In The Name Of God

Global Positioning System

By Moloud Heidary

.« .What I want to talk about? Definition of GPS. navigation. surveying. Determining position. Applications in military.

and Altitude) in within a few meters using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites.Definition: The Global Positioning System. Receivers on the ground with a fixed position can also be used to calculate the precise time as a reference for scientific experiments. Latitude. usually called GPS. is the only fully-functional satellite navigation system(allow small electronic devices to determine their location (Longitude.) .

.( Global Positioning System ) .

GPS receivers can also gauge altitude and speed with a very high degree of accuracy. as well as an important tool for map-making and land surveying. and air around the world. required for telecommunications and some scientific research.Definition (cont«): GPS has become a vital global utility. sea. GPS also provides an extremely precise time reference. . indispensable for modern navigation on land. including the study of earthquakes.

NAVSTAR: The United States Department of Defense developed the system. and launched the first experimental satellite in 1978. . officially named NAVSTAR GPS (Navigation Signal Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System).

offering several new capabilities. GPS is available for free use in civilian applications as a public good. . including a second civilian GPS signal called L2C for enhanced accuracy and reliability. including the replacement of aging satellites.GPS as public good: Although the cost of maintaining the system is approximately 400 million$ per year. In late 2005. the first in a series of next-generation GPS satellites was added to the constellation.

and where you need to go. is an example of how GPS technology can be applied in routine activities. This is a great little GPS receiver that lets you know where you are. your love this device.This taxi in Kyoto equipped with GPS navigation. . with your iPAQ or laptop. It's Bluetooth so you can use it in your pocket. and with whichever software your choose.

The location accuracy is anywhere from 1 to 100 meters depending on the type of equipment used . The DGPS eliminates selective availability (SA) and provides a much more accurate determination of time and position).S. . In coming years it reduce into 1cm with DGPS(. but is available for general use around the world.Accuracy: The GPS (Global Positioning System) is a "constellation" of at least 24 well-spaced satellites that orbit the Earth and make it possible for people with ground receivers to pinpointtheir geographic location. The GPS is owned and operated by the U. Department of Defense.

200 kilometers (12. Each satellite contains a simple computer. the satellite continually broadcasts its changing position and time. atomic clocks. With an understanding of its own orbit and the clock. at least four satellites will be above the horizon.600 miles) above the Earth. The satellites are spaced so that from any point on Earth. but are otherwise very simple and unsophisticated when compared to other modern spacecraft. . The satellites use their on-board atomic clocks to keep precise time. and various radios.How does it work: GPS works like this: A minimum of 24 GPS satellites are in orbit at 20.

The receiver is located where these spheres intersect. . It then determines the sizes of several spheres. By estimating how far away a satellite is. one for each satellite.Determining Position A GPS receiver "knows" the location of the satellites. the receiver also "knows" it is located somewhere on the surface of an imaginary sphere centered at the satellite.

Satellite's position is determined relative to the Earth. ‡ 2.‡ 1.Location on Earth is located relative to the satellite. All measurements must are done to such a precision that the location on the Earth is known to within 15 m.THEN the Location's position on the Earth can be determined from the VECTOR sum of the other two measurements. . ‡ 3.

the radio waves travel at slightly slower speeds. .000 km/s in a vacuum.  The satellite and receiver are in different velocity reference frames and gravitational regimes . distance = (speed of light) x (time of flight) This is very simple but there are a few difficulties:  The receiver clock is not exactly synchronized with the satellite clock so the time of flight will be imprecise. However. while traveling through the Earth Ionosphere and Troposphere.  The speed of light is 300.METHODS: The distance from the satellite is determined by the time it takes for a radio wave to reach the site from the satellite.

This is called triangulation. We wish to find our latitude. distances from several satellites are required. These are three different numbers and would require distances to three different satellites . In order to do this.Method(cont«) The location is a vector and must also include direction. longitude and height above the center of the Earth.

the position can be shown on the map. If a fourth satellite can be received.Receivers: If the receiver is also equipped with a display screen that shows a map. If you are moving. your receiver may also be able to calculate your speed and direction of travel and give you estimated times of arrival to specified destinations. . the receiver/computer can figure out the altitude as well as the geographic position. Some specialized GPS receivers can also store data for use in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and map making.

They are now portable enough to put in your pocket.Receivers (cont«): Many different types of receivers have become less and less expensive in recent years. . An external antenna is still better and more flexible. Internal active antenna are sensitive enough to pick up 8 satellites even under tree cover.

speed and more on a high-resolution.GPS 315 ‡ Affordable and easy to use. the GPS 315 is the ultimate outdoor guide. . distance. Nine easy-to-follow graphic navigation screens show bearing. heading.

Applications: GPS has different uses such as: Military  Navigation  Mobile satellite communication  Location based services  Surveying  agriculture  .

Civilian GPS receivers are required to have limits on the velocities and altitudes at which they will report coordinates. The satellites also carry nuclear detonation detectors. as well as improved command and control of forces through improved locational awareness. . which form a major portion of the United States Nuclear Detonation Detection System.Military: GPS allows accurate targeting of various military weapons including cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions.

and other vehicles. cell phones.. mine trucks. Glider pilots use the logged signal to verify their arrival at turn points in competitions. Low cost GPS receivers are often combined with PDAs.Navigation GPS is used by people around the world as a navigation aid in cars. The system can be used to automate harvesters. airplanes. . car computers. Personal Navigation Devices(PND) such as hand-held GPS are used by mountain climbers and hikers. and ships. or vehicle tracking systems.

the antenna must be pointed based on its current location. . When the "remote" is portable. as on a ship or a train.Mobile Satellite Communications : Satellite communications systems permit "remotes´ to communicate with "hubs" via satellites. A typical system uses satellites in geosynchronous orbit: this requires a directional antenna (usually a "dish") that is pointed at the satellite. Essentially all modern antenna controllers incorporat a GPS receiver to provide this location information.

Assisted GPS is a GPS technology often used by the mobile phone because it reduces the power requirements of the mobile phone and increases the accuracy of the location obtained.Location-based services : GPS functionality can be used by emergency services and location-based services to locate mobile phones. .

phones.The availability of hand-held GPS receivers for a cost of about US$90 and up has led to recreational applications including locationbased games like the popular game Geocaching.Location-based services : GPS receivers come in a variety of formats. . and watches. to dedicated devices . from devices integrated into cars. Geocaching involves using a hand-held GPS unit to travel to a specific longitude and latitude to search for objects hidden by other geocachers.

and survey markers.Surveying: More costly and precise receivers are used by land surveyors to locate boundaries. There is also a growing demand for Machine Guidance such as Automatic Grade Control systems that use GPS positions plans to automatically control the blades and buckets of construction equipment. and for road construction. . structures.

As well as guidance. . GPS used in harvesters with yield monitors can provide a yield map of the paddock being harvested.Agriculture : GPS Machine Guidance is used for tractors and other large agricultural machines via auto steer or a visual aid displayed on a screen. which is extremely useful for controlled traffic and row crop operations and when spraying.

Any question? .

Thank you ! ‡ an essay by Larry Bogan . 1998.com .com/dlwilson/gpscomp.htm ‡ www.gpsuser. ‡ http://www.pdf. Wikipedia .erols.December 18. ‡ http//www.

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