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Metabolisme dan Bioenergi

Learning objectives:

1. Understanding metabolic rates

2. Understanding basal metabolic rates

3. Understanding thermoregulation

4. Understanding heat production and heat loss


After beeing absorbed:

1. Most food molecules are used to supply energy for sustaining life
processes, such as active transport, DNA replication, protein
synthesis, muscle contraction, maintenance of body temperature,
and mitosis.
2. Some food molecules serve as building blocks for the synthesis of
more complex structural or functional molecules, such as muscle
proteins, hormones, and enzymes.
3. Other food molecules are stored for future use. For example,
glycogen is stored in liver cells, and triglycerides are stored in
adipose cells.
Essential Asam

Metabolic reaction
Fatty acid


Essentials Minerals

Metabolism : all of the chemical reactions that occur in the body.

1. Catabolism:

 Break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones.

 Exergonic: produce more energy than they consume; releasing the
chemical energy stored in organic molecules
 Important sets of catabolic reactions occur in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle,
and the electron transport chain
2. Anabolism:
 Combine simple molecules and monomers to form the body’s
complex structural and functional components.
 Endergonic: consume more energy than they produce.
 Examples: during protein synthesis, the building of fatty acids into
phospholipids(plasma membrane bilayer);glycogenesis.

Catabolic Anabolic
Metabolism during absortive state

 In this state ingested nutrients are entering the bloodstream

 Glucose is readily available for ATP production.

 Two metabolic hallmarks of the absorptive state are:

1. the oxidation of glucose for ATP production, which occurs in most
body cells
2. The storage of excess fuel molecules for future between-meal use,
which occurs mainly in hepatocytes, adipocytes, and skeletal
muscle fibers.
Regulation of Metabolism During
the Absorptive State
Metabolism During Postabsorptive State

 About 4 hours after the last meal, absorption of nutrients from the small
intestine is nearly complete
 Blood glucose level starts to fall because glucose continues to leave the
bloodstream and enter body cells
 The main metabolic challenge during the postabsorptive state is to maintain
the normal blood glucose level of 70–110 mg/100 mL -->important for the
nervous system and for red blood cells
 By : glycogenolysis; lipolysis; gluconeogenesis from lactic acid and amino
Regulation of Metabolism During
the Postabsorptive State

 Homeostasis of body temperature: if the rate of heat loss equals the

rate of heat production by metabolism.

 Heat is a form of energy that can be measured as temperature and

expressed in units called calories.

 A calorie (cal) is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of 1 gram of water 1°C.

 Our body produces more or less heat depends on the rates of its
metabolic reactions
Basal Metabolic Rate

Metabolic rate--> The overall rate at which metabolic reactions use

 Basal state: standard conditions, with the body in a quiet, resting, and
fasting condition
 Even when a person is at complete rest, considerable energy is
required to perform all the chemical reactions of the body.
 The measurement obtained under these conditions is the basal
metabolic rate (BMR).
 The most common way to determine BMR is by measuring the amount
of oxygen used per kilocalorie of food metabolized.
 BMR is 1200–1800 Cal/day in adults
Basal Metabolic Rate

BMR beeing measured at following conditions:

1. The person must not have eaten food for at least 12 hours
2. The BMR is determined after a night of restful sleep.
3. No strenuous activity is performed for at least 1 hour before the test.
4. All psychic and physical factors that cause excitement must be
5. The temperature of the air must be comfortable and between 68°
and 80°F.
6. No physical activity is permitted during the test.
Basal Metabolic Rate

• Many factors affect metabolic rate

• Although much of the BMR is accounted for by essential activities

of the central nervous system, heart, kidneys, and other organs,
the variations in BMR among different individuals are related
mainly to differences in the amount of skeletal muscle and body
Total Energy Expenditure

1. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60% of energy

2. Physical activity 30–35% (lower in sedentary people). This energy
expenditure is partly from voluntary exercise, such as walking. Partly from
nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), the energy costs for
maintaining muscle tone, posture while sitting or standing
3. Food-induced thermogenesis, the heat produced while food is being
digested, absorbed, and stored, represents 5–10% of total energy
Thermogenic Effect of Food

 Energy used for processing food: digestion, absorption, and storage ----
---->the metabolic rate increases.
 This is called the thermogenic effect of food because these processes
require energy and generate heat.
 The thermogenic effect of food accounts for about 8 percent of the
total daily energy expenditure in many persons.

 Meal that contains a large quantity of carbohydrates or fats--->the

metabolic rate usually increases about 4 percent
 A high-protein meal---->reaching a maximum of about 30 percent
above normal, and this lasts for 3 to 12
hours---->called the specific dynamic action of protein.
Body Temperature Homeostasis

 Homeostatic mechanisms can maintain a normal range for internal body

temperature--->If the rate of body heat production equals the rate of
heat loss
 The body maintains a constant core temperature near 37°C (98,0-98.6°F).
 Rectally vs orally measured
 Core temperature is the temperature in body structures deep tisues.
-too high: denaturing body proteins
-too low: cardiac arrhythmias
 Shell temperature is the temperature near the body surface—in the
skin and subcutaneous layer (is 1–6°C lower) --->depends on
environmental temperature
Heat Production

Nervous system
Body temperature
Ingestion of food
Others factors: gender,climate,sleep,malnutrition
Heat loss




Temperature control system

 The control center that functions as the body’s thermostat in the anterior
part of the hypothalamus-->the preoptic area.
 This area receives impulses from thermoreceptors in the skin and mucous
membranes and in the hypothalamus.
 Nerve impulses from the preoptic area propagate to two other
parts of the hypothalamus
- heat-losing center
- heat-promoting center
• When stimulated by the preoptic area, set into operation a series of
responses that lower body temperature or raise body temperature
Temperature control system

When the Body Is Too Hot--->reduce body heat:

1. Vasodilation of skin blood vessels caused by inhibition of the
sympathetic centers in the posterior hypothalamus. Full
vasodilation can increase the rate of heat transfer to the skin
as much as eightfold.
2. Sweating. An additional 1°C increase in body temperature
causes enough sweating to remove 10 times the basal rate
of body heat production.
3. Decrease in heat production. The mechanisms that cause
excess heat production, such as shivering and chemical
thermogenesis, are strongly inhibited
Temperature control system

When the Body Is Too Cold When the body is too cold--->
1. Skin vasoconstriction throughout the body.
2. Piloerection. Sympathetic stimulation causes the arrector pili muscles
attached to the hair follicles to contract
3. Increase in thermogenesis (heat production). Heat production by the
metabolic systems is increased by promoting shivering, sympathetic
excitation of heat production, and thyroxine secretion.
Energy homeostasis

 Energy homeostasis: the precise matching of energy

intake vs energy expenditure.
 When the energy intake= energy used by all the cells,
body weight remains constant

 Energy intake depends only on the amount of food intake

 Three components contribute to total energy expenditure
 Most increases and decreases in food intake are due to
changes in meal size rather than changes in number of meals
Energy homeostasis

 The major site of stored chemical energy in the body is adipose tissue.
 When energy use exceeds energy input, triglycerides in adipose tissue
are catabolized to provide the extra energy
 when energy input exceeds energy expenditure, triglycerides are
 Over time, the amount of stored triglycerides indicates the excess of
energy intake over energy expenditure
Energy homeostasis

 Negative feedback mechanisms are regulating both our energy

intake and our energy expenditure.
 No sensory receptors exist to monitor our weight or size.
 It depends on many factors, including neural and endocrine signals,
levels of certain nutrients in the blood, psychological elements such
as stress or depression, signals from the GI tract and the special
senses, and neural connections between the hypothalamus and
other parts of the brain
Energy homeostasis

 Ghrelin levels decline when the stomach is full, and increase during the
fasting state. Blood ghrelin levels tend to be low in obese individuals.
 When leptin and insulin levels are low, neurons that extend from the
arcuate nucleus to the paraventricular nucleus release a
neurotransmitter called neuropeptide Y that stimulates food intake.
 Leptin stimulates release of melanocortin, which acts to inhibit food
 An increase in blood glucose level, as occurs after a meal, decreases
 Several hormones, such as glucagon, cholecystokinin, estrogens, and
epinephrine (acting via beta receptors) act to signal satiety and to
increase energy expenditure.
 Distension of the GI tract, particularly the stomach and duodenum, also
contributes to termination of food intake.
Adequate nutrition is necessary to prevent deficiency
disorders and ensure physiological functioning

 For homeostasis the digestive tract must regularly absorb enough fluids,
organic substrates, minerals, and vitamins to keep pace with cellular
 The body’s requirement for each nutrient varies from day to day and
from person to person.
 A balanced diet contains all the ingredients needed to maintain
 The diet must include enough water to replace losses in urine, feces,
and evaporation.
 A balanced diet prevents malnutrition, an unhealthy state resulting from
inadequate or excessive absorption of one or more nutrients.