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Emilio Cordoba Janssen¹, Eduardo Farinazzo Gama¹, Marcus Vinícius Manfrin de logo
Oliveira Filho¹
Positivo University, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil


The appearance of cracks in structures is related to several factors, such as fatigue of the A three-dimensional model of the hook commonly used by hook manufacturers, designed from
component due to high cycles of loading and unloading until the structure is exposed to overload. the standard DIN 150 401, was obtained from the CAD platform. The component was imported
In recent years, several methods of non-destructive analysis have been developed, but there is still into commercial software Ansys 17.2, where the mechanical properties, mesh characteristics,
no method applicable to all structures. One of the most recent non-destructive methods used for dimension of the elements and the contour conditions of the problem were applied. With the
crack detection is the modal analysis of structures combined with optimization problems, since computational model built, it was possible to calculate the natural frequencies of the hook
cracks change the mechanical properties of the structure (stiffness and damping). The objective of without the presence of damages and with the presence of cracks. The crack was introduced into
this work is to study the vibrational properties of cracked hooks, as a preliminary study in order to the inner radius of the hook as shown below. A total of twenty different scenarios were analyzed
develop a methodology for crack identification in these structures. through the finite element method, varying crack positions and depths.

The first six natural frequencies calculated for the undamaged hook can be seen in the table The results of the six natural frequencies for each scenario are shown in the next figure. Can be
below. It can be observed that the first two frequencies have very close results, but are seen that the fourth natural frequency is most affected by breathing crack, followed by the fifth
associated with different modes of vibration. and sixth ones. On the other hand, the first, second, and third natural frequencies and vibrational
modes are not so sensitive to this type of crack in that region. The greater the crack, the lower the
Natural stiffness of the structure and, consequently, the lower the natural frequency.
Modes frequency (Hz)
1 97.750
Natural frequencies x Cracked scenario
2 98.488 N6 (hz) N5 (hz) N4 (hz) N3 (hz) N2 (hz) N1 (hz)

3 313.020 1200
Frequency (hz)

4 707.480
5 871.500
6 1018.300 800

The first six modes of vibration for the hook with crack were analyzed. Some of them are
weakly influenced by the presence of crack, while others suffer a significant influence from the 600

damage. Figure below shows the first six vibrational modes of the hook with cracks.


Ti K






200 O K

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
k eV


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


Scenario 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Crack angle 10 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40 40

Crack depth
(mm) 40 30 20 10 5 40 30 20 10 5 40 30 20 10 5 40 30 20 10 5


The results of the simulations make clear the variation of the vibrational behavior of the hooks • Agarwalla, D.K. and Parhi, D.R., 2013. “Effect of crack on modal parameters of a cantilever beam
subjected to the presence of cracks; the change in vibration modes and natural frequencies is subjected to vibration”. In Procedia Engineering, Vol. 51, Pages 665-669.
proportional to the magnitude of the damage: the deeper the crack, the greater the difference in • Chati, M., Rand, R. and Mukherjee, S., 1997. “Modal analysis of a cracked beam”. In Journal of
the value of natural frequencies. For the analyzed hook with the boundary conditions adopted, the Sound and Vibration, 207(2), 249-270.
fourth mode of vibration presented a greater sensitivity to the localized damage, followed by the • Priyadarshini, A., 2013. “Identification of cracks in beams using vibration analysis”. Master of
fifth and sixth modes, respectively. technology in structural engineering – Civil Engineering. Nat. Inst. of Technology Rourkela.
• Rezaee, M. and Fekrmandi, H., 2012. “A theoretical and experimental investigation on free
vibration behavior of a cantilever beam with a breathing crack”. Shock and Vibration 19, 175-186.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Emílio Cordoba Janssen
Eduardo Farinazzo Gama
This work was carried out with the financial support of CNPq (Process 0564/P-DYNM22). The authors
would like to thank Positivo University for the support in this article. We also thank the PUCPR for the Marcus Vinícius Manfrin de Oliveira Filho
use of its facilities.