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Submitted By:
Nidhi Kumari
Vishwanath Kumar

WORK SAMPLING  Work sampling is the statistical technique for determining the proportion of time spent by worker  It is a method for analyzing work by taking a large number of observations at random times. .  Use work sampling to:  Determine machine utilization  Determine allowances  Establish time standards  Use as many observations as practical  Take observations at random times over two or more weeks.

 The results of work sampling are effective for determining machine and personnel utilization. allowances applicable to the job and production standards. . Work sampling is a technique used to investigate the proportions of total time devoted to the various activities that constitute a job or work situation.

e. to establish a time standard for an operation. i. Ex:percentage of working  Perfomance sampling .to measure the activities and delays of workers or establish a performance index or performance level for the person during his or her working time.THREE MAIN USES OF WORK SAMPLE  Activity and delay sampling .to measure a manual task. .  Work measurement .

. an event can be either present or absent.  Random sampling requires that there be no bias in the sampling process. It is important that the concept of randomness be understood and carefully followed in work sampling studies.THEORY OF WORK SAMPLİNG  The theory of work sampling is based on the fundamental law of probability: at a given instant.

 Analyze and summarize the data.  Determine factors for study  Number of observations to be measured  Number of observers  Number of days or shifts needed to be studied  Design the observation form  Make observations according to the plan. STEPS INVOLVED  Define the tasks which need to be analyzed and determine the desired accuracy. .

Observation Form .

 Generally . . HOW TO CALCULATE  Normal Distribution Curve .5% and confidence interval of 95% is used. accuracy of +/.It represents graphically the probability of the occurrence of certain phenomena.

idle time is 24 min and working time is 456 min. out of which there were 57 working and 3 idle observations. idle time % = (3/60) = 5  Working Time % = (57/60) = 95  If a worker works in a shift of 8 hrs (480 min).  Here. Formula for determining the sample size: Example:  Example: A worker working in shifts does work for some part of time and remains idle for rest of the time. Let us suppose that there are 60 observations. .

 These methods are less tedious and fatiguing.  It is a highly flexible method wherein data can be collected anytime without affecting the results. . ADVANTAGES  It’s an economical method of doing the time study of work.  Chance of day to day or weekly variation are reduced since the time span of taking observation is wide.

 The working pattern may be changed by the workers and then it becomes difficult and results may be erroneous.  Doesn’t provide any elemental time data. DISADVANTAGES  It’s not an economical process when a single operator/ machine is involved.  The process of work study is difficult to understand compared to time study. .

 To measure performance.  To provide a basis for indirect labor standards.  To determine the allowances for inclusion in standard times. .  To estimate the percentage of utilization of machines and labour.  To determine the standard time for a non-repetitive operation. APPLICATIONS  For ratio delay studies.

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