.Short rapid movements ± extraocular muscle.white in colour . eg. Type III . .Fast metabolically and mechanically .Red in colour .MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES Type I . para-spinal muscles for posture control. Type II .Fast glycolytic fibres .

PROPERTIES OF MUSCLE FIBRES Property Colour Diameter ATP formation Mitochondria Glycogen Glycolysis Type I Red Small Oxidative phosphorylation Abundant Low Low Few High High High Low Fast High Type II White Large Glycolysis Type III Red Intermediate Oxidative phosphorylation Abundant Intermediate Intermediate High High Fast Intermediate Myosin-ATPase Low Myoglobin Contraction Fatigue rate High Slow Slow .

SMOOTH MUSCLE ‡ Involuntary muscle ‡ Autonomic nervous system innervation ‡ Spindle shaped cell ‡ Single nucleus ‡ Vital role in hollow organ function .

myosin and tropomysin but no regular arrangement.SMOOTH MUSCLE ‡ Contain actin. ‡ No troponin ‡ Poorly developed sarcoplasmic reticulum ‡ Do not contain sarcomeres ‡ Calcium bind to calmodulin (NOT troponin) .

low resistance gap junctions 2.May contain pacemaker . ciliary muscle airway.Contractility depends on frequency of nerve stimulation and number of fibres activated.Undergo electrical and mechanical activity in synchronous manner.Densely innervated by autonomic nervous system . GIT. . Single Unit eg.TYPES OF SMOOTH MUSCLES 1. . .Muscle fibre respond independently .Spontaneous action potential . Multi-Unit Smooth Muscles eg. ureter .Do not have spontaneous activity .

‡ Ca++ binds to calmodulin ‡ Activates Myosin light chain kinase.SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTION ‡ Release of Ca++ from sarcoplasmic reticulum or Ca++ entry via voltage gated Ca++ channels in cell membrane. . ‡ ATP phosphorylates myosin cross bridges which bind to Actin filaments to produce contraction.

.SINGLE UNIT CONTRACTION ‡ Unstable membrane potential ‡ Recurrent depolarisation ‡ Voltage-gated Ca++ channels open ‡ Ca++ action potentials generated at depolarisation.

phenomenon of PLASTICITY . 3.SMOOTH MUSCLE STRETCHING 1. Smooth muscle stretch . Muscle tension progressively decreases as muscle is kept stretched. Opens mechano-sensitive channels. . Depolarisation .contraction 4.depolarisation 2.

. Local factors influencing intracellular Ca. Hormones . O2 ionic composition.contraction Adrenaline . Autonomic Control Ach .SMOOTH MUSCLE ± EXTRINSIC CONTROL 1.via intracellular calcium 3. pH.relaxation 2.

SINGLE UNIT vs MULTI-UNIT SMOOTH MUSCLE PROPERTY Gap Junction Pacemaker pot Tone Neuro Control Hormone Control Stretch induced contraction SINGLE UNIT SM Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes MULTI-UNIT SM Few No No Yes Yes No .

Skeletal Muscle Structure Motor and Plate Mitochondria Sarcomere Sarcoplasmic development Yes Few Yes Well developed none Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle None Many Yes Developed None Few None None Syncytium Yes Yes Function Pacemaker Response Tetanic Contraction No All or none Yes No Yes (fast) All or none Yes Yes (slow) Graded .