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• When Turing Machine reaches at some final state it
• There are TMs that never halt on some inputs in any
• So distinction between language can be made as:-
– TM that Halts on all input strings.
– Tm that never Halts on some input string.
Halting Problem of Turing Machine
Post Correspondence Problem
• The Problem of finding out whether a given
problem is “Solvable” by automata reduces to
the evaluation of function on the set of
natural numbers or a given alphabet by
mechanical means.
Primitive Recursion Function
• Consider the function exp(x, y) = xy
• x0 = 1
• x1 = x
• x2 = x . x
• … xy = x. x. x……( y occurences of x)
• xy+1 = x . x y
• The two Rewriting Rules:-
• X0 = 1
• Xy+1 = x. xy

Reducing exponential to reduce multiplication

x.0 = 0
X(y+1)= x + x . y

Primitive Recursion is spirit of

Converting exponential into multiplication or addition.
Or in general we can say complex functions into easy
• The primitive recursive functions are among the
number-theoretic functions, which are functions from
the natural numbers (nonnegative integers) {0, 1, 2, ...}
to the natural numbers. These functions take n
arguments for some natural number n and are called n-
• The basic primitive recursive functions are given by
these axioms:
• Constant function or Zero function: The 0-ary constant
function 0 is primitive recursive.
• Successor function: The 1-ary successor function S,
which returns the successor of its argument is
primitive recursive. That is, S(k) = k + 1.
• Projection function: For every n≥1 and each i with
1≤i≤n, the n-ary projection function Pin, which returns
its i-th argument, is primitive recursive.
Cellular of Automata and their Classes
• CA neighborhood is defined as an automaton and its
immediate neighbors. The two most common
neighborhood templates used for a two-dimensional
lattice are:
• Since the automata are using state configurations of a given
template as their input source, the set of all possible
configurations for a given template is isomorphic to the set of
input symbols that the automata need recognize.

• To simplify construction of CA systems, the following

conventions are universally employed:

• All FA are defined to use the same set of state symbols Q.

• All FA use the same neighborhood template N .
• As a consequence of 1 and 2, all FA will be recognizing the
exact same set of state configurations. Thus, it its natural to
define all automata to use the same input symbol alphabet ∑.
• Typically, an FA's accepting states is ignored since the
goal of a cellular automaton is not to accept or reject
an input set, but to process an initial configuration of
start states.
• This leaves the last, arguably most important,
ingredient in a CA, the transition function.
Traditionally, the transition function is defined
identically for all FA.
• This effectively makes all FA in a cellular automaton
duplicates of an archetype FA. This criteria is known
as uniformity.
Cellular Automata Classes
• Class I From almost any initial configuration, cellular
automata evolve to a homogeneous state after a finite
number of time steps. Cellular automata in this class
exhibit the maximal possible order on both global and
local scales.
• Class II Cellular automata usually evolve to short
period structures. Local and global order is exhibited,
although not maximal.
• Class III Evolution of cellular automata from almost all
possible initial states leads to aperiodic patterns. After
sufficiently many time steps, the statistical properties
of these patterns are typically the same for almost all
initial configurations. Cellular automata in this class can
exhibit maximal disorder on both global and local
• Class IV Yields stable, periodic and propagating
structures which can persist over arbitrary lengths of
time. By properly arranging the propagating
structures, final states with any cycle length may be
obtained. The cellular automata in this class exhibit a
great deal of local order.
• For each CA class, Wolfram described the
behavior in terms of dynamical systems theory:
• [Class I]Cellular automata evolve to limit points.
• [Class II]Cellular automata evolve to limit cycles.
• [Class III]Cellular automata evolve to strange
• [Class IV]Cellular automata exhibit very long
transient lengths, having no direct analogue in
the field of dynamical systems.
• Time Complexity:- Amount of time taken by a
Machine to run input string.
• Space Complexity:- Amount of space or
memory required by machine to implement
input string.
The classes of P and NP problem
Power of Quantum Computation