GEOTEXTILES

‡ A geotextile is a synthetic permeable textile material used with soil, rock, or any other geotechnical engineering related material. ‡ Geo textiles also called geosynthetics, are generally associated with high-standard allseason roads, but can be used in low-standard logging roads. ‡ A geotextile is designed to be permeable to allow the flow of fluids through it or in it, and a geomembrane is designed to restrict the fluid flow.

TYPES OF GEOTEXTILE ‡ In general. the vast majority of geotextiles are made from polypropylene or polyester formed into fabrics as follows: 1) Woven monofilament 2) Woven multifilament 3) Woven slit-film monofilament 4) Woven slit-film multifilament 5) Nonwoven continuous filament heat bonded 6) Nonwoven continuous filament needle-punched 7) Nonwoven staple needle-punched 8) Nonwoven resin bonded 9) Knitted .

.polypropylenes. ‡ This makes them useful in road construction and maintenance. polyesters. and polyamides which do not decay under biological and chemical processes. polyethylene's.Applications: ‡ Modern geotextiles are usually made from synthetic polymers.

light stabilized unstabilized Alkalis Fungus.V. vermin Fuel Detergents H H L M M H H H M L H H Polyamide M M M M M M Polypropylene L L H H L L Polyethylene L L H H L L M M H M M H H M H M L H H L H H L H .Polyester Strength Elastic modulus Strain at failure Creep Unit weight Cost Resistance to: U.

is an arrangement of fibres either oriented or randomly patterned in a sheet. bonding fibres together using chemical. ‡ Materials commonly made out of non-woven fabric include upholstered furniture coverings and cloth interiors of automobiles. thermal or mechanical processes. which looks like a felt fabric. ‡ These fabrics can be manufactured in a variety of ways. . ‡ It has the ability to let water flow along the plane of the geotextile. ‡ Non-woven geotextile fabric is more likely to stretch than woven geotextile.Non-Woven ‡ The nonwoven fabric.

flat fabric. is a sheet made of two sets of parallel strands systematically interlaced to form a thin. which looks like burlap.Woven geo textile ‡ The woven geotextile. .

Geo Textiles in Road Industry ‡ In the road industry there are four primary uses for geotextiles: 1) Separation 2) Drainage 3) Filtration 4) Reinforcement .

when placed on sand it distributes the load evenly to reduce rutting. water is allowed to pass either downward through the geotextile into the subsoil. ‡ In reinforcement. ‡ In filtration. the fabric allows water to move through the soil while restricting the movement of soil particles.‡ In separation. inserting a properly designed geotextile will keep layers of different sized particles separated from one another. ‡ In drainage. . the geotextile can actually strengthen the earth or it can increase apparent soil support. or laterally within the geotextile which functions as a drain. For example.

‡ Geotextiles now are most widely used for stabilizing roads through separation and drainage. ‡ When the native soil beneath a road is very silty. ‡ Geotextiles keep the layers of sub grade and base materials separate and manage water movement through or off the roadbed. or constantly wet and mucky then its natural strength may be too low to support common traffic loads. and it has a tendency to shift under those loads. .

. ‡ It should let water pass through it at the same rate or slightly faster than the adjacent soil. ‡ The geotextile used for separation must allow water to move through it while retaining the soil fines or sand particles. ‡ In selecting a specific geotextile for separation we must consider its basic strength properties. ‡ It must also retain the smallest soil particle size without clogging or plugging. grain size distribution of the sub grade and the sub base and the permeability of the geotextile.Geotextiles in separation ‡ Two important criteria for selecting a geotextile for separation are permeability and strength.

Required properties for separation Mechanical During installation Impact resistance Elongation at break Puncture resistance Elongation at break Puncture resistance Tear propagation resistance Elongation at break Hydraulic Apparent opening size ( A.S.O.S.O.) Thickness Apparent opening size ( A.S.) Thickness Apparent opening size ( A.) Thickness Long-term Performance UV resistance During construction Chemical stability UV resistance After completion of construction Chemical stability Resistance to decay .O.

‡ A stabilization geotextile reduces subgrade pumping. unpaved road aggregate thickness can be reduced by as much as 30% to 50% when a stabilization geotextile is used. a geotextile can increase the effective bearing capacity of low strength subgrade soils. ‡ Stabilization geotextiles substantially reduce construction costs for paved and unpaved roads.Stabilization ‡ Higher strength woven and nonwoven geotextiles provide stabilization in addition to the primary function of separation. ‡ For example. . ‡ Through stabilization. overexcavating and required aggregate thickness.

‡ A pavement with a base which becomes saturated as little as 10% of the time will only have 50% of the life of a pavement where water is kept out of the base. . ‡ Most of this water enters through cracks and pores in the pavement surface.Geo textiles in pavement Repair: ‡ A major contributor to roadway deterioration is water beneath a pavement which softens subgrade soil which destroys pavement structural capacity.

and airport runways and taxiways. ‡ These kind of geotextiles are used in new asphalt pavements. parking lots. thereby saving on costly repaving cycles. city streets.‡ Paving fabrics and repair membranes are engineered to reduce water infiltration and reflective cracking. and beneath chip-seal pavements. beneath overlays of rigid and flexible pavements. . ‡ They have been proven to extend the life of highways.

.‡ A needle punched. nonwoven polypropylene paving fabric which provides a moisture barrier over the full width of the paving surface when combined with an asphalt cement tack coats sub grade. ‡ It helps in extending pavement life while reducing maintenance costs.

‡ Geotextiles are used for a wide assortment of reinforcement applications. including embankments over soft soils. levees and retaining walls. ‡ Geotextiles are well-suited to construction of walls with timber. ‡ However.Geo textiles in retaining Walls ‡ Retaining walls help to maximize their land use. precast panel and segmental block facing. . building a concrete gravity or crib wall is often impractical because of their high construction cost.

. ‡ Woven geotextiles offer other significant advantages over conventional methods.Polypropylene geotextiles cost approximately half the amount of polyester and polyethylene geogrids. such as simplified installation and construction.‡ In fact a geotextile retaining wall can be built for less than half the cost of a conventional wall. and the ability to use on-site backfill material. and they require considerably less labor to install.

. pavements. including groundwater intercept systems. dams and walls. simplified. geotextiles offer advantages by providing a consistent and continuous filter. higher quality construction and a substantial reduction in material costs. building foundations. reduced environmental impact. reduced excavation.Geo textiles subsurface Drainage ‡ Geotextiles have replaced graded soil filters for drainage of virtually all structures. ‡ Compared to conventional soil filters.

) Long-term Performance Chemical properties of water and soil Chemical stability Decay resistance Temporary drainage Influence of normal function overburden pressure .S.O.) Permeability Thickness Apparent opening size (A.Mechanical Permanent drainage Influence of normal function overburden pressure Hydraulic Permeability Thickness Apparent opening size (A.O.S.

. ‡ Nonwovens are generally used when the retention of fine soil particles is critical to the performance of the drainage system.‡ Both woven and nonwoven geotextiles perform well when draining stable. ‡ Geotextile strength properties are selected to ensure that the geotextile survives construction and remains intact to perform as a filter. coarse-grained soils.

.Geo textiles erosion Control ‡ Geotextiles have replaced graded granular filters used beneath riprap or other armor materials in revetments. and bridge and pier scour protection systems. ‡ Without a geotextile filter. wave action and water movement erode subgrade soils from beneath the riprap or armor. ‡ Degradation of the subgrade negates the benefit of the riprap or armor. ‡ Applications include drainage channels. resulting in extensive repair and replacement. shorelines.

angular riprap. ‡ However. ‡ The geotextile must survive placement of possibly very large. permanent erosion control applications usually require higher geotextile strength properties. . plus be able to endure severe wave action.‡ The selection of geotextiles for permanent erosion control is similar to subsurface drainage.

. geotextiles must retain these critical properties while exposed to harsh chemical environments. ‡ In environmental applications.Geo textiles waste Containment ‡ Waste containment and environmental cleanup projects demand geotextiles with uncompromising physical properties and consistent product quality.

including filtration of fluid and gas collection systems.‡ Waste containment fabrics serves in a variety of environmental applications. protection of geomembrane liners. waste daily covers and reinforcement. . sewage treatment lagoons. ‡ Geotextiles are specified for municipal waste and hazardous waste landfills. as well as waste containment ponds and other surface impoundments. heap leach pads.

Geo textiles railroad Stabilization ‡ Maintaining track bed geometry is critical for efficient railroad operation. ‡ Subgrade pumping into the overlying ballast can create an uneven track bed. resulting in delayed arrivals and even derailments. . ‡ Nonwoven fabrics are used to stabilize both new and rehabilitated tracks. ‡ Geotextiles perform multiple functions in railroad applications.

turnouts and grade crossings. ‡ These geotextiles are used in all track applications. . ‡ High-strength woven geotextiles can also be used to reinforce weak subgrade soils and reduce required embankment fill materials.‡ They prevent contamination of new ballast with underlying fine-grained soils and provide a mechanism for lateral water drainage. ‡ Using nonwoven geotextiles beneath track beds ensures that the ballast can sustain the loads for which it was designed. including switches.

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