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# Introduction to Soft Computing

Operations on Fuzzy sets

Prof. Debasis Samanta
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
IIT Kharagpur

1

Basic fuzzy set operations: Union
Union (A โช B): ๐๐ดโช๐ต ๐ฅ = max(๐๐ด ๐ฅ , ๐๐ต ๐ฅ )

Example:
๐ด = {(๐ฅ1, 0.5), (๐ฅ2, 0.1), (๐ฅ3, 0.4)} and
๐ต = { ๐ฅ1, 0.2 , ๐ฅ2, 0.3 , ๐ฅ3, 0.5 };
๐ถ = ๐ด โช ๐ต = { ๐ฅ1, 0.5 , ๐ฅ2, 0.3 , ๐ฅ3, 0.5 }

ยตA ยตA
ยตB ยตB
ยต

ยตAUB
a p x b q c a p x b q c

Debasis Samanta
CSE
2
IIT Kharagpur

0.Basic fuzzy set operations: Intersection Intersection (A โฉ B): ๐๐ดโฉ๐ต ๐ฅ = min(๐๐ด ๐ฅ . 0. 0. 0. ๐ถ = ๐ด โฉ ๐ต = { ๐ฅ1.1 . ๐ฅ2. 0. ๐ฅ3. 0. ๐๐ต ๐ฅ ) Example: ๐ด = {(๐ฅ1. 0. (๐ฅ3.2 .5 }.3 .1). 0.2 . ๐ฅ3. (๐ฅ2.5). 0. ๐ฅ2.4 } ยตA ยตB ยตA?B ยต a p x b q c a p x b q c Debasis Samanta CSE 3 IIT Kharagpur .4)} and ๐ต = { ๐ฅ1.

0.6 } ยตA ยตA 1.Basic fuzzy set operations: Complement Complement (๐ด๐ ): ๐๐ด๐ ๐ฅ = 1 โ ๐๐ด ๐ฅ Example: ๐ด = {(๐ฅ1. 0.9 . 0.5 .4)} ๐ถ = ๐ด๐ = { ๐ฅ1. ๐ฅ3. 0. ๐ฅ2. (๐ฅ3.1). 0. (๐ฅ2.5). 0.0 ยตAโ ยต p x q p x q Debasis Samanta CSE 4 IIT Kharagpur .

Basic fuzzy set operations: Products Algebric product or Vector product (๐จ โ ๐ฉ): ๐๐ดโ๐ต ๐ฅ = ๐๐ด ๐ฅ โ ๐๐ต ๐ฅ Scalar product (๐ถ ร ๐จ): ๐๐ผ๐ด ๐ฅ = ๐ผ ร ๐๐ด ๐ฅ Debasis Samanta CSE 5 IIT Kharagpur .

๐๐ด ๐ฅ + ๐๐ต ๐ฅ โ 1} Debasis Samanta CSE 6 IIT Kharagpur . ๐๐ด ๐ฅ + ๐๐ต ๐ฅ } Bounded Difference: ๐ด ๐ฅ โ๐ต ๐ฅ = ๐|๐ด(๐ฅ)โ๐ต(๐ฅ)| = max{0. ๐๐ต ๐ฅ Difference (๐ด โ ๐ต = ๐ด โฉ ๐ต๐ถ ) : ๐๐ดโ๐ต ๐ฅ = ๐๐ดโฉ๐ต๐ถ ๐ฅ Disjunctive sum: ๐ดโจ๐ต = (๐ด๐ถ โฉ ๐ต) โช (๐ด โฉ ๐ต๐ถ ) Bounded Sum: | ๐ด ๐ฅ โจ๐ต ๐ฅ |= ๐|๐ด(๐ฅ)โจ๐ต(๐ฅ)| = min{1.Basic fuzzy set operations: Sum and Difference Sum (A + B): ๐๐ด+๐ต ๐ฅ = ๐๐ด ๐ฅ + ๐๐ต ๐ฅ โ ๐๐ด ๐ฅ .

Basic fuzzy set operations: Equality and Power Equality (๐ด = ๐ต): ๐๐ด ๐ฅ = ๐๐ต ๐ฅ Power of a fuzzy set ๐ด๐ผ : ๐๐ด๐ผ ๐ฅ = (๐๐ด ๐ฅ )๐ผ ๏ผ If ฮฑ < 1. then it is called concentration Debasis Samanta CSE 7 IIT Kharagpur . then it is called dilation ๏ผ If ฮฑ > 1.

0. 0.3). (๐ฅ4 . ๐๐ต ๐ฆ = Debasis Samanta CSE 8 IIT Kharagpur .6)} ๐ต ๐ฆ = { ๐ฆ1 . ๐ฆ3 .2).Basic fuzzy set operations: Cartesian product Caretsian Product (๐ด ร ๐ต): ๐๐ดร๐ต ๐ฅ. ๐ฆ2 . 0.6 . ๐ฆ = min(๐๐ด ๐ฅ . ๐๐ต ๐ฆ ) Example: ๐ด ๐ฅ = {(๐ฅ1 .8 . (๐ฅ3 . 0.3 } A ร ๐ต = min ๐๐ด ๐ฅ . 0.5). 0. (๐ฅ2 . 0.

Properties of fuzzy sets Commutativity : ๐ดโฉ๐ต = ๐ตโฉ๐ด ๐ดโชB = ๐ตโชA Associativity : ๐ด โช (๐ต โช ๐ถ) = (๐ด โช ๐ต) โช ๐ถ ๐ด โฉ (๐ต โฉ ๐ถ) = (๐ด โฉ ๐ต) โฉ ๐ถ Distributivity : ๐ด โช (๐ต โฉ ๐ถ) = (๐ด โช ๐ต) โฉ (๐ด โช ๐ถ) ๐ด โฉ (๐ต โช ๐ถ) = (๐ด โฉ ๐ต) โช (๐ด โฉ ๐ถ) Debasis Samanta CSE 9 IIT Kharagpur .

= ๐ด ๐ด โฉโ. Transitivity : If ๐ด โ ๐ต. ๐ต โ ๐ถ then ๐ด โ ๐ถ Involution : (๐ด๐ )๐ = ๐ด De Morganโs law : (๐ด โฉ ๐ต)๐ = ๐ด๐ โช ๐ต๐ (๐ด โช ๐ต)๐ = ๐ด๐ โฉ ๐ต๐ Debasis Samanta CSE 10 IIT Kharagpur . ๐ด โช โ.Properties of fuzzy sets Idempotence : ๐ด โช ๐ด = ๐ด ๐ด โฉ ๐ด =โ. = โ.

respectively. Two MFs ๐๐ด ๐ฅ and ๐๐ต ๐ฅ are shown graphically. ยตA(x) ยตB(x) a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 a1=b2 a2=b3 a4 x x Debasis Samanta CSE 11 IIT Kharagpur .Example 1: Fuzzy Set Operations Let A and B are two fuzzy sets defined over a universe of discourse X with membership functions ๐๐ด ๐ฅ and ๐๐ต ๐ฅ .

Example 1: Plotting two sets on the same graph Letโs plot the two membership functions on the same graph ยตB ยตA ยต b1 a1 a2 b4 a3 a4 x Debasis Samanta CSE 12 IIT Kharagpur .

Example 1: Union and Intersection The plots of union ๐ด โช ๐ต and intersection ๐ด โฉ ๐ต are shown in the following. ยตB ยตA ยต b1 a1 a2 b4 a3 a4 x ๏ญ A B ( x) ๏ญ A B ( x) a2 b4 x b1 a1 a2 a3 a4 x Debasis Samanta CSE 13 IIT Kharagpur .

Example 1: Complementation The plots of union ๐๐ดาง ๐ฅ of the fuzzy set A is shown in the following. Debasis Samanta CSE 14 IIT Kharagpur .

Fuzzy set operations: Practice Consider the following two fuzzy sets A and B defined over a universe of discourse [0. ๐ตเดค II. ๐ดาง . ๐ด โฉ ๐ต IV. (๐ด โช ๐ต)๐ [Hint: Use Deโ Morgan law] Debasis Samanta CSE 15 IIT Kharagpur . I.5] of real numbers with their membership functions ๐ฅ ๐๐ด ๐ฅ = and ๐๐ต ๐ฅ = 2โ๐ฅ 1+๐ฅ Determine the membership functions of the following and draw them graphically. ๐ด โช ๐ต III.

respectively defined as below. B = Hot climate with ๐๐ต ๐ฅ as the M. A = Cold climate with ๐๐ด ๐ฅ as the MF.Example 2: A real-life example Two fuzzy sets A and B with membership functions ๐๐ด ๐ฅ and ๐๐ต ๐ฅ .F. ๐ being the universe of discourse 0. ยตA ยตB 1.5 representing entire ยต range of temperatures. -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 x Debasis Samanta CSE 16 IIT Kharagpur .0 Here.

Pleasant climate Note: Note that โNot cold climateโ โ  โHot climateโ and vice-versa.Example 2: A real-life example What are the fuzzy sets representing the following? 1. Extreme climate 4. Debasis Samanta CSE 17 IIT Kharagpur . Not cold climate 2. Not hot climate 3.

๏ผ Not cold climate ๐ดาง with 1 โ ๐๐ด ๐ฅ as the MF. Debasis Samanta CSE 18 IIT Kharagpur . ๏ผ Not hot climate ๐ตเดค with 1 โ ๐๐ต ๐ฅ as the MF. ๏ผ Pleasant climate A โฉ ๐ต with ๐๐ดโฉ๐ต ๐ฅ = min(๐๐ด ๐ฅ .Example 2: A real-life example Answer would be the following. ๐๐ต ๐ฅ ) as the MF. ๐๐ต ๐ฅ ) as the MF. ๏ผ Extreme climate A โช ๐ต with ๐๐ดโช๐ต ๐ฅ = max(๐๐ด ๐ฅ .

Debasis Samanta CSE 19 IIT Kharagpur .Example 2: A real-life example The plot of the MFs of A โช ๐ต and A โฉ ๐ต are shown in the following.

Debasis Samanta CSE 20 IIT Kharagpur .