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Introduction to Soft Computing

Operations on Fuzzy sets

Prof. Debasis Samanta
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
IIT Kharagpur

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Basic fuzzy set operations: Union
Union (A โˆช B): ๐œ‡๐ดโˆช๐ต ๐‘ฅ = max(๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ , ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ )

Example:
๐ด = {(๐‘ฅ1, 0.5), (๐‘ฅ2, 0.1), (๐‘ฅ3, 0.4)} and
๐ต = { ๐‘ฅ1, 0.2 , ๐‘ฅ2, 0.3 , ๐‘ฅ3, 0.5 };
๐ถ = ๐ด โˆช ๐ต = { ๐‘ฅ1, 0.5 , ๐‘ฅ2, 0.3 , ๐‘ฅ3, 0.5 }

ยตA ยตA
ยตB ยตB
ยต

ยตAUB
a p x b q c a p x b q c

Debasis Samanta
CSE
2
IIT Kharagpur

0.Basic fuzzy set operations: Intersection Intersection (A โˆฉ B): ๐œ‡๐ดโˆฉ๐ต ๐‘ฅ = min(๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ . 0. 0. 0. ๐ถ = ๐ด โˆฉ ๐ต = { ๐‘ฅ1.1 . ๐‘ฅ2. 0. ๐‘ฅ3. 0. ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ ) Example: ๐ด = {(๐‘ฅ1. 0. (๐‘ฅ3.2 .5 }.3 .1). 0.2 . ๐‘ฅ3. (๐‘ฅ2.5). 0. ๐‘ฅ2.4 } ยตA ยตB ยตA?B ยต a p x b q c a p x b q c Debasis Samanta CSE 3 IIT Kharagpur .4)} and ๐ต = { ๐‘ฅ1.

0.6 } ยตA ยตA 1.Basic fuzzy set operations: Complement Complement (๐ด๐‘ ): ๐œ‡๐ด๐‘ ๐‘ฅ = 1 โˆ’ ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ Example: ๐ด = {(๐‘ฅ1. 0.9 . 0.5 .4)} ๐ถ = ๐ด๐‘ = { ๐‘ฅ1. ๐‘ฅ3. 0. ๐‘ฅ2. (๐‘ฅ3.1). 0. (๐‘ฅ2.5). 0.0 ยตAโ€™ ยต p x q p x q Debasis Samanta CSE 4 IIT Kharagpur .

Basic fuzzy set operations: Products Algebric product or Vector product (๐‘จ โˆ™ ๐‘ฉ): ๐œ‡๐ดโˆ™๐ต ๐‘ฅ = ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ โˆ™ ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ Scalar product (๐œถ ร— ๐‘จ): ๐œ‡๐›ผ๐ด ๐‘ฅ = ๐›ผ ร— ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ Debasis Samanta CSE 5 IIT Kharagpur .

๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ + ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ โˆ’ 1} Debasis Samanta CSE 6 IIT Kharagpur . ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ + ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ } Bounded Difference: ๐ด ๐‘ฅ โŠ–๐ต ๐‘ฅ = ๐œ‡|๐ด(๐‘ฅ)โŠ–๐ต(๐‘ฅ)| = max{0. ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ Difference (๐ด โˆ’ ๐ต = ๐ด โˆฉ ๐ต๐ถ ) : ๐œ‡๐ดโˆ’๐ต ๐‘ฅ = ๐œ‡๐ดโˆฉ๐ต๐ถ ๐‘ฅ Disjunctive sum: ๐ดโจ๐ต = (๐ด๐ถ โˆฉ ๐ต) โˆช (๐ด โˆฉ ๐ต๐ถ ) Bounded Sum: | ๐ด ๐‘ฅ โจ๐ต ๐‘ฅ |= ๐œ‡|๐ด(๐‘ฅ)โจ๐ต(๐‘ฅ)| = min{1.Basic fuzzy set operations: Sum and Difference Sum (A + B): ๐œ‡๐ด+๐ต ๐‘ฅ = ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ + ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ โˆ’ ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ .

Basic fuzzy set operations: Equality and Power Equality (๐ด = ๐ต): ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ = ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ Power of a fuzzy set ๐ด๐›ผ : ๐œ‡๐ด๐›ผ ๐‘ฅ = (๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ )๐›ผ ๏ƒผ If ฮฑ < 1. then it is called concentration Debasis Samanta CSE 7 IIT Kharagpur . then it is called dilation ๏ƒผ If ฮฑ > 1.

0. 0.3). (๐‘ฅ4 . ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฆ = Debasis Samanta CSE 8 IIT Kharagpur .6)} ๐ต ๐‘ฆ = { ๐‘ฆ1 . ๐‘ฆ3 .2).Basic fuzzy set operations: Cartesian product Caretsian Product (๐ด ร— ๐ต): ๐œ‡๐ดร—๐ต ๐‘ฅ. ๐‘ฆ2 . 0.6 . ๐‘ฆ = min(๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ . ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฆ ) Example: ๐ด ๐‘ฅ = {(๐‘ฅ1 .8 . (๐‘ฅ3 . 0.3 } A ร— ๐ต = min ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ . 0.5). 0. (๐‘ฅ2 . 0.

Properties of fuzzy sets Commutativity : ๐ดโˆฉ๐ต = ๐ตโˆฉ๐ด ๐ดโˆชB = ๐ตโˆชA Associativity : ๐ด โˆช (๐ต โˆช ๐ถ) = (๐ด โˆช ๐ต) โˆช ๐ถ ๐ด โˆฉ (๐ต โˆฉ ๐ถ) = (๐ด โˆฉ ๐ต) โˆฉ ๐ถ Distributivity : ๐ด โˆช (๐ต โˆฉ ๐ถ) = (๐ด โˆช ๐ต) โˆฉ (๐ด โˆช ๐ถ) ๐ด โˆฉ (๐ต โˆช ๐ถ) = (๐ด โˆฉ ๐ต) โˆช (๐ด โˆฉ ๐ถ) Debasis Samanta CSE 9 IIT Kharagpur .

= ๐ด ๐ด โˆฉโˆ…. Transitivity : If ๐ด โŠ† ๐ต. ๐ต โŠ† ๐ถ then ๐ด โŠ† ๐ถ Involution : (๐ด๐‘ )๐‘ = ๐ด De Morganโ€™s law : (๐ด โˆฉ ๐ต)๐‘ = ๐ด๐‘ โˆช ๐ต๐‘ (๐ด โˆช ๐ต)๐‘ = ๐ด๐‘ โˆฉ ๐ต๐‘ Debasis Samanta CSE 10 IIT Kharagpur . ๐ด โˆช โˆ….Properties of fuzzy sets Idempotence : ๐ด โˆช ๐ด = ๐ด ๐ด โˆฉ ๐ด =โˆ…. = โˆ….

respectively. Two MFs ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ and ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ are shown graphically. ยตA(x) ยตB(x) a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 a1=b2 a2=b3 a4 x x Debasis Samanta CSE 11 IIT Kharagpur .Example 1: Fuzzy Set Operations Let A and B are two fuzzy sets defined over a universe of discourse X with membership functions ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ and ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ .

Example 1: Plotting two sets on the same graph Letโ€™s plot the two membership functions on the same graph ยตB ยตA ยต b1 a1 a2 b4 a3 a4 x Debasis Samanta CSE 12 IIT Kharagpur .

Example 1: Union and Intersection The plots of union ๐ด โˆช ๐ต and intersection ๐ด โˆฉ ๐ต are shown in the following. ยตB ยตA ยต b1 a1 a2 b4 a3 a4 x ๏ญ A B ( x) ๏ญ A B ( x) a2 b4 x b1 a1 a2 a3 a4 x Debasis Samanta CSE 13 IIT Kharagpur .

Example 1: Complementation The plots of union ๐œ‡๐ดาง ๐‘ฅ of the fuzzy set A is shown in the following. Debasis Samanta CSE 14 IIT Kharagpur .

Fuzzy set operations: Practice Consider the following two fuzzy sets A and B defined over a universe of discourse [0. ๐ตเดค II. ๐ดาง . ๐ด โˆฉ ๐ต IV. (๐ด โˆช ๐ต)๐‘ [Hint: Use Deโ€™ Morgan law] Debasis Samanta CSE 15 IIT Kharagpur . I.5] of real numbers with their membership functions ๐‘ฅ ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ = and ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ = 2โˆ’๐‘ฅ 1+๐‘ฅ Determine the membership functions of the following and draw them graphically. ๐ด โˆช ๐ต III.

respectively defined as below. B = Hot climate with ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ as the M. A = Cold climate with ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ as the MF.Example 2: A real-life example Two fuzzy sets A and B with membership functions ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ and ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ .F. ๐‘‹ being the universe of discourse 0. ยตA ยตB 1.5 representing entire ยต range of temperatures. -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 x Debasis Samanta CSE 16 IIT Kharagpur .0 Here.

Pleasant climate Note: Note that โ€Not cold climateโ€ โ‰  โ€Hot climateโ€ and vice-versa.Example 2: A real-life example What are the fuzzy sets representing the following? 1. Extreme climate 4. Debasis Samanta CSE 17 IIT Kharagpur . Not cold climate 2. Not hot climate 3.

๏ƒผ Not cold climate ๐ดาง with 1 โˆ’ ๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ as the MF. Debasis Samanta CSE 18 IIT Kharagpur . ๏ƒผ Not hot climate ๐ตเดค with 1 โˆ’ ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ as the MF. ๏ƒผ Pleasant climate A โˆฉ ๐ต with ๐œ‡๐ดโˆฉ๐ต ๐‘ฅ = min(๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ .Example 2: A real-life example Answer would be the following. ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ ) as the MF. ๐œ‡๐ต ๐‘ฅ ) as the MF. ๏ƒผ Extreme climate A โˆช ๐ต with ๐œ‡๐ดโˆช๐ต ๐‘ฅ = max(๐œ‡๐ด ๐‘ฅ .

Debasis Samanta CSE 19 IIT Kharagpur .Example 2: A real-life example The plot of the MFs of A โˆช ๐ต and A โˆฉ ๐ต are shown in the following.

Debasis Samanta CSE 20 IIT Kharagpur .