Optical Communication Systems


In order to convert an analog signal to digital it is necessary to use a sampling frequency (fs) at least two times the highest frequency fs = 2BW (in Hertzs) a voice channel BW = 4000 Hz fs = 2X4000=8000 Hz T= 125us: this is the base period for all digital networks 8000 samples/sec X 8bits/sample = 64,000 bits/sec 64kbit/s is the basic rate, or the unit rate, in digital telecommunications

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH), Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), are multiplexing protocols for transferring multiple digital bit streams using lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) over the same optical fiber.


Plesiochronous Multiplexing  Plesiochronous means nearly synchronous. For speech transmission. but the principles are the same. the whole 2 Mbit/s may be used for non speech purposes. this is broken down into 30 x 64 kbit/s (kilobits/second) channels plus 2 x 64 kbit/s channels used for signaling and synchronisation.   . for example. In European system.048 Mbit/s (megabits/second). Alternatively. the basic data transfer rate is a data stream of 2. data transmission. The European and American versions of the PDH system differ slightly in the detail of their working.

The transmitting multiplexer also adds additional bits in order to allow the far end receiving multiplexer to decode which bits belong to which 2-Meg data stream. In order to move multiple 2 Mbit/s data streams from one place to another. then #4. Because each of the four 2 Mbit/s data streams is not necessarily running at the same rate. These additional bits are called "justification" or "stuffing" bits. The transmitting multiplexer combines the four data streams assuming that they are running at their maximum allowed rate. and so correctly reconstitute the original data streams. then #3. or "multiplexed" in groups of four. This is done by taking 1 bit from stream #1.  . some compensation has to be made. they are combined together. followed by 1 bit from stream #2. That is why it is called Plesiochronous.

. typically used to transmit data over a fibre optic system for long distance transport. Similar techniques are used to combine four x 8 Mbit/s together. gives 140.  The resulting data stream from the above process runs at 8. giving 34 Mbit/s. Four x 34 Mbit/s. 565 Mbit/s is the maximum rate. Four x 140 gives 565.448 kbit/s (about 8 Mbit/s).

America 274176 kbit/s x6 44736 kbit/s x7 564992 kbit/s x4 139254 kbit/s x4 34368 kbit/s x4 8448 kbit/s 2048 kbit/s x30 .PDH Hierarchy Japan 397200 kbit/s x4 97728 kbit/s x3 32064 kbit/s x5 6312 kbit/s x4 1544 kbit/s x24 64 kbit/s x4 Europe N.

(expensive interconnection equipment) Capacity limited to 7680 channels Designed mainly for voice services .Disadvantages of PDH      Not synchronous Each multiplexing section has to add overhead bits for justification (higher rate -> more overhead) Non standard experiences: Three different hierarchies with different signal formats and line encoding methods.

Disadvantages of PDH ‡ ‡ ‡ Not suitable for new services of the Information age Add-drop-multiplexers are hard to build Lacks flexibility and manageability .

and Canada. SDH developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in 1988.    .Synchronous optical networking: Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). are two closely related multiplexing protocols to replace the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) system for transporting larger amounts of telephone calls and data traffic over the same fiber wire without synchronization problems. SONET defined by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1985.S. It is used in the rest of the world. It is used in the U.


08 Mb/s 2488.32 Mb/s . It is the fundamental frame or the first level of the synchronous digital hierarchy SDH Level STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 Bit Rate 155.1).52 Mbit/s.SDH Signal Rates  The basic unit of framing in SDH is an STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module level .52 Mb/s 622. which operates at 155.

detecting failures. . service channels. data communication channels. The 4th row from the top contains pointersThe overheads contain information from the system itself. such as monitoring transmission quality. managing alarms.SDH frame The STM-1 frame is shown as a rectangular structure of 270 columns and 9 rows. The first 3 rows and 9 columns contain Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH) and the last 5 rows and 9 columns contain Multiplex Section Overhead (MSOH). etc.


byte-bybyte. . row-by-row.FRAME REPRESENTATION The STM frame is continuous and is transmitted in a serial fashion.

which operates at rate of just under 10 Gbit/s.BIT RATE : STM-N The highest rate that is commonly deployed is the STM-64 circuit. .

it is much easier to extract and insert low-bit rate channels from or into the highspeed bit streams in SDH. which can be considered as being the super highways in today's telecommunications networks.Advantages of SDH 1. High transmission rates: Transmission rates of up to 10 Gbit/s can be achieved in modern SDH systems. SDH is therefore the most suitable technology for backbones. 2. Simplified add & drop function: Compared with the older PDH system. .

The network provider can use standardized network elements that can be controlled and monitored from a central location by means of a telecommunications network management (TMN) system. These back-up circuits are also monitored by a management system. network providers can react quickly and easily to the requirements of their customers.3. Failure of a link or a network element does not lead to failure of the entire network which could be a financial disaster for the network provider. 4. leased lines can be switched in a matter of minutes. For example. . High availability and capacity matching: With SDH. Reliability: Modern SDH networks include various automatic back-up and repair mechanisms to cope with system faults.

6. such as video on demand and digital video broadcasting via ATM that are gradually becoming established. WAN. ISDN and mobile radio through to data communications (LAN.5. etc. and it is able to handle the very latest services. The result is a reduction in equipment costs as compared with PDH. . Future-proof platform for new services: Right now. making it possible to combine network elements from different manufacturers into a network. The SDH interfaces are globally standardized. Interconnection : SDH makes it much easier to set up gateways between different network providers and to SONET systems. SDH is the ideal platform for services ranging from POTS.).

optical hierarchy. All clocks in the network are locked to a common master clock .SONET    SONET defines a technology for carrying many signals of different capacities through a synchronous. flexible. Basic signal in SONET is OC-1 (Optical Channel level 1) or electrical equivalent STS1 (Synchronous Transport Signal level 1) .

creating the family of STS±N signals . Higher-level signals are integer multiples of STS±1.84 Mbps. which operates at 51. The first step in the SONET multiplexing process involves the generation of the lowest level or base signal STS±1.

. . ....... . 1 byte Is organized in 9 rows and 90 colums ... This frame is repeated at 8000 Hz -> 9 x 90 x 8000samples/s x 8 bit = 51... . .STS-1 Framing Structure 9 rows 90 columns 125 usec   ....84Mbit/s ... . .

Section and Synchronous Payload Line Overhead Envelope (SPE) (3 columns) The first three columns of each STS±1 frame make up the transport overhead...... ..STS-1 Framing Structure 90 columns 9 rows .. . . and the last 87 columns make up the SPE (Synchronous pay envelope) . .... .... .. .... ..

626.120 79.252.488.640 9.813.SONET data rates:  SONET Frame Format STS-1 STS-3 STS-12 STS-24 STS-48 STS-96 STS-192 STS-768 STS-1536 STS-3072 Line Rate (kbit/s) 51.244.953.320 4.840 155.976.520 622.280 39.120 159.160 2.080 1.240 .

Advantages of SONET      Compatibility of equipment by all vendors Synchronous networking Enhanced operations. administration and maintenance More efficient add/drop multiplexing (ADM) self-healing ring structure to reroute traffic around faults within a particular link .

rather than being broken up and carried in time slots. Each signal has its own dedicated bandwidth. It is totally protocol independent (SDH. ATM. Ethernet«)  . 32 In fiber-optic communications. all signals arrive at the same time..WDM P P P P  1 2 : 32 P P P P 1 2 . wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a technology which multiplexes multiple optical carrier signals on a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (Lambda¶s) of laser light to carry different signals.

40 or more wavelengths can be used on one fiber.   . The wavelengths are close (a few nm.What is Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) ?   Dense Wave Division Multiplexing is a technology that utilizes the properties of refracted light to both combine and separate optical signals based on their wavelengths within the optical spectrum. DWDM allows for a more efficient use of existing fiber by providing multiple optical paths along a single pair of fibers.).

DWDM principle .

 A single Optical signals is refracted to separate multiple Optical signals of differing wavelengths in receiver side. . Multiple Optical signals of differing wavelengths are combined to form a single optical signal in Transmitter side.

. don't have to upgrade all the time The ability to amplify all the wavelengths at once without first converting them to electrical signals. The ability to carry signals of different speeds and types simultaneously and transparently over the fiber.Benefits of DWDM      Increases bandwidth (speed and distance) Provides "next generation" technologies to meet growing data needs Less costly in the long run because increased fiber capacity is automatically available.

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