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Department of Technical Education

Andhra Pradesh
NAME : K.Vasudeva Rao
Designation : Lecturer
Branch : Civil Engg
Institute : Govt.Polytechnic, Srikakulam
Year/Semester : IV Semester
Subject : Construction Practice
Subject code : C406
Topic : Classification of Buildings
and foundations
Duration : 50 min
Sub Topic : Components of buildings and their
Teaching Aids : PPT, Animations
Revised by : GVVL. Satyanarayana
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On completion of this period, you will be able to state

• various components of a building and their


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Definition of building as per NBC

• As per National Building Code of India (NBC)

“Any structure for what so ever purpose and of what so

ever materials constructed and every part there of

whether used as human habitation or not, is called a


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Main Parts of a Building
A Building has two basic parts.

1. Sub Structure (or) Foundation

2. Super Structure

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Sub Structure
• Sub Structure or foundation is the lowest portion of

the building, usually located below the ground level,

which transmits the loads of the super structure to

the supporting soil.

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Super Structure

• Super Structure is that part of a structure which is

above ground level and which serves the intended


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Components of a Building

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Component parts of building

• Foundation
• Plinth
• Masonry units : walls and pillars
• Sills, lintels, lofts and sunshades
• Floors & Roofs
• Doors, windows and other openings
• Vertical transportations
ex. Stairs, lifts & escalators
• Protective & decorative finishes

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Components of a Building
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It is the lowest part of the building below the

surface of the surrounding ground, which is in direct

contact with sub-soil and transmits all loads on to it.

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Functions of foundation
• The basic function of the foundation is to transmit all
the loads (dead loads, super-imposed loads, wind &
earth quake loads etc,.) acting on the super structure
to the soil on which the building rests
• To distribute the loads uniformly to the soil, to prevent
• unequal settlements of foundation
• To provide a level and hard surface for super structure
• To increase the stability of the structure against sliding
• and over turning

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• Plinth is defined as the portion of the structure
between the surface of the surrounding ground
and floor level of the building.

• The minimum height of plinth should not be less

than 450 mm.

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Functions of Plinth

• To protect the building from dampness or moisture

penetration into it. This increase the stability and
durability of the structure

• To transmit the load of super structure to the foundation.

• To act as a retaining wall so as to keep the filling in

position below the floor of the building.

• To improve the elevation of the building

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Wall is a basic component part of the super structure

which creates enclosure for various occupations.

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Types of walls


Load bearing walls Non load bearing walls

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• Load bearing walls
These walls carry the entire load coming from roof
and transfer the same to plinth beneath it

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• Non-load bearing walls
These walls are primarily meant for enclosing and
dividing the space (used in framed structures ) and
columns carry the entire load and transfer the same
to the foundation beneath it

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Functions of walls
• To provide required privacy for various room in a

• To transfer the loads from the floors to the


• The external walls will provide the required safety

against theft

• To protect the interior of the building against natural

agencies like rain, sun, snow, wind etc.,

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• These are the vertical members meant for

carrying loads from beam and floor slabs and
transferring the same to foundations

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• Door is a wooden or metallic shutter fixed to a

frame which in turn fixed to walls of a opening.

• It used to control the movements in and out of the


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Windows and ventilators

• Window is a wooden or metallic shutter fixed to a

frame which in turn fixed to walls of a opening, meant
for admitting light and air.

• Ventilator is an opening in a wall provided for the

purpose of ventilation

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• The horizontal surface of the wall at the bottom level

of the window frame is called sill of a window

• Sills protect the top of the wall from wear and tear

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• Lintel is a horizontal structural member

provided to support the weight of the wall

above the opening of door (or) window.

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• Sunshades are generally combined with lintel

and are provided on doors and windows of
exterior walls.

• Sunshades protect the doors and windows from

weathering agencies such as Sun, rain and frost

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• A roof is the uppermost part of a building,

completely enclosing the structure, constructed in

the form of a frame work to give protection to

building against rain, heat, wind etc.,

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• It is a horizontal levelled surface which provides a base

for movement of occupants and placing the furniture,
machinery and other household appliances.
• It divide the building vertically into different levels.
• It is meant for supporting the dead and live loads applied
on it.
• The topmost floor is called roof.

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Steps and Stairs

• A stair is defined as a sequence of steps and is

provided to afford the means of ascent and descent

between the floor (or) landings .

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Function of stairs

1. To provide the means of communication between the

various floors.

2. Stairs provide the means of escape from the upper

floors in the event of fire

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Finishes for building

These are the decorative renderings given to the

exterior and interior surfaces of the buildings in the
following forms

• Plastering,

• Pointing,

• Painting,

• Cladding etc.,

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Functions of finishes

• To protect the structure, especially the exposed surface

from the effect of rain, sun, wind action etc.,

• To increase the life of the structure

• To cover up to some extent, the defective (or) poor


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In this class, we discussed

• Classification of building as per NBC

• Component parts of a building and their


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1. Which of the following is a building component?

a) Door
b) Floor
c) Foundation
d) All the above

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2. The horizontal member which support the

weight of the wall above opening is
a) Plinth
b) Sunshade
c) Lintel
d) Slab

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Frequently asked questions

1. List various component of a Building.

2. Explain important components of a building with
the help of a sketch.
3. List the functions of plinth
4. Draw the cross section of a building and name
the component parts.

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