# Chapter 6

Newton¶s Third Law of Motion² Action and Reaction

Forces and Interactions Force ± a push or a pull Forces always exist in pairs An interaction between two things  If you lean against the wall  You push on the wall  The wall pushes on you .

the magnitude of the force exerted on object 1 by object 2 is equal to the magnitude of the force simultaneously exerted on object 2 by object 1. and these two forces are opposite in direction For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Even though it is called a reaction force.Newton¶s Third Law If two objects interact. the reaction force is happening exactly at the same time the action force (not after the reaction force) .

Identifying Action & Reaction Forces Identify the action and reaction forces for the following Hitting a tennis ball with a racket The racket exerts a force on the ball The ball exerts a force on the racket Kicking a football The foot exerts a force on the football The football exerts a force back on the foot .

Action and Reaction Forces What are the action-reaction forces of a bird as it flies through the air?   A birds wings push the air downwards The air reacts by pushing the bird upward Find the action reaction forces for a boulder falling to the Earth   The Earth pulls the boulder down The boulder pulls the Earth up .

but there is no apparent movement in the Earth The explanation is actually quite simple: (Newton¶s 2nd Law) F = ma   The mass of the Earth is much greater than the mass of the boulder.Action and Reaction of Different Masses Think about the Earth and boulder example How can the forces be equal and opposite?  You can clearly see the boulder moving. Therefore. the acceleration (movement) of the Earth is much smaller than the acceleration (movement) of the boulder .

B. greater than the acceleration of the bullet.. the same size as the acceleration of the bullet. smaller than the acceleration of the bullet. C.Action & Reaction Forces of Different Masses A gun recoils when it is fired. A. the gun pushes the bullet forwards and the bullet pushes the gun backwards. therefore a smaller acceleration . The acceleration of the recoiling gun is .. The recoil is the result of action-reaction force pairs. Smaller than the acceleration of the bullet²the gun has a larger mass. As the gases from the gunpowder explosion expand.

therefore they don¶t cancel out and the ball moves . but they act on different objects.Do Action and Reaction Forces Cancel? Action and reaction forces are equal and opposite²so why don¶t they cancel each other out? Think of kicking a ball   Action: force of foot on ball Reaction: force of ball on foot The action and reaction forces are equal and opposite.

in opposite directions with equal forces.Do Action and Reaction Forces Cancel? Suppose two people kicked the same ball. What are the action-reaction forces? Force Force Force Force of of of of one foot(A) on ball(B) ball(B) on foot(A) other foot(C) on ball(B) ball(B) on foot(C) The force on the ball will cancel (since the action forces are equal and opposite) The force of the ball on each foot will not cancel since they are acting on different objects .

you must interact with the ground . Internal forces contribute nothing to the acceleration of the system.The Horse²Cart Problem A horse cannot pull a cart because the cart will pull back on the horse with an equal and opposite force!   Pull of a horse on a cart and the reaction of the cart on the horse are internal²forces that act and react within a system. therefore they can be neglected To move the cart. there must be an interaction between the horse²cart system and the ground  Think of pushing a car²you cannot just push on the dashboard and expect it to move.

it hits you back equally hard! .Action Equals Reaction If you hit something.